Soldering Electrical Components

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2 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Soldering Electrical Components

IMT 112

From Internet Sources

Soldering Skills


Soldering is defined as "the joining of metals
by a fusion of alloys which have relatively low
melting points". In other words, you use a
metal that has a low melting point to adhere
the surfaces to be soldered together.
Soldering is more like gluing with molten
metal than anything else. Soldering is also a
must have skill for all sorts of electrical and
electronics work. It is also a skill that must be
taught correctly and developed with practice.

2

Equipment


Soldering requires two main things: a
soldering iron and solder
. Soldering irons are
the heat source used to melt solder. Irons of
the 15W to 30W range are good for most
electronics/printed circuit board work.


The best solder for electronics work is a thin
rosin core
solder. I prefer a thickness of
0.75mm, but other thicknesses will also work.

3

4

Soldering station with variable temperature control, solder, and solder wick.

5

Tinning the soldering iron

6

Wipe off excess solder on a damp sponge

7

A tinned tip

Safety


Remember that when soldering, the rosin in
the solder releases fumes. These fumes are
harmful to your eyes and lungs.
Therefore,
always work in a well ventilated area.


Hot solder is also dangerous. Be sure not to let
is splash around because it will burn you
almost instantly.


Eye protection is also advised
.


8

Solder


The solder type most used in circuit wiring work is 63
-
37
because this tin
-
lead ratio provides the most rapid
solid to liquid transition and the best stress resistance.


Always use rosin
-
core solder and never use acid
-
core.
The rosin is a flux and flux removes oxide by
suspending it in solution and floating it to the top
.



The choice of solder for a particular job is determined
by its melting point. The following chart shows the
material composition and melting temperatures for
three of the common solder types:


9

Melting Points


Type % Tin % Lead Melting Temp
50
-
50 50 50 425
60
-
40 60 40 371
63
-
37 63 37 361

10

Solder Wick


Solder Wick is braded copper ribbon and
usually comes on a spool. To use it, place the
solder wick on top of the solder that is to be
removed. You then place your iron on top of
the wick. When the solder begins to melt, it
will be drawn up into the wick by capillary
action.

11

Prep


A clean surface is very important if you want a
strong, low resistance joint.


All surfaces to be soldered should be cleaned
with some sort of solvent. Isopropyl alcohol
will generally remove residue from solder flux
and most other contaminants.


Don't neglect to clean component leads, as
they may have a built up of glue from
packaging and rust from improper storage.

12

Placing the Component


After the component and board have been
cleaned, you are ready to place the
component on the board.


Bend the leads as necessary and insert the
component through the proper holes on the
board.



To hold the part in place while you are
soldering, you may want to bend the leads on
the bottom of the board at a 45 degree angle

13

14

Beginning to Solder


Apply a very small amount of solder to the tip of the
iron. This helps conduct the heat to the component
and board, but it is
not

the solder that will make up the
joint.


Now you are ready to actually heat the component and
board. Lay the iron tip so that it rests against both the
component lead and the board.


Normally, it takes one or two seconds to heat the
component up enough to solder, but larger
components and larger soldering pads on the board
can increase the time.


15

Applying Solder


Once the component lead and solder pad has
heated up, you are ready to apply solder.


Touch the tip of the strand of solder to the
component lead and solder pad, but
not

the tip
of the iron. If everything is hot enough, the solder
should flow freely around the lead and pad.


Once the surface of the pad is completely coated,
you can stop adding solder and remove the
soldering iron (in that order).


Don't move the joint for a few seconds to allow
the solder to cool.

16

17

18

19

Clean Up
-
Professionalism


After you have made all the solder joints, you
may wish to clean with solvent to remove all
the left over rosin. You may also wish to coat
the bottom of the board with lacquer. This will
prevent oxidation and will keep it nice and
shiny.


20

Wires


Tin wire ends for the best electrical joint.


The wires that are going to be soldered need to
be prepared beforehand. Strip 1/4" of insulation
from the end of the wire, and tightly twist the
exposed strands.


The soldering iron tip must be cleaned and tinned
prior to soldering to aid in the transfer of heat to
the wire end. Wipe the tip on a wet sponge, and
then apply a small amount of solder to it.

21

Wires


Heat the area of the wire to be tinned by
placing the tip of the soldering iron along the
side of the exposed strands.



Apply solder to the wire (
not to the soldering
iron tip!
). When the wire end reaches a
sufficient temperature, the solder will melt
and the capillary action of the wire will draw
the molten solder up into the strands.


22

23

Tinning a wire

24

A tinned wire

25

To splice into a long wire, remove insulation and tin

26

Soldering a splice

27

Cover splice with tape or heat shrink tubing

28

Soldering an end connection

29

30

Remember to slide the shrink wrap on first!

31

Cold Joints


A
cold joint
is a joint in which the solder does
not make good contact with the component
lead or printed circuit board pad. Cold joints
occur when the component lead or solder pad
moves before the solder is completely cooled.
Cold joints make a really
bad

electrical
connection and can prevent your circuit from
working.


32

Fixing Cold Joints


Cold joints can be recognized by a
characteristic grainy, dull gray color, and can
be easily fixed. This is done by first removing
the old solder with a desoldering tool or
simply by heating it up and flicking it off with
the iron. Once the old solder is off, you can
resolder the joint, making sure to keep it still
as it cools.

33

Tips


Use heatsinks.

Heatsinks are a must for the
leads of sensitive components such as ICs and
transistors. If you don't have a clip on
heatsink, then a pair of pliers is a good
substitute.


Keep the iron tip clean.

A clean iron tip means
better heat conduction and a better joint. Use
a wet sponge to clean the tip between joints.


34

Tips


Double check joints.

It is a good idea to check all
solder joints with an ohm meter after they are
cooled. If the joint measures any more than a few
tenths of an ohm, then it may be a good idea to
resolder

it.


Use the proper iron.

Remember that bigger joints
will take longer to heat up with an 30W iron than
with a 150W iron. While 30W is good for printed
circuit boards and the like, higher wattages are
great when soldering to a heavy metal chassis.


35

Tips


Solder small parts first.

Solder resistors,
jumper leads, diodes and any other small
parts before you solder larger parts like
capacitors and transistors. This makes
assembly much easier.


Set the soldering tool to the minimum
temperature necessary to melt the type of
solder being used.



36

Tips


Tin objects that you intend to solder together.


Join the wire elements that are to be
soldered. Wires can be temporarily crimped
together.


Place the rosin
-
core solder so that it touches
on the opposite side of the joint rather than
directly next to the soldering tool tip.


Lift the end of the solder coil before lifting the
soldering iron.

37

Video


http://www.popularmechanics.com/blogs/aut
omotive_news/4213013.html



Two videos worth watching

38

Sources


http://www.aaroncake.net/electronics/solder.
htm


http://www.ehow.com/how_376_solder
-
wires.html


http://www.teamnovak.com/tech_info/how_t
o/solder/index.html


http://w6rec.com/duane/bmw/solder/index.h
tm





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