Hardware Designed to Meet the Need

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2 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Please discontinue use

of cell phone

and turn off the ringer.


The Digital Revolution


Integrated Circuits and Processing


Storage


Input, Output, and Expansion


Selecting and Purchasing a Computer

Hardware Designed to Meet
the Need

Chapter 2

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What does it mean to be digital?

The Digital Revolution


Key Terms


Binary number system


Digital convergence


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The Digital Revolution


Understand the
importance of
digitization
…learn about
how devices of
all types use
bytes.

Digital Camera

Digital Convergence

DIGITAL TV

DIGITAL

DIGITAL

What’s all the fuss
about digital?!

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The Bit (binary digit)


Bits are the 1’s and 0’s that allow us to
represent, store, and manipulate data


They are the smallest unit of data in a digital
electronics device

Recall from chapter 1….

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The Bit


Bits aren’t really 1’s and 0’s, they are
devices that can be set to one of two
states.


A bit can be a capacitor that is
electronically charged

or not
charged.


A bit can be an area of metal
particles on the surface of a disk that
are either
magnetically charged

or
not.


A bit can be a microscopic spot on a
highly reflective disk surface that
either has a pit burned into it or not.

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The Bit


How can a bit (an on
-
off switch) represent
useful data and information?


Information can be assigned to the two
states of the bit:


On =


Off =

1 and 0 are typically used to describe the state of
a bit, but you could use anything; black/white,
true/false, male/female, etc.

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00 =

01 =

10 =

11 =

The Bit


How many units of information could be
represented with 2 bits?


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The Bit


How many units of information could be stored
using 3 bits?

000 =

001 =

010 =

011 =

100 =

101 =

110 =

111 =

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Bit & Bytes


Bytes can represent any
collection of items using a
“look
-
up table” approach


ASCII is used to represent
characters


ASCII

American Standard Code for Information
Interchange

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASCII


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The Value of Going Digital


Anything that can be expressed
through words, numbers, sounds,
pictures, and
even scents
can be
digitized.


Digital information is easy to
manipulate.


Digital information is easy to copy
and transfer.


Digital information is long lasting.


Digitization standardizes the
format of all different types of
data and information leading to…

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Digital Convergence


Digital convergence

is the trend to merge
multiple digital
services into one
device.

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Integrated Circuits and
Processing


Key Terms


Consider PC Choices


Transistor


Integrated circuit


Central Processing Unit (CPU)


Motherboard


Arithmetic/logic unit


Control unit



Random Access Memory (RAM)


The machine cycle


Megahertz (MHz)


Gigahertz (GHz)


Gigaflop


Moore’s Law


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Let’s go shopping!


CompUSA


Sony


Apple

In order to shop intelligently, you
must understand the basics about
processors, storage, input/output,
and peripherals.

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Key Components

Processor

Memory

Storage

OS

Video

Removable Storage

Networking

Security

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Transistor


A
transistor

is an
electronics component,
composed typically of
silicon, that opens or
closes a circuit to alter
the flow of electricity to
store and manipulate
bits.


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Integrated Circuit


An
Integrated Circuit

(chip)
combines transistors and
capacitors in a tiny module
to store and process bits and
bytes in today’s digital
electronic devices.

http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/physics/integrated_circuit/history/index.html

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The Central Processing Unit


The
Central Processing
Unit

(
CPU
) is a group of
integrated circuits that work
together to perform the
processing in a computer
system.

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The Motherboard


The
motherboard

is the primary circuit board
of a computing device that houses the digital
device’s circuitry including the microprocessor
and memory.

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Processing


The microprocessor accesses instructions
stored in memory over the system bus.

Random Access
Memory

(RAM) is
temporary, or volatile,
memory that stores
bytes of data and
program instructions
for the processor to
access.

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CPU Components


Arithmetic Logic Unit

(ALU):
contains the circuitry to carry out
the instructions in the
processors
instruction set
.


Control Unit
: sequentially
accesses program instructions,
decodes them, and coordinates
the flow of data throughout the
system.


Registers
: hold the data and
instructions currently being
processed (~300 bytes).

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Latest Technology


Multicore technology
refers
to housing more than one
CPU on a chip.


Dual
-
core processors
and

quad
-
core processors
use
two

and four CPUs on one
chip that work together to
provide twice and four times
the speed of traditional
single
-
core chips.

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System Bus


The system bus
connects the CPU to
the chipset, and
through it to RAM and
other components on
the motherboard.

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Processing


The Machine Cycle


The four stages of
the machine cycle
are
(1)

fetch

the
instruction from
memory,
(2)

decode

and
(3)

execute

the
instruction, then
(4)

store

the results.


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CPU Characteristics


The first consideration in selecting a computer is
typically its speed: how quickly it can carry out such
tasks as loading a program, opening a file, and writing
to a CD.

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Computer Performance ~ Factors

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Moore’s Law


Gordon Moore,
cofounder of Intel,
observed in 1965 that the
continued advances in
technological innovation
made it possible to
reduce the size of
transistors, doubling their
density on the chip every
two years.

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Storage


Key Terms


Read
-
only Memory


Magnetic Storage


Optical Storage


CD
-
ROM





DVD


CD
-
RW


Solid State Storage


Flash memory card


USB



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Secondary Storage


Secondary storage

is used to
store data more permanently
without the need for electricity.

Tape Drive

One of the storage silo robots in NERSC’s
8.8
-
petabyte High Performance Storage
System.

Mini Cards

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Secondary Storage

23

Storage Media Type


Magnetic storage

devices use the
magnetic properties of iron oxide particles
to store bits and bytes more permanently
than RAM.


Microdrives can store gigabytes of data on
a disk one or two inches in size.


Optical storage

media store bits using an
optical laser to burn pits into the surface of
a highly reflective surface.


Solid State storage

devices use
flash
memory
to store bits.

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System Storage


System storage
is storage that is used by a
computer system for standard operations.


Forms of system storage, include



RAM


Cache


Video RAM


ROM


CMOS

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Graphics Memory


Graphics memory,
sometimes
called
video
RAM or VRAM,
is used
to store image

data for
a computer display in
order to speed the
processing and display
of video images.

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Microdrives from Toshiba
provide
iPods
with their ultra
high storage capacity.

Magnetic Storage


Hard Disk Drives


Magnetic Tape


High
-
capacity Disks &
Floppy Disks (outdated)


Microdrives

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Optical Media


CD, DVD, Blu
-
laser Disk (BD)

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Solid State


A
flash memory card

is a
chip that, unlike RAM, is
nonvolatile and keeps its
memory without the need for
electricity.

Universal Serial Bus

or
USB

is a
standard that allows a wide variety of
devices to connect to a computer
through a common port.



USB Flash Drives

use flash
memory to provide high
capacity storage through the
USB port.

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Input, Output, and Expansion


Key Terms


Input device


Output device


Touch screen


Game controller


Display resolution


LCD


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I/O Concepts


An
input device

assists in
capturing and entering raw
data into the computer
system.


An
output device

allows
you to observe the results of
computer processing with
one or more of your senses.

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I/O Concepts


Speed and Functionality


Human vs. Machine
Readable Data


Source Data Automation


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Input Devices


Keyboard, Mouse,
Trackball


Touch screen
, stylus,
kiosks


Microphone, speech
recognition


Gamepad
, other
game
-
centered
devices


Digital cameras


Scanning devices

http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/tabletpc/default.mspx

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Output Devices


Displays
Liquid crystal display

(LCD) or
Flat
panel


Printers and Plotters


Sound Systems

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Selecting and Purchasing a
Computer

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Researching a Computer Purchase


Web sites such as
www.cnet.com and
www.zdnet.com can help you decide on a
computer type and platform.

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Online Vendors


Online merchants allow you to compare
packages from varying manufacturers to find
the best configuration and price.

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Strategies for Computer Shopping


Choose type:
notebook,
desktop, tablet, smart
phone, or netbook


Choose platform


Windows/Mac/Linux


Choose Manufacturer


Choose Model


Select Add
-
ons

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Helpful Links for Computer Shopping


Research


www.zdnet.com


www.cnet.com


www.macworld.com


Computer Retailers


www.cdw.com


www.compusa.com


Direct from Manufacturer


www.apple.com


www.dell.com


www.sony.com


www.hp.com


www.gateway.com


www.toshiba.com

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Chapter 2 Questions?