Role of Smart Grid to Power System Planning and Operation in India

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4
th

International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering & Technology, October 25
th

-
27
th
, 2013

Geeta Institute of Management & Technology, Kurukshetra, INDIA
-
136131




Role of Smart Grid to Power System Planning and Operation in
India

Aadesh Kumar Arya
1
,
Saurabh Chanana
2

and
Ashwani Kumar
3


Department of Electrical Engineering
, National

Insti
tute of
Technology, Kurukshetra


adesh_kumararya@rediffmail.com
,
s_chanana@rediffmail.com

2
,

ashwa_ks@yahoo.co.in
3



Abstract



Indian gient

power system is facing the
variou
s problems. Due to these problems, the growth
of electricity market is very slow. The present grid
system in this country is incapable to handle these
discrepancies. To handle these discrepancies and
other typical snags in power system, there is a need to
complete automation. Viewing these problems Smart
Grid technologies is to be introduce/embedded in
power system of our country. In these days Smart
Grid is the panacea of most of the problems in the
power system. The smart grid will check and
eradicate the

various bottlenecks and discrepancies in
the present power grid system.

Kew wards: Power grid problems, self
-
healing
process, Demand Response, Smart Grid


I.

INTRODUCTION

India is the world's fourth largest energy consumer after
United States, China and Russia [1]. India is the seventh
largest country by geographical area; the second largest
by population, there are 3.4% of global energy. India has
registered a GDP growth o
f 6.5% in 2011
-
12. India's
GDP grew by 9.3% in 2010

11; thus, the growth rate has
nearly halved in just three years. Planning Commission
has estimated that during XII Five Year plan period
(2012
-
13 to 2016
-
17), for a GDP growth of 9% per year,
energy suppl
y has to grow at 6.5% per year. GDP growth
rose marginally to 4.8% during the quarter through March
2013,
forecasted
from about 4.7% in the previous quarter.
The government has forecast a growth rate of 6.1%
-
6.7%
for the year 2013
-
14, whilst the
RBI

expects the same to
be at 5.7%. In the right way, meaning of expansion of
energy is to getting the electricity by 2.4 billion people
.
But 1.4 billion people who still
no access the electricity

(87% of whom live in the rural areas) and 1 billion people
that only has access to
unreliable power networks
.

The International Energy Agency (IEA) calculated, India
required an investment of at least $135 billion to provide
best
facility to access of electricity by its population.
Power cuts

are main problem in India and the consequent
grid failure to satisfy the demand for electricity has
adversely effect
ed Indian economic growth [2]
-
[3]. The
electricity generation capacity additions from 1950 to
1985 were very low when compared to developed
countries. Since 1990, India has been one of the fastest
growing electrical markets for
electrical
generation
capaci
ty. Indian economy is the
ninth
-
largest

in the world
by
nominal GDP

and the
third
-
largest

by
purchasing
power parity

(PPP)[4]. The ability to meet the energy
requirement will depend upon India’s ability to expand
domestic production in the critical subsectors such as
petroleum, natural gas and coal, and meeting the balance
requirement throu
gh imports.

In Indian power sector, the
central, state
government and private electrical companies
have important role.

With the private sector growing of
power sector at a
faster rate
. Indian central government
and state governments jointly regulate power

sector in
India.
To develop and maintain the modern economy &
society, the economical, social and environmental
sustainability are required in the emerging future trend of
energy. For the economical and social growth, the prime
movers are more important. T
he electrical energy is main
prime mover for this. But there are crises of energy in
India as well as in the whole world. In India, the
condition of electric energy is depending on two factors
mainly: (a) the infrastructure of electric power grid (b)
sourc
es of energy. To rectify the crises of electrical
energy the renewable energy sources are being used &
various types of power plants have to be installed in the
different areas of country [5]. Because the atmosphere
condition in different areas of India is

very different. The
power grid is unidirectional. The Indian power grids are
not secure, reliable and up to the mark. To reduce these
deficiencies, the technology of
“Smart Grid” is required.
The Smart Grid can be made by advance technology,
instruments a
nd intelligent management system .Smart
Grid is a necessary response to the environmental, social,
and political demands, placed on energy supply. The
smart power grid becomes much more complex than a
traditional power grid as time
-
varying sources of energ
y
and new dynamic loads are integrated into it. The smart
grid’s complexity will evolve over time and require new
technologies for efficient, reliable and secure operation
and control as the demand for electricity increases. The
purpose of Smart Grid is t
o identify and correct supply
demand imbalance instantaneously and detect faults
through a “self
-
healing” process that improves services
quality,
efficiency,
enhances reliability and reduces costs
[6].With the advanced

technologies, the smart electric
powe
r grid will be secure, reliable and bi
-
directional. The
Smart Grid will be providing green energy, high quality
supply of power and integration of renewable energy
resources. The Smart Grid mainly

consists two parts (a)
intelligent components and (b) int
elligent supervisory
systems. It will be more effective in the operation, control
& monitoring of the electric power system. The
continuously access of electricity is the economic and
social driver to achieve the goal of India. With the need
of clean and g
reen energy sources, economy rapidly
growing

increases the incomes of household,
limit

domestic reserves of
fossil fuels

and reduce

adverse
impact on the environment of rapid development in urban
and regional areas [7].

4
th

International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering & Technology, October 25
th

-
27
th
, 2013

Geeta Institute of Management & Technology, Kurukshetra, INDIA
-
136131




According to Indian Ministry of Power,
there is proposed
to set
-
up
about 14.1 GW of new thermal power plants
under construction by December 2012, so are 2.1 GW
capacit
ies

hydropower plants and 1 GW capacity nuclear
power plant [8]. India's installed generation capacity
reached top 200 GW in 2012. Government of India has
initiated the methods to rapidly expand education of
energy in the country, to introduce courses rela
ted to
energy capacity addition, maintenance, production in the
curriculum of the educational institutions. This initiative
includes renewal and conventional of energy.

State Renewable Energy Agencies have been
study of
taken the initiatives to organize sh
ort
-
term course for
installation, maintenance and operation of renewable
energy systems in the academic and industrial
organization. Renewable Energy Chairs have been
developed in IIT Roorkee and IIT Kharagpur [9].

II.

PRESENT

POWER

SCENARIO

IN

INDIA

Indian po
wer sector suffers from high transmission and
distribution losses, electricity shortages, poor financial
health of the State Electricity Boards, AT&C (non
-
technical) losses and
big demand and supply gap in
electricity power

[10].According to ministry of po
wer, in
Indian power grid transmission and distribution losses
nearly about 26% of total electricity production with
some states as high as 62%, including non
-
technical
losses such as energy theft losses as may go as high as
50% [11]. India's network losse
s exceeded 32% in 2010
including non
-
technical losses, compared to world
average of less than 15%. Both technical and non
-
technical factors contribute to these losses, but
quantifying their proportions is difficult. But the
Government pegs the national T&D

losses at around 24%
for the year 2011 & has set a target of reducing it to
17.1% by 2017 & to 14.1% by 2022. A case study in
Kerala estimated that replacing faulty meters could
reduce distribution losses from 34% to
29%[12].According to the Central Elect
ricity Authority,
at the end of April 2012, the installed power generation
capacity of India was
182,345MW and plans to add
100,000MW during the 12th Plan period (2012
-
17).
,while
the per capita energy consumption was
733.54 KWh, but
this will be grow upto

1000 kWh in the near future.
According to the Ministry of Power, the total installed
capacity of power is
225.133

GW in India as of May
2013[13]. Out of this, state sector, Central sector and
private sector contribute
86,343.35

MW (
40.77%
),
62,963.63
MW (
2
9.73%
) and
62,459.24
MW (
29.49%
),
respectively.[14].
Non Renewable Power Plants
constitute 87.55% of the installed capacity and 12.45% of
Renewable Capacity
[
15]. In India, the
present power
scenario has resorted the need for integration of
technology that

enables efficient management of use of
power. The current grid is aging, inefficient, congested
and in capable of meeting future energy needs [16], [17].
The billing and collection efficiencies are in the range of
18%
-
62% with an average national level fi
gure estimated
at around 33.07%, primarily on account of power theft
and inefficient billing and collection. The rate of return of
the state power sector is around 18% [16]. The Grid
failures have become

severe

problems in India. This
problem has caused du
e to the insufficiency of

present
power Infrastructure and the fundamental re
-
engineering
to India. To overcome the present power scenario,
Government of India has been taken the great initivitve to
improve and enhance the current power system using
Smart
Grid Technology. Now
-
a
-
days, Smart Grid is at the
initial stage in India. Yet the standards and specifications
are not declared for Smart Grid
. Smart Grid can be
implemented

by considering present power grid problem,
environmental conditions, management co
nditions and
electricity market problems. The implementation of
Smart Grid in the present power scenario is a main target
of India for the continuous rising consciousness of energy
and environment [18].


III.

PRESENT

GRID

TO

SMART

GRID

Traditionally
, the term
grid
is used for a power system
that may support to the following four operations: power
generation, power transmission, power

distribution, and
power control [19].
A power grid is a grouped name for
all the electrical wire, transformers and infrastructure

that
transport electricity from power plants to consumers. The
present day grid is unidirectional and does not maximize
technological developments.

The operation of present grid is based only one
-
way
communication from the utilities to the users. The pow
er
flow is unidirectional from centralized supply sources
(power plants) to demand. The informa
tion flow is from
lower side

to higher operational centers. Due to many
factors, a major overhaul is requirement in the old power
grid [5
]: (a)
A large gap
betwe
en supply and demand (b)
Very high transmission and distribution losses (c)

Manual
operation of the network mainly (d)
Poor

use of a

huge

potential for renewable energy

(e)
low

metering

efficiency

and

less

friendly

user

involvement

(f)
Lack
of
utilization
of advancements in information technology in
the power grid.


However, the operation of the smart grid is based
on both side communications for information flow and
power flow on the basis of power engineering,
communication engineering, digital

and information
technologies as shown in Fig. 1(b). In the both side
communication process, the users communicate with
utilities on hourly or daily basis to know about relevant
information. After invention

of

the Smart Grid, the
participation of customers

will be effective for the supply
of electricity and consumption [21]. The Smart Grid is
capable to connecting the electricity sources to the other
distributed generation sources such as batteries, backup
devices, Plug
-
in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs),

solar
panels, wind energy sources, etc,[22]. This aspect of the
smart grid is expected to contribute to a quite complicated
real
-
time consumer power demand side management. The
Smart Grid presents flexible and reliable power
distribution through a bi
-
dire
ctional process between the
generation companies and the smart meters on the users
-
side. With the new development in power system, the
smart grid recommended the seamless integration of
4
th

International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering & Technology, October 25
th

-
27
th
, 2013

Geeta Institute of Management & Technology, Kurukshetra, INDIA
-
136131




renewable energy sources into the present electrical grid
[23].
















Fig 1(a) represents the present electrical grid





















Fig 1(b) represents Smart Grid


However, with increasing level of renewable energy
sources especially wind power [24] the intermittent and
fluctuating features of wind generator increase the
uncertainties and challenges for future smart grids [24
-
25]. One of the smart grid objectives is
to update the
power system automation which includes transmission,
distribution, sub
-
station, individual feeder and customers
using latest technology. With the introduction of smart
grid, consumers can manage their energy consumption by
monitoring their vo
ltage and power [26]. By deploying
the smart technologies, demand response and load
management can be enhance to makes the power
transmission system more efficient, encourage renewable
energy resources, and give facility to consumer for
control over their
usages and costs. At present, Indian
Government has more attention on the
Smart Grid
technology to cop
-
up

the energy crises in future. The
Indian Government considers to the Smart Grid main
features for nation development [27].

List of Benefits and Requir
ements of Smart Grid:
According to the report from NIST [28], the anticipated
benefits and requirements of Smart Grid are the
following:

1.

Improving power reliability and quality.

2.

Optimizing facility utilization and averting
construction of back
-
u
p (peak load) power plants.

3.

Enhancing capacity and efficiency of existing electric
power networks.

4.

Improving resilience to disruption.

5.

Enabling predictive maintenance and self
-
healing
responses to system disturbances.

6.

Faci
litating expanded deployment and integration of
renewable energy Sources.

7.

Accommodating distributed power sources.

8.

Automating maintenance and operation.

9.

Reducing greenhouse carbon

emissions by enabling
electric vehicles and new power sources.

10.

Reducing oil
consumption by reducing the need for
inefficient generation during peak usage periods.

11.

Increased
opportunities

to improve grid security.

12.

Enabling transition to plug
-
in electric vehicles and
new energy storage options.

13.

Increasing consumer choice.

14.

Enabling n
ew products, services, and markets.



Table 1:
Comparison between the

Present Electrical



Grid and the Smart Grid [29]


S.No

Present Electrical
Grid

Smart Grid

1

Electromechanical

devices

Digital devices

2

Centralized Source of
Supply

Centralized and
distributed power
generation

3

One way directional
Communication

Two way directional
communication

4

R
estoration
through
Manual

Restoration through

Self
-
healing


5

Few sensors

Sensors throughout

6

Limited

price

information, static
tariff

Full price
information, dynamic

tariff, demand
response

7

Operation based on
historical experience

Operation based on
real
-
time data

8

Carbon based
generation

Limited Carbon base

and green power
credits

9

Few customer choices

Many customer
choices

10

Limited control

Pervasive control


IV.

DEFINITIONS

OF

SMART

GRID

While there is no

formal

definition

of the smart grid
, but
according to the features of it based on literature, “
the
Smart Grid is a modern grid
which consist the advanced
technologies of electrical engineering, communication
engineering and software engineering with the present

power grid”.

Utilities


Transmission Sy
stem


Consumers

Power Flow

Information Flow

Renewable Energy
Sources & Storage

Smart Meter

Smart Meter


Utilities



Transmission


System

Consumers


4
th

International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering & Technology, October 25
th

-
27
th
, 2013

Geeta Institute of Management & Technology, Kurukshetra, INDIA
-
136131





According to the U.S. Department of Energy Smart
Grid System Report ,smart grid as today’s grid joi
ned by
advanced metering and control devices such as
information technology, sensors, high speed and real
-
time
two way communications, energy storages, distributed
generation and in
-
home energy controllers[30].


The State Grid Corporation of China interprets
the Smart Grid [31] as “A

strong and robust electric
power system. It is backboned with Ultra High Voltage
(UHV) networks; based on the coordinated development
of power grids at different voltag
e levels; supported by
information and communication infrastructure;
characterized as an automated and interoperable power
system and the integration of electricity, information, and
business flows.”

V.

CHARACTERSTICS

OF

SMART

GRID

The Electric Power Researc
h Institute (EPRI), the U. S.
National Technology Laboratory and the Smart Grids
European Technology platform have defined seven
principal characteristics of a smart grid.

To full
-
fill the objective of electrical power sector, the
Smart Grid has the great

characteristics [32
-
33].

1.

Safe and Reliable:

The electricity

is

still on the

power supply capacity

for

the

user
,
rather than

a large
area

power outage

in large

electricity failures
,
malfunctions,
natural disasters and

extreme weather
,
or

man
-
made

damage

d
one

to maintain
.

2.

Efficient and Economical
:

power grid
,
will be
able to

improve the economic benefits

through

related
policy

innovation
,
management

and

energy

efficient
,
and

market competition

orderly
.
Power

networks are

supported

to provide for

rational
allocation

of resources

to

power

deal

effectively

with the

electricity market
,
to
reduce

power loss

and improve

the energy efficiency

and finally
.

3.

Clean and Green
: With the large
-
scale of
renewable energy sources, Smart Grid can reduce the
potential impact

on the environment e.g.,

carbon

emission reduction,
more
green energy.

4.

Optimization:
The most appropriate price of the
electrical energy provide to the society. Smart grid to
optimize resource utilization; reduce investment costs
and operation and mainte
nance costs. Quality of power
meets industry standards and consumer needs.

5.

Interactive:

With the interaction and real
-
time
response to the power market and users, the services are
increased. Mature wholesale market operations in place,
well integrated nat
ionwide and integrated with reliability
coordinators
.

6.

Self
-
healing
: The new power grid has a features
Self
-
healing. It is a process that improves services
quality, enhances reliability and reduces costs. It identify
and correct supply demand imbalance ins
tantaneously
and detect faults.

7.

Flexible and Compatible:

The new power grid
can support correct, reasonable integration of renewable
energy resources and it is suitable for integration of
distributed generation and micro power grid. Moreover,
it can improv
e and enhance the function of demand side
management to achieve the efficient interaction
capability with consumers.

It is compatible with the
present grid also.

8.

Integrated:

A unified platform and model are
employed on a grid
. It can obtain good quality of

integration and information sharing of power grid and to
achieve standard, normative and refined management
that integrates the infrastructure, processes, devices,
information and structure of market so that electricity
can be generated, distributed, and
used more efficiently
and cost effectively.


VI.

COMPONENTS

OF

SMART

GRID

The Smart Grid consist the various component. All
components are inter
-
related and inter
-
linked too. All
components must be integrated to enhancement the
reliability, more efficiency and

security as shown in fig.3.

Smart Meter:
It is a foundation for Smart Grid.

It is a
measuring device which is used to measure the energy
consumed by the user. It provides the two
-
way
communication between energy providers and
consumers. When demand is hig
h, the smart meters
permit utilities to communicate with customers via e
-
mail
or other communication method, so that consumers can
reduce their use of electricity [34].

The main functions of smart meter are following [35]:

1. Respective statistic of multi
-
period multi
-
rate model
power, measures active power and reactive power
usage amount. Smart meter should have two
-
way
metering function, and independent storage spac
e for
storing electrical energies
.

2. Supports bi
-
directional communication, can send data

and receive command, such as sending real
-
time
power usage information, receiving real
-
time rate
standard and meter program upgrade set etc. remote
operations.

3. According to the demand response requirement,
achieves the intelligent restraint of total l
oad. Smart
meter and smart interactive terminal will work
together to realize smooth transition to an isolated
system when power grid fa
ils
.

4. Supports multipurpose value
-
added service, for
example, reading smart gas meter, water meter, etc.
According to
the functions of smart meter, the block
diagram of smart meter as shown in figure 2.














Fig. 2
Block diagram of smart meter [35]

Communication
Module

220

Volt

(AC
)

Power Module

Clock and Storing

Module

Metering Module

Control Modul
e



Module

4
th

International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering & Technology, October 25
th

-
27
th
, 2013

Geeta Institute of Management & Technology, Kurukshetra, INDIA
-
136131




Distribution Automation:
IEEE has defined Distribution
Automation (DA) system as “a system that enables an
electric utility to remotely monitor, coordinate and
operate distribution components, in a real time mode
from
remote locations”[36].The distribution automation
consists the four main components e.g., field
instrumentation, RTUs, communication engineering and
automation software.

Demand Response

Management
:

The definition of
“demand response” that was used by the U
.S. Department
of Energy [37] “Changes in electric usage by end
-
use
customers from their normal consumption patterns in
response to changes in the price of electricity over time,
or to incentive payments designed to induce lower
electricity use at times of

high wholesale market prices or
when system reliability is jeopardized”. Demand
Response, is most important component to electrical
utilities to get higher efficiency and smoother load curve
[38].
Demand response

plays an important

role

to the

retail and
wholesale

power

markets.

Demand response
means by which demand will be dynamically and
continuously balanced with supply
-
side resources to
produce a cost effective electricity system. It should have
both supply sides and demand sides that respond to
transp
arent pricing schemes
.

Demand Side Management [39]:
Demand management

is a mechanism to

influence the ability

and willingness to

reduce

electricity consumption

of customers
.It
is

a
program of utility

in order to

fine
-
tune

power
consumption

pattern

of consu
mers,

according to the

energy production

of utility and

distribution capacity.
DSM programs consist of the monitoring, implementing,
and planning activities
of

the utilities

that are designed to

encourage

consumers to modify

their level

and pattern of

electricity consumption.


Demand management

is based

on a combination

of the
use of

high
-
efficiency equipment

and

the efficient use

of
electricity through

good operating practices
.

Demand Side Management (DSM) is the implementation
of policies and measures

that serve to control, influence
and
usually
reduce

demand of electricity. The aims of
DSM to enhance the electricity
-
consuming
systems

reduce ener
gy consumption, while maintaining

the same
level of service and comfort.


Smart Appliances:
The Smart Applia
nces

is also
important component of smart grid. The consumption of
energy is very less in smart appliances. The advantages of
smart appliances are not limited to making life easier
, but
very much helpful in energy saving also
.


Transmission Automation:

The

power

transmission
system can be
augmented by embedded career
communication system along with the exciting
transmission system and newer which are under pipe line.
This automation can be supported by optical fiber
communication
. All types of
information will be
available at every point of the power system which will
be excellent facility for all the power personals engaged
in the system

and even to consumers also
.

Transmission

automation system

can be developed by joining

the smart
substatio
ns
, smart communication system

and smart
measurement, command

and control centers [20
].


Fig. 3 Smart Grid Components


Electric Vehicles [40]:
The wide use and deployment of
an electric vehicle consists two concepts (a)
Grid
-
to
-
Vehicle (G2V)
and

(b) Vehicle
-
to
-
Grid (V2G)
. In
G2V
,
electric vehicle are powered by stored electricity
originally from an external power source, and thus need
to be cha
rg
ed after the batteries discharged
. This
technology is conceptually simple.

One solution to mitigate the impact of electric vehicle on
the grid is to optimize their charging profile. In other
words, we need to keep the peak power demand as small
as possibl
e, taking into account the extra power
consumption from the vehicle charging. This can be done
by coordinating the charging operations of different
electric vehicle so that they are not charged at the same
time.

In
V2G
, electric vehicle provide a new way t
o store and
supply electric power. V2G
-
enabled electric vehicle can
sand the signal to the grid to deliver electricity into the
grid,
when they are parked and connected to the grid.

Electric Storage:
Electric Storage technologies such
devices
as advanced
batteries, pumped hydro and others
require electricity to be stored and dispatched during
times of peak demand or to provide power from
renewable resources.

Renewable Energy Sources:
The

Renewable Energy
Sources

are most important component of Smart Grid.

Renewable Energy Sources are following types: wind
generation small hydro, micro hydro, solar technologies
bio
-
gas. To protect environment and for sustainable
development the importance of renewable Energy sources
cannot be overemphasized It. is an establi
shed and
accepted fact that renewable and non
-
conventional forms
of energy will play an increasingly important role in the
future as they are cleaner and easier to use and
Renewable
Energy
Sources

Electric
Storage

Electric
Vehicles

Smart
Appliances

Demand
Response

Management

Distribution

Automation



Transmission
Automation

Smart
Meter

Smart Grid
Component

4
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International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering & Technology, October 25
th

-
27
th
, 2013

Geeta Institute of Management & Technology, Kurukshetra, INDIA
-
136131




environmentally benign and are bound to become
economically more viable with increas
ed use. Because of
the limited availability of coal, there is considerable
international effort into the development of
alternative/new/non
-
conventional Renewable/clean
sources of energy.

VII.

DRIVERS

FOR

SMART

GRID

IN

INDIA

The most important factors that will

drive to
implementation the Smart Grid in India are discussed as
follow

[41]:


The global movement toward smart grid is driven by
improving the efficiency, improved customer satisfaction,
improved energy efficiency and environmental impact.
These are elab
orated below:

1.

Operational Efficiency:

Increase operational
productivity; reduce operating cost and capital
costs, enhancement in physical and cyber
security.

2.

Efficient Energy Use
: Optimize the utilization,
the growing demand and improved utilization of
exi
sting resources
.

3.


Customer Satisfaction:

Improvement in
reliability matrix, empower users to control
electricity utilization, stronger communications.

4.

Environmental Aspects
: Reduce green house
gases emissions with utility, give more
environmental options t
o consumer, and adhere
to regulatory mandates.

VIII.

RECENT

INITIATIVES

TO

SMART

GRID

IN

INDIA

The power system

in India

has been faced

a series of

problems

e. g, inefficient structure, inadequate
generation, frequent outages, poor power quality, etc [5].
Govern
ment of India has been initiated the various
reforms with the Indian Electricity Act 2003 and
programmes like accelerated power development and
reforms programme(APDRP) and later its restructured
version RAPDRP [42] to improve the generation,
transmissi
on and distributi
on sector in India. To upgrade

the existing capacity of Indian power sector make a direct
transition to a "smart" system by capitalizing on energy,
information and communication technologies. The
applications of Smart Grid with PMU, wide a
rea
measurement and self
-
healing systems are considered for
the power transmission, grid operation and management
[43]. The Utilities have already been implementing some
of technologies such as supervisory control and data
acquisition (SCADA), automated me
ter reading (AMR)
and geographic information systems (GIS). The smart
grid system will ultimately integrate these various
scattered applications. In [25] the authors discussed the
some smart grid deployment strategies for Indian power
sector. The distribut
ion reforms like Restructured
Accelerated Power Development and Reforms
Programme (RAPDRP) [44] mostly focus on reducing
AT&C losses and adoption of information and
communication technology (ICT). The India Smart Grid
Task Force (ISGTF) [45] is an intermin
isterial group and
will serve as government focal point for activities related
to smart grid. Five working groups have been constituted
to take up the different task related to smart grid
activities: WG1


Trials/Pilot on new technologies, WG2


Loss reduc
tion and theft, data gathering and analysis,
WG3

Power to rural areas and reliability & quality of
power to urban areas, WG4

Dist Generation &
renewable, and WG5

Physical cyber security, standards
and spectrum [45].

A.

NDPL Smart Grid Initiatives:

North Delh
i Power Limited (NDPL) [46] is a joint
venture between Tata Power Company and the
Government of Delhi.

NDPL is one of the first Indian
utilities to initiate the implementation of smart grid
technology in India to accelerate the development of
common standa
rds, technology solutions and processes
for intelligent networks.

As a member of the global coalition, NDPL is able to
leverage best practices and the latest innovations so we
can continue to drive strategic efforts to develop smart
grid solutions and
enhance the efficiency and reliability
of utility operations in India. The Coalition shares ideas
and best practices through in
-
person meetings and virtual
interactions, benchmarks their efforts, shares knowledge
on critical issues and undertakes collabora
tive initiatives.
The coalition's first collaborative effort was the creation
of a Smart Grid Maturity Model (SGMM), a tool that
benchmarks current progress and plans long term smart
grid programs [47]. US Trade and Development Agency
(USTDA) Extends Grant

of USD 0.6 Million to NDPL
for Implementation of Smart Grid Technology [48].

NDPL is presently working on several new projects
including the possible deployment of an Advanced
Metering Infrastructure (AMI) which will allow remote
management of metering se
rvices and automated meter
reading with two way communication with consumers.
The NDPL has taken many initiatives to reduce network
losses and has pioneered substation and distribution
automation in India. The
company is working on many
smart grid projects
; with deployment of smart meter that
the meter reading
will be automated and helps

manage
metering services using both side communications with
users [49].

B. BESCOM Smart Grid Project [50]:

The Bangalore Electricity Supply Company (BESCOM)
has begun work

on its Rs 87
-
crore smart grid project in
the City.
.
The new grid technology will help to
consumers plan their consumption and enable them to
interact with the power company. A U. S
-
based company
has begun the feasibility study for the first
-
of
-
its kind
pr
oject in the country cleared by the Central Power
Research Institute.

The United States Trade Development Authority is
funding the feasibility study to develop requirements and
specifications for the smart grid plan. The grant to
BESCOM is a part of an agr
eement between Prime
Minister Manmohan Singh and U.S President Barack
Obama in 2009 for co
-
operation in clean energy and
4
th

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th

-
27
th
, 2013

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energy efficiency. The pilot project will establish in the
Keonics City area of Electronics City (S 8 sub
-
division).
BESCOM

envisaged S
mart Grid Pilot Project in
Bangalore City. Smart Grid is a means to fulfill
BESCOM’s mission and realise its vision.

Bangalore is the best test site for the Smart Grid in the
Country because of Distribution Automation System
being implemented here and the
transmission SCADA is
already in place. Presence of local IT and professional
skills adds advantage for bringing in Smart Grid. National
Consultants M/s. CPRI are already appointed by USAID
[51].

BESCOM had requested USTDA to fund for the
feasibility study

of Smart Grid Pilot Project in BESCOM
to be carried out by International Consultants. After
consulting and taking approval from BESCOM, USTDA
floated the RFP for appointing International Consultants
and M/s KEMA emerged as the best evaluated firm.

C. WBSE
DCL Smart Grid Project:

The West Bengal State Electricity Distribution Company
Ltd (WBSEDCL) [52], a wholly
-
owned state government
enterprise, recently announced a first of its kind smart
grid pilot in India that will pin
-
point power theft or, the
WBSEDCL
will enter in agreement with US technology
provider, which will supply technology and run the
project. The pilot will be executed in south Kolkata
locality Garia that has 50,000 customers consuming 45
MW power. The project, which is estimated to cost Rs.
3
00
-
350 crores, is going to be first such large
-
scale pilot
project in India.
The pilot project proposes to take up 4
nos. of 11 KV feeders for implementation of Smart Grid
covering 4404 consumers. The area has 42 MU input
energy consumption. The utility ha
s proposed the
functionality of AT&C loss reduction and Peak Load
Management using Automated Metering Infrastructure
(AMI) for Residential and Industrial Consumers.
Malay
De, chairman of WBSEDCL, said that this is probably the
first project in the world th
at brings the entire cycle of
power generation, transmission, distribution and use by
the consumer under the same roof of a single control
room.

D. Smart Grid Customer Demo Center (CDC) by
Mahindra Satyam in partnership with Schneider
electric

Mahindra Sa
tyam, a leading global consulting and IT
services provider, has announced the expansion of utility
solutions into smart grid by inaugurating a smart grid
customer demonstration center (CDC) at the 120
-
acre.Mahindra Satyam Technology Center campus in
Hydera
bad [53]. The CDC will help customers
understand the next generation technology in real
-
time
and evaluate various technologies underlying the smart
grid ecosystem. The Smart Grid CDC will simulate
micro
-
grid technologies of the future by incorporating
Adva
nced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), demand
response, integration of renewable energy resources,
network automation, substation automation, home
automation and electrical vehicle charging stations. The
CDC is developed in collaboration with Schneider
Electr
ic India, using components of Schneider Electric,
and will also function as a platform to develop innovative
solutions such as cloud
-
based analytics,

intelligent agent

smart grid security & interoperability, and real
-
time
demand response.

Mahindra Satyam’s

extensive
understanding of both utilities and energy consumers has
positioned the company perfectly to solve these next
ge
neration challenges of balanced

power supply and
demand. Mahindra Satyam consultants have worked with
6 of the 10 largest global ener
gy and utility customers
and its subsidiary, Bridge Strategy Group, has advised 27
of the 50 largest electric utilities and 24 of the largest 50
gas utilities in North America. They have also worked for
a number of suppliers in the utility industry to help

them
understand how better to serve their target markets.


E. Smart Mini
-
Grid System at TERI

The Energy and resources Institute (TERI) [54] has
designed, developed, and demonstrated the country's
first
-
of
-
its
-
kind smart mini
-
grid system. The objective is
to optimally use smarter control of distributed energy
sources combined with intelligent management of loads
to improve the efficiency and reliability of the overall
mini
-
grid system. The smart minigrid, built with the
support of the Ministry of New and Re
newable Energy
(MNRE), was recently inaugurated at the TERI in
Gurgaon. The system is based on the integration of
multiple distributed energy resources into the same grid.
This system is also based on intelligent load and energy
resource management. A Smar
t Mini
-
Grid has greater
resilience to loading as compared to the conventional grid
system. The grid is also equipped with a self healing
system that enables it to rapidly detect, analyze, respond
to power disturbances and restore power supply. The
smart mi
ni
-
grid system has a huge potential in large
commercial and industrial complexes, hospitals, shopping
malls/ complexes, apartments, residential complexes,
educational institutions, remote unelectrified as well as
electrified locations to ensure maximum fle
xibility,
security,
reliability and safety.

IX.

CHALLENGES

AND

LATEST

TECHNOLOGY

FOR

DESIGNING

OF

SMART

GRID


(a) The major challenges to be faced while designing of
smart grid technology are
as follows
[55
]:

1.

System planning level:

Too many decision
makers, opposition to new plants and lines, lack of
predictive real
-
time system controls, inadequate focus on
supply
-
side reliability solutions, proper tax incentives for
predictive real
-
time system, time dependent controls,
pricing info
rmation and tax incentives for demand side
management(DSM) technologies.

2.

Energy selling level:

Public resistance to
deregulation, lack of consumer participation in DSM,
environmental incentives/penalties to be addressed,
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International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering & Technology, October 25
th

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27
th
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Geeta Institute of Management & Technology, Kurukshetra, INDIA
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consumer access to pricing informat
ion to enable DSM
technology.

3.

Technology level :

Communication bit falls for
real
-
time management of grid, optimal power flow
control, automatic meter reading, reduction in energy
consumption by use of improved technology, harnessing
alternate energy sourc
es and feeding the grid from them,
energy storage devices, innovation in smart sensors

and
automation.

(b) The latest technology to be used for Smart Grid is as

follows:

1. Use of Superconductors for transmission lines,
Transformers, Generators, HT Cable
s


Nano
materials going to play a major role.

2. The sophisticated revenue models they will employ to
shape customers' behavior.

3. Easy
-
to
-
install, low
-
cost sensors to measure energy use
with high
_
resolution

4. Networked power electronics for everythin
g from solid
state New Technology development opportunities

lighting to solar micro
-
inverters

5. Grid
-
scale electricity storage to buffer transients in
supply and demand.

6. Electrified
-
vehicle infrastructure including batteries
and charging stations (Few
MW)

7. Universal Remote Control to a Set
-
top Box which
includes Home Control

8. Fuel Cell

X. CONCLUSION

In the paper, the features of present power system
operation in India have been discussed. The comparison
of present power grid and smart grid has been

elaborated
and the comparisons prove the superiority of smart grid
system. Viewing the technological advancement in the
world in power system, India should also adopt the latest
methods like Smart Grid for the operation and
management of power system. The

integration of smart
grid technologies will help the present power system to
manage and eradicate the existing problems in the present
power management in Indian power sector.


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