Chapter 5

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31 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Chapter 5:
Applying Information
Technology
-


Organizational Systems

Types of Organizational Systems


Transaction Processing Systems



Enterprise Resource Planning Systems


Data Warehousing


Office Automation


Groupware


Intranets


Factory Automation


Batch
vs.
On
-
Line Processing



Batch processing
--

accumulate a suitable
batch of transactions, then process entire
batch at a time


On
-
line processing
--

process transactions
as they occur, updating all files almost
immediately


Distributed Systems and

Client/Server Systems


The distribution of
processing power to
multiple sites


Telecommunications
and networking
becomes critical

Client/Server Systems


Processing power distributed between a
central server, such as a minicomputer or
powerful workstation, and a number of
client computers, usually desktop
microcomputers


Split in responsibilities between server and
client varies from application to application

Client/Server Systems (cont.)


Building blocks of a client/server system:


1.

Client


2.

Server


3.

Middleware, a rather vague term that
covers all of the software needed to support
interaction between clients and servers

Middleware


1.

Network operating systems, such as
Novell NetWare and Microsoft’s NT
Server, which create a “single
-
system
image” for all services on the network


2.

Transport software to allow
communication using certain protocols,
such as TCP/IP


3.

Service
-
specific software to carry out
functions such as e
-
mail or HTTP

Alternative Client/Server Models


Two
-
tier fat client or thin server model
--

most work done on client


Two
-
tier thin client or fat server model
--

most work done on server


Three
-
tier model
--

separate application and
database servers
--

user interface is on
client (tier 1), processing is on application
server (tier 2), and data is on database
server (tier 3)
--

tier 3 is often mainframe


Transaction Processing Systems


Processing of sales;
payments made and
received; inventory
shipped and received;
hiring, firing, and
paying employees;
paying dividends

Enterprise Resource Planning
(ERP) Systems


Special type of transaction processing
system


A set of integrated business applications
that an organization purchases from a
software vendor


Usually include modules to carry out
common business functions, such as
inventory control, A/P, A/R, and MRP

Enterprise Resource Planning
(ERP) Systems (continued)


Distinguishing features from earlier TPS:
modules are integrated, through common
definitions and common database, and
modules reflect a particular set of business
processes


Leading vendors: SAP (German), Baan,
Oracle, and PeopleSoft

Data Warehousing


Establishment and maintenance of a large
data storage facility containing data on all
(or at least many) aspects of the enterprise


Data are pulled from operational systems
and placed in a separate “data warehouse”
so that users may analyze the data without
endangering operational systems


Data Warehousing (continued)


Three types of software are needed:


Warehouse construction software, including
database management systems such as
Oracle and IBM’s DB2


Warehouse operation software, offered by
H
-
P, IBM, Information Builders, and others


Warehouse access and analysis software,
such as catalog and reporting tools


Office Automation


The use of
information
technology to
automate various
aspects of office
operations

Office Automation Functions


Electronic mail


Word processing


Photocopying


Document preparation


Voice mail


Desktop publishing


Personal databases


Electronic calendaring

Groupware


A made
-
up word referring to soft
ware

designed to support
groups

by facilitating
collaboration, communication, and
coordination


Possible groupware functions: electronic
mail, bulletin boards, computer
conferencing, calendaring, groups
scheduling, sharing documents

Groupware


More functions: electronic whiteboards,
meeting support systems, workflow routing,
electronic forms, desktop
videoconferencing


Major players and strengths: Lotus Notes
(sharing documents), Novell GroupWise
(calendaring/group scheduling), Microsoft
Exchange

Intranets


A network operating within an organization
that employs the TCP/IP protocol


Uses same Web browser, Web crawler,
Web server software as on the Internet


Intranets deliver much of the functionality
of groupware at a lower cost


Groupware vendors are moving to embrace
the Internet
--

they have to!

Factory Automation


The use of
information
technology to
automate various
aspects of factory
operations


Robotics


Computer
-
integrated
manufacturing (CIM)

Computer
-
Integrated
Manufacturing


Broad term which encompasses many uses
of the computer to help top manufacturers
operate more efficiently and effectively


Includes engineering systems (CAD,
CAPP), manufacturing administration
systems (MRP, MRP II), and factory
operations systems (CAM, SFC)