Science Warm-up 3/5/2012

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Science Warm
-
up 3/5/2012


Have your take home test out on your
desk and complete the following
prompt. What are some potential uses
for technology that allow a gene for a
protein to be inserted into an organism?



Work on your 5 sentences individually
and quietly


Chapter 13:

Genetics and Biotechnology

Wood

Chapter Overview


Big Idea: Genetic technology
improves human health and quality
of life.


Section 1: Applied Genetics


Section 2: DNA Technology


Section 3: The Human Genome

Section 1: Applied Genetics


Selective Breeding p.360


Hybridization p. 361


Inbreeding p. 361


Test Crosses p. 362

I. Selective Breeding


The process by which desired traits
of certain plants and animals are
selected and passed on to their
future generations is called
selective
breeding
.


II. Hybridization


Hybrid organisms can be bred to be
more disease
-
resistant, to produce
more offspring, or to grow faster.


A disadvantage of hybridization is
that it is time consuming and
expensive.



Example of hybridization:


Santa
Gertrudis

cattle were developed by mating
shorthorn beef cattle, who produce high quality
beef, with heat
-

and insect
-
resistant Brahman
cattle from India. The result of this cross are
cattle that are resistant to heat and insects and
also produce high
-
quality beef.


III. Inbreeding


The process in which two closely related
organisms are bred to have the desired
traits and to eliminate the undesired
ones in future generations


Pure breeds are maintained by
inbreeding.


A disadvantage of inbreeding is that
harmful recessive traits also can be
passed on to future generations.



Example of inbreeding


Clydesdale horses were first bred
because of their strong build, agility,
and obedient nature. They were only
bred with other Clydesdales to
continue these characteristics.

IV. Test Cross


A
test cross

involves
breeding an
organism that has
the unknown
genotype with one
that is homozygous
recessive for the
desired trait.



This is to determine
the genotype of the
unknown organism.

1.
A

2.
B

3.
C

4.
D

CDQ 1

A.

It is relatively
inexpensive to
perform.

B.

It produces offspring
with
specific
traits.

C.

It crosses a
parent
organism with
different forms
of a trait.

D.

It can take a long time to
be
successful.

Which statement is
not

true of hybridization?

Genetics and Biotechnology

Chapter 13

Chapter Diagnostic
Questions

1.
A

2.
B

3.
C

4.
D

CDQ 2

Genetics and Biotechnology

Chapter 13

Chapter Diagnostic
Questions

A.

genetic engineering

B.

gel electrophoresis

C.

cleaving

D.

selective breeding

Name the process that scientists use to

separate DNA fragments according to size.

1.
A

2.
B

3.
C

4.
D

CDQ 3

Genetics and Biotechnology

Chapter 13

Chapter Diagnostic
Questions

A.

cloning

B.

sequencing

C.

transformation

D.

manipulation

Select the process in which one type of

bacterium takes up the DNA from another

type of bacterium.

1.
A

2.
B

3.
C

4.
D

FQ 1

Genetics and Biotechnology

Chapter 13

A.

homogenization

B.

inbreeding

C.

selective breeding

D.

test crossing

Which term explains how humans have been

able to produce a wide variety of domestic

cats?

13.1 Formative Questions

1.
A

2.
B

3.
C

4.
D

FQ 2

Genetics and Biotechnology

Chapter 13

13.1 Formative Questions

A new breed of cattle has been developed by crossing
English Shorthorn cattle, which provide good beef but
cannot withstand hot environments, and Brahman cattle
from India that have a high heat tolerance but produce poor
beef. The new breed, Santa
Gertrudis
, produces excellent
beef and can live in hot environments. Which term describes
Santa
Gertrudis

cattle?

A.

cross breed

B.

hybrid

C.

outbred

D.

purebred

1.
A

2.
B

3.
C

4.
D

FQ 3

Genetics and Biotechnology

Chapter 13

13.1 Formative Questions

A.

hybridization

B.

inbreeding

C.

line breeding

D.

out crossing

Harmful recessive traits can be passed

through generations of purebred animals

as a result of _______.

1.
A

2.
B

3.
C

4.
D

FQ 4

Genetics and Biotechnology

Chapter 13

13.1 Formative Questions

Once a tomato grower observes the desired trait in her
tomato plants, she decides to perform a test cross. What
is the purpose for doing the test cross?

A.

to determine if the trait is
dominant
or
recessive

B.

to determine the phenotype
of
the plants

C.

to determine if the plants carry
beneficial
recessive alleles

D.

to determine if the plants are
homozygous
dominant or
heterozygous

13.2 DNA Technology


Genetic engineering p. 363


DNA tools p. 364


Recombinant DNA technology p. 366


Biotechnology p. 370

Genetic Engineering


Technology that involves manipulating the
DNA of one organism in order to insert the
DNA of another organism, called exogenous
DNA.

Genetics and Biotechnology

13.2 DNA Technology

Chapter 13


Genetically engineered organisms are used

Genetics and Biotechnology


to study the expression of a particular gene.


to investigate cellular
processes.


to study the
development of a certain
disease.


to select traits that might
be beneficial to humans.

13.2 DNA Technology

Genetically engineered bollworm

Chapter 13

DNA Tools

Genetics and Biotechnology


An organism’s
genome

is the total DNA in the
nucleus of each cell.


DNA tools can be used to manipulate DNA and
to isolate genes from the rest of the genome.

13.2 DNA Technology

Chapter 13

Genetics and Biotechnology


Scientists use restriction enzymes as powerful
tools for isolating specific genes or regions of
the genome
.



Also known as “DNA Scissors”.

13.2 DNA Technology

Chapter 13


Restriction enzymes

recognize and bind to specific
DNA sequences and cleave the DNA within the
sequence.

Genetics and Biotechnology


The ends of the DNA
fragments, called sticky
ends, contain single
-
stranded DNA that is
complementary.

13.2 DNA Technology

Chapter 13


EcoRI

specifically cuts
DNA containing the
sequence GAATTC.

Genetics and Biotechnology


An

electric current is used to separate DNA
fragments according to the size of the
fragments in a process called
gel
electrophoresis
.


When an electric current is applied, the DNA
fragments move toward the positive end of
the gel.


The smaller fragments move farther faster
than the larger ones.

13.2 DNA Technology

Chapter 13

Genetics and Biotechnology


The unique pattern
created based on the
size of the DNA
fragment can be
compared to known
DNA fragments for
identification.

13.2 DNA Technology

Gel electrophoresis

Chapter 13

Genetics and Biotechnology


The newly generated DNA molecule with DNA from
different sources is called
recombinant DNA
.

13.2 DNA Technology

Chapter 13

Genetics and Biotechnology


To make a large quantity of recombinant plasmid DNA,
bacterial cells are mixed with recombinant plasmid DNA.


Some of the bacterial cells take up the recombinant plasmid
DNA through a process called
transformation
.

13.2 DNA Technology

Chapter 13

Genetics and Biotechnology


Large numbers of identical bacteria, each
containing the inserted DNA molecules, can be
produced through a process called
cloning
.

13.2 DNA Technology

Chapter 13

Genetics and Biotechnology


To understand how DNA is sequenced, scientists mix an
unknown DNA fragment, DNA polymerase, and the four
nucleotides

A, C, G, T in a tube.

13.2 DNA Technology

Chapter 13

Genetics and Biotechnology


Each nucleotide is
tagged with a
different color of
fluorescent dye.


Every time a
modified fluorescent
-
tagged nucleotide is

incorporated into the newly synthesized strand,

the reaction stops.

13.2 DNA Technology

Chapter 13

Genetics and Biotechnology


The sequencing reaction is complete when the tagged
DNA fragments are separated by gel electrophoresis.

13.2 DNA Technology

Chapter 13

Genetics and Biotechnology

13.2 DNA Technology

Chapter 13


A technique called the
polymerase chain
reaction

(PCR) can be used to make millions of
copies of a specific region of a DNA fragment.

Genetics and Biotechnology

13.2 DNA Technology

Chapter 13

Genetics and Biotechnology

Biotechnology


Organisms, genetically engineered by inserting a
gene from another organism, are called
transgenic organisms
.

13.2 DNA Technology

Chapter 13

Genetics and Biotechnology

Transgenic Animals


Scientists produce most transgenic animals in
laboratories for biological research.


Mice, fruit flies, and the roundworm
Caenorhabditis

elegans

13.2 DNA Technology

Chapter 13

Genetics and Biotechnology

Transgenic Plants


Genetically engineered cotton resists insect
infestation of the bolls.


Sweet
-
potato plants are resistant to a virus
that could kill most of the African harvest.


Rice plants with increased iron and vitamins
could decrease malnutrition.

13.2 DNA Technology

Chapter 13

1.
A

2.
B

3.
C

4.
D

FQ 5

Genetics and Biotechnology

Chapter 13

A.

bioengineering

B.

cloning

C.

genetic engineering

D.

transgenics

What is the name for the technology that

involves inserting the genes of one organism

into the DNA of another organism?

13.2 Formative Questions

1.
A

2.
B

3.
C

4.
D

FQ 6

Genetics and Biotechnology

Chapter 13

13.2 Formative Questions

A.

DNA
ligase

B.

polymerase

C.

restriction enzyme

D.

transcriptase

Which type of protein can recognize specific

DNA sequences and cleave the DNA within

that sequence?

1.
A

2.
B

3.
C

4.
D

FQ 7

Genetics and Biotechnology

Chapter 13

13.2 Formative Questions

A.

DNA fragmentation

B.

gel electrophoresis

C.

transgenic cloning

D.

polymerase chain reaction

Which process separates DNA fragments

according to size and has many applications

in genetic engineering and biotechnology?

1.
A

2.
B

3.
C

4.
D

FQ 8

Genetics and Biotechnology

Chapter 13

13.2 Formative Questions

A.

complementary DNA

B.

exogenous DNA

C.

genomic DNA

D.

recombinant DNA

A DNA molecule that has had genes from

another organism inserted into it is called

_______.

FQ 9

Genetics and Biotechnology

Chapter 13

13.2 Formative Questions

Why is polymerase chain reaction (PCR) one of the most
powerful tools used by scientists?

A.

It can be used to identify errors


in DNA
sequences and predict


the function of genes.

B.

It can detect a single DNA


molecule in a sample
and


make millions of copies of it.

C.

It creates large amounts of


recombinant DNA in
genetically


engineered organisms.

D.

It creates DNA fragments with


sticky ends that
can join with


other DNA fragments.


The Human Genome Project


The goal of the Human Genome Project (HGP)
was to determine the sequence of the
approximately three billion nucleotides that
make up human DNA and to identify all of the
approximately 20,000

25,000 human genes.

Genetics and Biotechnology

13.3 The Human Genome

Chapter 13

Sequencing the Genome


Each of the 46 human chromosomes was cleaved.

Genetics and Biotechnology


These fragments were combined with vectors to
create recombinant DNA, cloned to make many
copies, and sequenced using automated
sequencing machines.


Computers analyzed the overlapping regions to
generate one continuous sequence.

13.3 The Human Genome

Chapter 13

Genetics and Biotechnology


Decoding the
sequence of the
human
genome



can be compared to

reading a book that

was
printed in code.

13.3 The Human Genome

Chapter 13


Less than two percent of all of the nucleotides in
the human genome code for all the proteins in
the body.

Genetics and Biotechnology


The genome is filled with long stretches of
repeated sequences that have no direct function.


These regions are called
noncoding

sequences.

13.3 The Human Genome

Chapter 13

DNA Fingerprinting

Genetics and Biotechnology


Protein
-
coding regions of DNA are almost
identical among individuals.


The long stretches of
noncoding

regions of DNA
are unique to each individual.


DNA fingerprinting

involves separating these
DNA fragments to observe the distinct banding
patterns that are unique to every individual.

13.3 The Human Genome

Chapter 13

Identifying Genes

Genetics and Biotechnology


Researchers have identified genes by scanning
the sequence for Open Reading Frames (ORFs).


ORFs contain at least 100
codons

that begin
with a start
codon

and end with a stop
codon
.

13.3 The Human Genome

Chapter 13

Bioinformatics

Genetics and Biotechnology


Creating and maintaining databases of biological
information


Finding genes in DNA sequences of various
organisms and developing methods to predict
the structure and function of newly discovered
proteins

13.3 The Human Genome

Chapter 13

DNA Microarrays

Genetics and Biotechnology


Tiny microscope slides or silicon chips that
are spotted with DNA fragments


Help researchers determine whether the
expression of certain genes is caused by
genetic factors or environmental factors.

13.3 The Human Genome

Chapter 13


Regions of linked
variations in the human
genome are known as
haplotypes
.

Genetics and Biotechnology


Assembling the
HapMap

involves identifying
groups of SNPs in a
specific region of DNA.

13.3 The Human Genome

Chapter 13


The
HapMap

will
enable geneticists to
take advantage of how
SNPs and other genetic
variations are
organized on
chromosomes.

Genetics and Biotechnology

13.3 The Human Genome

Chapter 13


Genomics

is the study of an organism’s genome.


A technique aimed at correcting mutated genes

that cause human diseases

is called
gene therapy
.

Genetics and Biotechnology


Scientists insert a normal
gene into a chromosome
to replace a dysfunctional
gene.

13.3 The Human Genome

Chapter 13


Genes are the primary information storage
units, whereas proteins are the machines of a
cell.

Genetics and Biotechnology

13.3 The Human Genome

Chapter 13


The large
-
scale study and cataloging of the
structure and function of proteins in the human
body is called
proteomics
.

13.3 The Human Genome

Genetics and Biotechnology

Chapter 13

1.
A

2.
B

FQ 10

Genetics and Biotechnology

Chapter 13

The task of sequencing the
entire DNA in human
cells has been completed.


A.

True

B.

False

13.3 Formative Questions

1.
A

2.
B

3.
C

4.
D

FQ 11

Genetics and Biotechnology

Chapter 13

13.3 Formative Questions

A.

the
noncoding



sequences

B.

the regions that code


for proteins

C.

the sections that


contain genes

D.

the genes that code


for fingerprints

Which sections of human DNA are unique to

every individual?

1.
A

2.
B

3.
C

4.
D

FQ 12

Genetics and Biotechnology

Chapter 13

13.3 Formative Questions

A.

algorithms

B.

bioanalysis

C.

bioinformatics

D.

microarray analysis

Which field of study involves the careful

storage, organization and indexing of data

on DNA sequences?

1.
A

2.
B

3.
C

4.
D

FQ 13

Genetics and Biotechnology

Chapter 13

13.3 Formative Questions

A.

haplotype

B.

chromosome

C.

DNA

D.

proteome

If the genome represents the words in a

dictionary, then the definition and usage of

those words is represented by the _______.

Look at the following image. These are

the results of what process?

Answer:


a test cross

Genetics and Biotechnology

Chapter 13

Chapter Assessment
Questions

CAQ 1

1.
A

2.
B

3.
C

4.
D

CAQ 2

Genetics and Biotechnology

Chapter 13

What is the role of

the molecule shown

in DNA cloning?

A.

to carry the foreign


DNA into the host cell

B.

to identify the source


of DNA as foreign

C.

to identify the host cell that has


taken up the gene of interest

D.

to make the foreign DNA


susceptible to digestion with


enzymes

Chapter Assessment
Questions

1.
A

2.
B

3.
C

4.
D

CAQ 3

Genetics and Biotechnology

Chapter 13

Chapter Assessment
Questions

A.

1:2:1

B.

1:1

C.

All are homozygous recessive.

D.

All are heterozygous.

What is the genotypic ratio of the
offspring in the cross to the right?