UNITS, UNITS, UNITS (and after you have studied UNITS, study more UNITS!)

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EMEC 368 Introduction to Aerospace

What You Need to Know for Test 1


Information comes to you for this class four different ways:

1)

Lectures

2)

Tours

3)

The textbook (including homeworks)

4)

Website


You are responsible for the information. If you miss something,
please get it from your colleagues
or me.


For solving problems on the test, you are responsible for the following:


Chapter 1 The First Aeronautical Engineers


General history leading to modern aircraft



Flight vehicle configurations



Controls



Powered

flight

Chapter 2 Fundamental Thoughts


UNITS, UNITS, UNITS (and after you have studied UNITS, study more UNITS
!
)


Unit mistakes are easy to make, can have large consequences, but are easy to avoid
.

Definitions and parameters



Pressure



Density



Temperature



Velocity


Newton’s laws (In English units, make sure you have the mass unit [slugs] correct)


Ideal gas law p = ρ RT; specific volume = 1/

ρ


Chapter 3 The Standard Atmosphere


Altitude Definitions



Absolute



Geometric



Geopotential


The Hydrostatic Equation dp =
-

ρ g dh
G


The Standard Atmosphere



Gradient Regions



Isothermal Layers



Equations of State


Pressure, Temperature (non
-
unique), and Density Altitudes

You
should have an ability

to understand, utilize and interpolate the St
andard Atmosphere
tables.



Chapter 4 Basic Aerodynamics


Basic Fluid Dynamics



Continuity



Momentum



Energy


Inviscid,
Incompressible Flow



A
1
V
1

= A
2
V
2



Euler’s Equation



Bernoulli’s Equation (energy)


Elementary Thermodynamics



δq + δw = de



δq

= de + pd
v



h = e + p
v

= e + RT



δq = dh

v
dp



de = c
v

dT



dh = c
p

dT



e = c
v

T



h = c
p

T


Isentropic Flow



Reversible



Adiabatic (no heat transfer)


Energy Equation (inviscid, adiabatic flow)

You should be able to manipulate and apply these equat
ions, with state variables
and ideal gas laws.


Speed of Sound a = (γRT)
1/2


Subsonic Flow


Compressibility Effects


Supersonic Flow (thermodynamics of a shock wave)


Supersonic Nozzles


Viscous Flow



Boundary Layer




Laminar




Turbulent



Forces (Drag


Skin Friction + Separation [pressure drag])



Compressibility Effects



Transition


Flow Separation

Summary of Equations

for Chapter 4,

pp. 277
-
280.

You should adroit in your ability to calculate basic fluid flows, correct for compressible
effects, solve

pitot
-
static type problems,
use

isentropic equations where applicable,
calculate boundary layers (including skin friction drag)



Chapter 5
Airfoils, Wings, and Other Aerodynamic Shapes

Airfoil nomenclature


Leading and Trailing Edges


Chord


Camber


Thic
kness

Relative Wind and Angle of Attack


Pressure Distributions, q



Lift and Drag



Resultants



Coefficients


Airfoil Data


Appendix D



c
l
, c
d
, c
m

c/4



Stall, Roughness, and Flap effects


Finite wings

Compressibility effects


Critical Mach number


Drag Divergence


Supersonic Flow



Wave drag




c
l
, c
d


Finite Wing



Induced Drag



Change in Lift Slope, α
e



The Drag Polar, C
D

vs. C
L


Swept Wings



Critical Mach number



Mach cone


Flaps



Influence on Lift and Drag



Stall
Speed



You should be able to calculate lift
and drag on Aerodynamic Shapes. This includes
compressibility corrections, transonic speeds, and supersonic speeds.



Chapter 6 Elements of Aircraft Performance

THROUGH SECTION 6.13 ONLY

The Drag Polar for actual
aircraft

Basic Equations of Motion


Along Flight Path F
ll

= m dV/dt


Perpendicular F


= m V
2
/r
c
, “centrifugal force”, curved path r
c

Thrust Required for Level, Unaccelerated Flight

A familiarity with our “example” airplanes


CP
-
1, Cessna 182


CJ
-
1,
Citation 3

Thrust Available and Maximum Velocity


Propeller Driven


Jet

Power Required for Level, Unaccelerated Flight


Propeller Driven


Jet

Power Available and Maximum Velocity


Propeller Driven


Jet

Altitude Effects

Rate of Climb

Gliding Flight

Absolut
e (R/C=0) and Service (R/C = 100 ft/min) Ceilings

Time to Climb

Range and Endurance


Propeller Driven, the Brequet
Formulas, Specific Fuel Consumption


Jet
, Thrust Specific Fuel Consumption


You should be able to integrate the concepts from Chapters 2
-
5 to

predict basic,
static performance (zero acceleration), through Range and Endurance
,

of flight
vehicle structures (through Section 6.13 in the textbook).