Presentation - Career and Technical Education

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29 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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CHAPTER 5:

FINAL DESIGN CHALLENGE

Engineering Design and Problem Solving

Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Introduction/Description


The Final Design Challenge will allow
students to demonstrate mastery of the
engineering design process (EDP) by
creating their own unique engineering
problem scenario and developing a solution
for their problem.


You will complete hand
-
drawn or CADD
diagrams and drawings to scale, build a
scale model, write a 10
-
page paper on the
topic, and present a 30
-
minute multimedia
exhibition of your work
.

2

Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Chapter 5: Outline

3

1.
Introduction to Engineering Drawing

2.
Dimensioning and Tolerance

Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Objectives and Results

Objectives


Develop
a problem scenario and design a
solution using the engineering design process.


Demonstrate understanding of scale diagrams
and drawings.



4

Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Objectives and Results, cont.

Objectives


Design and build a model or prototype
.


Write
a
10
-
page
research paper using proper
grammar, spelling, mechanics, and reference
citations.


Present information and findings in a 30
-
minute
multimedia exhibition.




5

Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Schedule of Assignments

6

Class
Period(s
)


Topic(s
)

Reading

Assignment

1
-
2


The Engineering Design Process
-

quick
r
eview


Student
background of
the
Final
Design Challenge (FDC)


Vocabulary

Chapter

#1
-
Individual
;
Final Design

Handouts
, Vocabulary
work

3
-
12


Scenario development

Chapter

#2
-
In teams of 2
-
3; Create a scenario,

and
complete the communication

and presentation
of your scenario (Major)

13
-
27


Scale diagrams and drawings

Chapter

#3
-
In teams of 2
-
3; Do drawings either

by hand
or in CADD for your project and build your
scale model

(Major)


28
-
47


Model: design and build

Chapter

#4
-
In teams of 2
-
3;
Apply
the engineering
design
process

to
the scenario
given;

complete
the
model for
your design following
the
rubric
given
(
Major)

Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Schedule of Assignments, cont.

7

Class
Period(s)


Topic(s
)

Reading

Assignment

48
-
67


Paper: research
and write

Chapter

#5
-
In teams of 2
-
3;
Apply

t
he
engineering
design
process to the scenario
given;

complete
a
research paper following the
rubric
given
(
Major)

68
-
77


Multimedia

exhibitions


Presentations: research, create, and
practice

Chapter

#6
-
In teams of 2
-
3;
Apply
the engineering
design
process to the scenario
given;

complete
the
communication
and

presentation of
your
design following the rubric given
(
Major)

78
-
90


Multimedia
exhibitions


Presentations


Shared with peers and public

Chapter

#7
-
In teams of 2
-
3;
Apply
the engineering
design
process to the scenario
given;

deliver
the
multimedia

presentation of
your design
following the rubric given
(
Major)

Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Vocabulary


Model


Multimedia


Presentation


Research/Technical Paper


Technical Drawing


Visual Aids

8

Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Engineering Problems and Solutions

9


Often, engineers encounter problems and must solve
these problems using the
engineering design process
.


You and your teammates will be solving similar issues,
by creating scenarios and addressing the crucial
elements of the engineering design process.


Discuss the engineering problem examples on the next
four slides and how these situations could have been
avoided.

Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Example #1: Leaning Tower of Pisa

10


One of the most famous engineering errors is obvious
in this bell tower in the Italian city of Pisa.


Due to environmental factors that were not considered
carefully, the tower leans at a 10
-
degree angle from
perpendicular due to soil compression and
inadequate foundation work.

Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Example #2:
Petronas

Towers

11


This feat of engineering was almost a
disaster.


Test boreholes
found
the
original construction
site effectively sat on the edge of a cliff.


One
half of the site was decayed limestone
and
the other half was soft rock.


The
entire site was moved
200 feet
to allow
the buildings to sit entirely on the soft
rock.

Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Example #3: Saint Francis Dam

12


A
series of small reservoirs were built in the 1920s to
provide
Los Angeles
with a water supply in the event
of a drought or damage to the
aqueduct.


After several design modifications, the dam was
constructed differently than it was originally designed.


The dam failed catastrophically in 1928.

Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Example #4: Tacoma Narrows Bridge

13


Slender
, elegant and graceful, the Tacoma
Narrows Bridge stretched like a
beautiful steel
band
across Puget
Sound.


The suspension bridge opened
on July
1, 1940.
Only four months later, the great span's short life
ended in disaster. "Galloping Gertie
,” as it was
tragically nicknamed,
collapsed

in a windstorm on
Nov.
7
, 1940
.



The
bridge
is known
as "the most dramatic failure
in bridge engineering history
."

Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Student Scenario

14

This sample scenario should only be used as a
guide for your teams to create your scenarios.


Your
design team is part of an environmental civil
engineering firm that is bidding on a new
project to
select and propose an alternative energy source to a
remote property.


The
client just purchased
a
property on the Baja
Peninsula in
California. The
property is one of the
few privately owned waterfronts in the area and it is
surrounded by a pristine wildlife sanctuary on one
side and ocean on the
other.

Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Creating a Scale Drawing

15


A scale drawing is a
drawing that shows a real object
with accurate
sizes.


The sizes are reduced
or enlarged by a certain
amount
(the scale).


The example drawing below has
a scale of "
1:10."



Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Scale Drawing and Ratios

16


A
map cannot be of the same size as the area it
represents, therefore, a ratio is used.


S
cale of a drawing = drawing
length:actual

length


A
scale is usually expressed in one of two
ways:


using units


1
cm to 1
km


1” = 1’


using no specific measurements.


1:100,000


1:10


Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Scale Drawing in Architecture

17

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©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Engineering Drawing

18

Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Scale Drawing Practice

19


Create a scale model of your classroom and some of
the items found in the classroom, such as desks and
chairs.


Complete scale drawings for your project.


Follow your instructor’s directions to complete either
hand
-
drawn or CAD drawings of your project
according to the scenario, team project outline, and
rubric.

Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Scale Models

20

A scale
model is a physical
model that is an accurate
representation of
an
object or structure.


It
maintains the related proportions, or the scale, of the
physical size of the original object.


The scale model can be
larger or smaller than the actual
object.


Usually, the
scale model is used as a guide to making the
full
-
sized object.


Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Scale Model Examples

21


A model is a three
-
dimensional (3
-
D) alternative
to
a
two
-
dimensional (2
-
D) representation.


An
example
of a scale 3
-
D model versus a scale
drawing is
a
globe,
which is
the 3
-
D
alternative to a
flat
2
-
D
world map.

Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Scale Model Display

22

This scale model of the Gemini Space Module is on
display as part of a NASA exhibit at the
G
eorge Bush
International Airport in Houston
, Texas.


Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Scale Model Process

23

From Scale Model




To Construction


To Completed Building

Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Creating a Scale Model

24

Much like creating a scale drawing, when creating a
scale model, you have to consider certain crucial design
components, such as


m
easurements (e.g., length, height, width, depth),


r
eal life applications,


d
esign constraints,


d
esign requirements,



m
aterials, and


s
cale.


Scale Model Building

Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Overview of CAD

25


Computer
-
aided drafting or computer
-
aided design
(CAD), also known as computer
-
aided design and
drafting (CADD), has changed the way we design
and engineer products.


CAD or CADD is the
use of
computer systems
to assist
in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization
of a
design
.



Computer
-
aided drafting describes
the process of
creating a technical
scale drawing
with the use of
specially designed computer software.

Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

CAD

26


According
to the project and scenario
specifications,
CAD should involve
more than
just drawing the
basics.


Just like in hand drafting or drawing
of
technical
and
engineering
diagrams, your CAD/CADD print
-
outs should include additional information
, such
as


materials
,


processes
,


dimensions,


scale, and


tolerances.

Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

CAD, cont.

27

Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Scenario Creations

28

In teams, create your scenario for the final design project.


Address the following components:


Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? How Much?


Get approval for your scenario from your instructor.


C
reate a design, model, and prototype.

Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Scale Drawings

29


Using hand
-
drawings or CADD software, the students
will design and build their scale model and
prototype.


Each group should be prepared to present the
following to the instructor and class:

1.
Problem statement and how they solved the problem, using
the engineering design process

2.
Scenario

3.
Original design of the system

4.
Working model of the system






Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Build
a
Scale Model

30


It is important to understand scale, when building a
model.


Consider the most appropriate materials for your
scale model.


Use the rubric as a guide, as you build your scale
model.


Choose whether you will build a scale model or a
prototype.

Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Research Paper

31


Write a 5
-
page research
-
based paper about your
solar energy home design.


Be sure to include the following components:


Scenario


Design


Check grading rubric provided.


Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Final Design Presentation

32


P
resent a
30
-
minute
multimedia exhibition of
your
work.



See
the grading rubric for more specific grading
criteria
.


View the some the videos below on public speaking
before your presentation:

Increasing Self
-
confidence, Public Speaking Video

Public Speaking Tutorial

Enhancing Your Presentation Skills


Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Credits

33


Images;

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page


Slide 13

Tacoma Narrows Bridge Collapse video; from
YouTube user; Gonzo Nugent

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j
-
zczJXSxnw


Slide 24

Building scale models video; From YouTube user;
Steve Maxwell

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d27tOwET0SU





Copyright
©
Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Credits, cont.

34


Slide 32

How to increase self
-
confidence in public speaking:
from YouTube user;
VideoJug

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dhE_bCFxDp8

Public speaking tutorial; from YouTube user:
CamilleValvo
;

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MyKGbsbipqA
;

Enhancing your presentation skills; from YouTube user;
J Douglas
Jeffreys
;

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=whTwjG4ZIJg&NR
=1&feature=endscreen