Energy Efficiency in Foundries and Melting

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Copyright ©
2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Copyright ©
2013 North
Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved. No part of this

presentation

may be reproduced, distributed

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itted in any form or by any means,

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the written consent of

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation.

Energy Efficiency
in Foundries and
Melting

Copyright ©
2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Introduction

Energy Efficiency in Foundries and Melting

Copyright ©
2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Introduction


Sustainable Energy Efficiency


Foundry Industry Data


Foundry Energy Consumption


Energy Prospecting


Teamwork


Case Studies


Wrap
-
Up



Topic Outline:

Copyright ©
2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Sustainable Energy Efficiency


Sustainable:

The capacity to support, maintain, or
endure


Energy:

The ability of one physical system to do work on
another physical system causing a
transformation


Efficiency:

The ratio between a specific, useful
output

and
the required energy
input

Sustainable Energy Efficiency:



ENDURING

TRANSFORMATION

with an ever
increasing
OUTPUT

per unit of
INPUT


More TONS per BTU:

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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Sustainable Energy Efficiency

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Jan-13
Feb-13
Mar-13
Apr-13
May-13
Jun-13
Jul-13
Aug-13
Sep-13
Oct-13
Nov-13
Dec-13
Jan-14
Feb-14
Mar-14
Apr-14
BTU x 10
6

per TON of Melt

MONTH

Melt Energy Intensity


A Good SUSTAINED Trend

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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Sustainable Energy Efficiency

Fuel Group

Energy Source

Pounds

of CO
2

Per
Million BTU

Coal

Bituminous

and
Anthracite Coal

Lignite Coal

205.3


215.07

Natural Gas

Natural Gas

Propane

117.1

139.2

Nuclear

Nuclear

0.0

Renewable ( non
-
Biomass)

Solar (PV)

Geothermal

Hydro

Wind

0.0

16.6

0.0

0.0

Biomass

Landfill gas

Sludge Waste

Wood

waste solids

115.1

199.5

195.0

Note
:

1 Million BTU = 0.293 MWh

1 MWh =3.412 Million BTU

Source:
http://cta.ornl.gov/bedb/biopow
er/Carbon_Dioxide_Uncontroll
ed_Emission_Factors.pdf


CO
2

Emissions by Electrical Power Generation Type

Depending on your utility
electrical generation mix,
you can determine your
electrical consumption
CO
2

footprint.

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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Foundry Industry Data


Ferrous Metal Foundry Info (NAICS Code 33151)


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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Foundry Industry Data


Estimated Metal Casting Energy Use by Metal Type

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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Foundry Industry Data


Estimated Metal Casting Energy Use by Energy Type

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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Foundry Industry Data


Estimated Metal Casting Energy Use by Process Type


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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Foundry Energy Consumption

Total Annual Primary
Energy Usage in Industrial
and Other Sectors in USA

A big slice of the pie!

Source: US Energy Information Administration (EIA), Annual Energy
Outlook(AEO
) Report, 2012;
www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo


~12%


The really BIG Picture…..

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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Foundry Energy Consumption


Perspective…..

>

383 Trillion BTUs =

>
E
quivalent to the reactors on 1,439 James
Madison Class ballistic missile nuclear subs

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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Foundry Energy Consumption

Total Gas Intensity (kBtu/sqft, annual basis): 1,183.64

Average Gas Consumption per Establishment (kBtu): 206,894,400

Average Enclosed Floorspace per Establishment (sqft):
174,795


Source: EIA energy intensity data from CBECS and MECS, EPRI, and other third party
energy use datasets.


Natural Gas Energy Usage
-

Primary Metals


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North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Foundry Energy Consumption

Total Electric

Intensity (kWh/sqft, annual basis):
262.73

Average Electric Consumption per Establishment (kWh):
45,923,890

Average
Enclosed
Floorspace per Establishment (sqft):
174,795


Source: EIA energy intensity data from CBECS and MECS, EPRI, and other third party
energy use datasets.


Electrical Energy Usage
-

Primary Metals:


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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Foundry Energy Consumption


Manufacturing Energy


FOUNDRIES (NAICS 3315)


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Foundry Energy Consumption


Energy Use per TON for Various Processes
-
STEEL


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Foundry Energy Consumption


Energy
Use
per
POUND
for
Various Processes
-

ALUMINUM

Isothermal

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North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Energy Prospecting

Combing through the foundry, often through basements,
side rooms, in utility buildings and in boiler rooms, often
on hands and knees looking for signs of wasted BTU’s
in the infrastructure. In the case of heat, all streams in a
plant should be checked at the appropriate production
points looking for an opportunity to improve energy
efficiency in the transformation processes.


Prospecting for Energy Savings in the Foundry

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North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Energy Prospecting


PRODUCT:

An article or substance that is
manufactured or refined for sale


PROCESS:

A series of actions or steps taken to
achieve an end; procedures involving chemical or
mechanical steps to aid in the manufacture of an item or
items, usually carried out on a very large scale


TRANSFORMATION:

A thorough or dramatic change
in form or appearance

ENDURING

TRANSFORMATION

with an
ever increasing
OUTPUT

per unit of
INPUT

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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Energy Prospecting


For foundries, the
transformation

is focused on MELTING

>
The
e
nergy intensity is focused on
BTU per Ton

>
60% to 80%

of the energy is used for the melting & holding

>
Other potential areas to look for
energy savings
:


Demand Side Management


Waste Heat Recovery


Compressed Air


Motors & Variable
Frequency
Drives


Boilers / Furnaces / Combustion


The Plant Team

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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Energy Prospecting


Demand Side Management

>
Typical electrical
invoices are composed of two major
portions:


Energy

charge for actual kilowatt
-
hours consumed during the
billing
period


Demand

charge for the level of the single highest kilowatt
demand power level for any given
interval period
over the entire
billing
cycle

>
This demand charge is based on a peak power level. By
establishing both procedural controls and possibly automated
controls, there is an opportunity to reduce this peak demand and
therefore reduce the demand portion of the electrical bill



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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Energy Prospecting


Demand Side Management

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North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Energy Prospecting


Waste Heat Recovery

>
From Melting

>
From Holding

>
From Boilers

>
From Combustion

>
From Compression


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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Energy Prospecting


Some Possible Uses for Waste Heat

>
Building Heating

>
Steam Production

>
Preheating Combustion Air

>
Preheating Feed Water for Boilers

>
Absorption and Adsorption Chillers

>
Heat Pumps

>
Dehumidification of Cupola Blast Air

>
Downstream Drying or Curing Processes

>
On
-
Site Electrical Power Generation


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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Energy Prospecting


Compressed Air

>
Compressed air systems have
an efficiency
of
around
15%

>
A 150
hp air
compressor,
fully loaded for one year at $0.05
per
kWhr
will cost
$50,000

per year for the
electricity

>
Typically there is an attitude in the plant that compressed air
is free, which can lead to
improper uses

>
Compressed air systems
always

have
leaks


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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Energy Prospecting


Compressed Air

>
Educate Employees on the real COST of compressed air

>
Conduct
Plant Surveys on END USES


Remove Improper Uses

>
Develop and Maintain a strong LEAK Repair Program

>
Right Size compressors and base load / trim with VFD’s

>
Reduce Overall System Pressure to minimum possible

>
Evaluate and Update systems controls

>
Evaluate Alternatives: Motors, Blowers, Mechanical Actuators, etc.

>
Evaluate Waste Heat Recovery

>
Bag Houses


Evaluate the System

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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Energy Prospecting


Motors and Variable Frequency Drives (VFD’s)

>
Electric motors typically account for around
30% of
all the electricity
consumed in primary metals manufacturing
plants


Air Compressors, Chillers & HVAC, Fans for Cupola Operations,
Hydraulics, Material Handling, etc.

>
Effectively managing the motor population in a manufacturing plant
can
typically save up to 8% in motor energy costs

>
VFD’s on properly selected motors can result is dramatic savings


Horsepower is proportional to speed (rpm) CUBED


HP ~ rpm
3

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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Energy Prospecting


Motors and Variable Frequency Drives (VFD’s)

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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Energy Prospecting


Motors and Variable Frequency Drives (VFD’s)

>
On
-
site training
on Motor Management Policy
concepts for:


Maintenance
Staff, Engineers, Purchasing, Operations

>
Set up a system for collecting
and processing motor nameplate data

>
Establish motor
repair or replace guidelines

>
Motor and
drive
testing and
evaluation

>
Right size motors: Below 40% Load


Efficiency DROPS significantly

>
Evaluate Use of Premium Efficient Motors


Use Life Cycle Costing




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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Energy Prospecting


Boilers / Furnaces / Combustion


Balance Air and Fuel

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North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Energy Prospecting


Boilers / Furnaces / Combustion


>
Understand Losses

>
Each 40

F

decrease in stack temperature
results in a 1% increase in efficiency

>
Preheat Combustion Air


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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Energy Prospecting


Involve Everyone
o
n the Plant Team
in
Energy Efficiency
:

>
Product Design

>
Purchasing

>
Finance

>
Operators

>
Maintenance

>
Plant
Engineering

>
Energy Teams

>
Utility Account Managers

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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Energy Prospecting


Remember Renewable Energy Opportunities

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North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Energy Prospecting


Other Benefits of Energy Efficiency Improvements

>
Increase
plant
productivity

>
Improve
product quality

>
Improve worker comfort

>
Increase available
floor space

>
Improve work flow

>
Reduce
emissions

>
Improve safety

>
Increase profits

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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Teamwork


Foundries are very ENERGY INTENSE

>
Your local utility or energy consultant can
HELP


Assistance with Capital Projects


New Equipment Planning


Capital Expansions


Greenfield Projects


Infrastructure


Business Continuity


Incentive Programs


Other Energy Efficiency Programs

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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Teamwork


Assistance with Capital
Projects

>
Consider Electrical Rate Structure Options


Best Rates Analysis


Demand Response Programs


Energy Efficiency Options

>
Economic Development Discounts for new load and job
creation expansions

>
Contact your local utility or account manager
EARLY

in
the planning process of your project

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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Teamwork


Infrastructure

>
Take delivery at the primary voltage

>
The Utility can bid and turn key install:


Substations


Transformers


Switchgear


Main Feeder lines to Furnaces

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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Teamwork


Business Continuity

>
Backup Generation for:


Entire plant loads


Critical loads only

>
The Utility can design, build and install:


On
-
Site Generation


Uninterruptible Power Supplies

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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Teamwork


Incentive Programs

>
Typical Areas for
Standard Incentives


Lighting


Demand Side Management Controllers


Variable Speed Drives and Motors


Chillers and HVAC Units

>
Custom Incentives


Plan Ahead. Approval is required
BEFORE

issue of the
purchase order for equipment and energy savings typically
need to be verified.

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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Teamwork


Other Energy Efficiency Programs

>
ISO 50001


Energy Management System

>
Department of Energy, Superior Energy Performance (DOE SEP)

>
Government Incentives for Renewable Energy
= DSIRE™

>
Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI)

>
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Energy Star

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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Teamwork

To Find the Best Available Energy
Efficient Solution

Vendors

Consultants

Utilities


Foundries working together with:


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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Case Study
-

Teamwork


Working together for the Best Solution

>
End User

>
Equipment Vendor

>
Utility


Planning


Infrastructure


Energy Efficient Equipment


Induction Melting


Total Turn Key Solution


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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Case Study
-

Teamwork


Early in the Project

Bring in the
UTILITY

for project planning:

>
New Melting Project

>
Economic Development Review

>
Utility Rate Options

>
Utility Process Heating Expertise

>
Electrical Infrastructure Planning and Proposal

>
Turn Key Installation Solution



Site Selection: GREENWOOD, SC

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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Ingersoll Rand Mocksville NC

Case Study
-

Teamwork


Electrical Infrastructure

>
Delivery of Primary Voltage to site


U
sing unique
voltage gave us
the
opportunity to
provide custom transformation and high voltage lines
directly to
the
furnaces


Duke Energy

>
Installation of Substation, Switchgear, and
Main Feeder Lines in a Turn Key Solution

>
Crown Casting
-

A Satisfied Customer:


Duke Energy was able to provide a total solution
which lead us to select this location for our new
foundry


Crown Casting

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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Ingersoll Rand Mocksville NC

Case Study
-

Teamwork


Equipment Vendor
-
Best Technology

Induction Melting
-

Benefits

>
Re
duced Emissions


Lower CO
2

footprint

>
Energy Efficiency



Overall 55
-
75% efficient

>
Higher Yield


No oxidation losses

>
Faster Start
-
Up



Full “Power ON” instantaneously

>
Product Optimization



Precise temperature control and good
stirring effect for homogeneous batches

>
Flexibility and Automation



Cold Start, Alloy Changes, Automated
Controls

>
Space Saving



High melt rates per furnace footprint

>
Improved Working Environment



Quieter, no combustion, reduced
waste heat

ENDURING

TRANSFORMATION

with an
ever increasing
OUTPUT

per unit of
INPUT

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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Case Study
-
Teamwork

Equipment
Selection:



The new equipment at the Crown Casting facility is a 4000
kW VIP Dual
Trak Induction Melting System ,
with two 5
MT coreless furnaces
for IRON
melting. When one furnace is melting, the other furnace is holding.

Copyright ©
2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Case Study
-
Demand Side Mgmt


Powerit Solutions provided our business with a system that controls our electrical
demand very
well and they were able to meet our tight delivery requirements at a
competitive cost
.”
Doug
Smith, Project Engineer, Rochester Metal Products

Prior to implementing the system, Rochester
Metals
´

typical
monthly peak
demand was 21,000 kW.
They tested
the system for a month at 18,000 kW,
and
when
they were able to maintain production,
they adjusted
the
set point
to
17,000 kW. Again,
there was no production
loss, so they readjusted
the set
point
to 16,000 kW, which is where it
remains today
with no production loss.

Copyright ©
2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Case
Study
-
Demand Side Mgmt

“We are very
satisfied
. Powerit Solutions' system has
fulfilled all
our expectations as
well as the
estimated savings.”
Mark
Regus, Plant Manager,
Pacific
Alloy

Copyright ©
2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Training Opportunity


1
st

Annual Electrotechnologies Seminar





Oct
. 21
-
22, 2013, The Conrad
Hotel, Indianapolis
, IN

>

There are two
tracks:


Track ONE:

Electrotechnologies for Drying, Curing, and
Finishing


Track TWO:

Electrotechnologies for Processing
Metals




Copyright ©
2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Wrap Up

Review Our Topics:


Sustainable Energy Efficiency




Foundry Industry Data


Foundry Energy Consumption

ENDURING

TRANSFORMATION

with an ever increasing
OUTPUT

per
unit of
INPUT

Copyright ©
2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Wrap Up

Review Our Topics (continued):


Energy
Prospecting


Plant Wide


Teamwork


To identify the most efficient melting technology


To provide guidance on infrastructure


To assist with financial analysis and capital requests


Case
Studies

Copyright ©
2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Contributors

Michael P. Looby

District Manager,
Southeast USA

Baskar Vairamohan, CEM

Senior Project Engineer

George Bowyer

VP Operations

W. Roger Paules, Jr., PE, CEM

Program Manager | Energy Utilization

Copyright ©
2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Sources


INFORMATION SOURCES:

>
Advanced Energy:


www.advancedenergy.org

>
Advanced Energy Motor Info:


www.advancedenergy.org/md/knowledge_library/resources/Horsepower%20Bulletin.pdf

>
Advanced Manufacturing Office


Compressed Air Systems


www1.eere.energy.gov/manufacturing/tech_deployment/compressed_air.html

>
Advanced Manufacturing Office


Energy Resource Center


www1.eere.energy.gov/manufacturing/tech_deployment/ecenter.html

>
American Foundry Society


www.afsinc.org
/

>
Dibalog


www.dibalog.com/

>
Duke Energy


www.duke
-
energy.com/company.asp


Copyright ©
2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Sources


INFORMATION SOURCES (continued):

>
Duke
Energy Smart $aver® Incentive
Program


www.duke
-
energy.com/north
-
carolina
-
large
-
business/energy
-
efficiency/nclb
-
smart
-
saver
-
incentives.asp

>
Energy Footprints by NAICS Codes


www1.eere.energy.gov/manufacturing/pdfs/mfg_footprint_2012.pdf

>
Energy Star


www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=business.bus_index

>
Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)


www.epri.com/Pages/Default.aspx


Melting Technologies for Aluminum and other Non
-
ferrous metals


EPRI Technical Commentary

Product Id:1001025, 2000


Induction and Cupola Melting: A cost comparison model: CR
-
108697, CMP


Report No 89
-
4, 1989


Efficient Electric Technologies for Industrial Heating, product Id


1014000, 2007


Good Practice Guide 50


Efficient Melting in Coreless Induction Furnaces, 2000


Ind Heat WS Code
-

Cost Comparison Worksheet for Induction Heating, Version 1.0, EPRI Product Id:
1001500, May
2001


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2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Sources


INFORMATION SOURCES (continued):

>
Industrial Heating Equipment Association (IHEA)


www.ihea.org

>
Inductotherm


www.inductotherm.com/index.htm

>
ISO 50001


Energy Management System


www.eere.energy.gov/energymanagement

>
Powerit
Solutions


www.poweritsolutions.com/

>
Superior Energy Performance Overview


www.superiorenergyperformance.net/

>
Superior Energy Performance Demonstration


www.eere.energy.gov/industry/energymanagementdemonstrations/

>
Theoretical/Best Practice Energy Use in Metalcasting Operations


J.F. Schifo, J.T. Radia, KERAMIDA Environmental, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, 2004

Copyright ©
2013,

North Carolina Advanced Energy Corporation. All rights reserved.

Questions

ENDURING

TRANSFORMATION
with an ever increasing
OUTPUT

per unit of
INPUT

Michael Stowe

(919) 857


9043 {desk}

(919) 904


0279 {cell}

mstowe@advancedenergy.org

Energy Efficiency in Foundries and Melting