PIPING ENGINEERING PIPELINE ENGINEERING

baconossifiedΜηχανική

29 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

89 εμφανίσεις

Member,
Mapua

Alumni Association

Alberta Chapter

RAY ALVARADO, P.E.

PROCESS ENGINEERING

PIPING ENGINEERING

PIPELINE ENGINEERING

Presentation Breakdown


INTRODUCTION



PROCESS
ENGINEERING



PIPING



ENGINEERING



PIPELINE


ENGINEERING

Acronyms


CAE


Computer Aided Engineering


CAD


Computer Aided Design


HMB


Heat and Mass Balance, a Process activity


CFD


Computational Fluid
Dynamics


FEA


Finite Element
Analysis


PFD


Process Flow Diagram


P&ID


Piping and Instrumentation Diagram


LDT


Line Designation Table


ROW


Right of Way, for pipeline routing


HDD


Horizontal Directional Drilling, for pipeline crossing


HVAC/R


Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning &
Refrigeration


PROCESS ENGINEERING

PROCESS ENGINEERING


PROCESS ENGINEERING
-

an early project activity for analysis of physical
separation or chemical conversion. It follows project definition and early financial
studies. System
-
wide Process simulation nowadays is computer
-
aided e.g. heat
-
and
-
mass balances, logical block flows, control philosophies, and equipment
selection.


Important
D
eliverables:


Process Flow Diagrams(PFDs)

-

schematic showing major process equipment,
main fluid flows, and basic stream characteristics (pressure, level, temp., flow).


Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams(P&IDs)

-

schematics with much more
detail and confirmed data.
S
hown here are process condition limitations, major
machinery specifications, minor equipment data, pipe size/details, instrumentation
types, and more precise controls/automation.


Line Designation Tables (LDTs)

-

spreadsheet

report showing details of every
piping section e.g. start
-
end point, process variables, and other mechanical data.

PROCESS ENGINEERING

Usual entry
-
level positions:


Chemical Process Engineer


Mechanical Process Engineer


Process Simulation Specialist


Minimum
S
kill
S
ets for a Junior Process Engineer:


U
ndergraduate degree in Chemical Engineering, Mechanical
Engineering, or Chemistry
-
related academic programs.


Basic knowledge of Fluid Statics/Dynamics, Thermodynamics,
Heat Transfer, and Chemical Unit Operations.


Supplemental knowledge in Process Equipment Design,
Distillation Theory, Stoichiometry, and Chemical Reactions.

PROCESS ENGINEERING

CHEMCAD

Process Simulation, Screen Images

PROCESS ENGINEERING

Heat and Mass Balance (HMB) Study,
Selexol

Process

PROCESS ENGINEERING

Early concept of an oil refinery

PROCESS ENGINEERING

Example of Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

PROCESS ENGINEERING

Example of Piping
&

Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)

PROCESS ENGINEERING

Process Engineering and Beyond:


Next
-
Generation Process Simulators
…..higher processing
speeds, capable of more simultaneous calculations,
broader chemical database.


Multi
-
Physics Tools to the Mainstream
……these software
can now be fully integrated with existing
P
rocess
Simulators.


Intelligent 2D Diagrams
……embedded data on PFDs and
P&IDs will pop up once a particular element is clicked or
highlighted on the drawing.

PIPING ENGINEERING

PIPING ENGINEERING


Screen shots of
CAEPIPE
, a widely
-
used pipe stress
analysis software, showing the
Input Geometry
:

Piping layout

i
mported from

CAD 3D Model, or

m
anually re
-
created

PIPING ENGINEERING


Stress Output
…….watch for the “Reds”!

RED areas have

h
igher calculated

s
tresses

(needs re
-
work)

PIPING ENGINEERING


Animation features
…...it moves!

Shows areas of

e
xcessive movement,

direction of thermal

growth, lift
-
off at

s
upport points, etc.

PIPING ENGINEERING

If not analysed properly, pipes may…..

…deform and collapse

….or lift
-
off from supports

PIPING ENGINEERING


PIPING ENGINEERING
-

a Mechanical sub
-
discipline mainly to
validate
Piping Design
’s pipe
-
fittings layout, inside enclosed
industrial
areas, by computational analysis or technical reasoning.


Such activities follow right after critical and major piping are
completely laid out and supported.



PIPE

-

a closed cylindrical conduit for moving fluid (liquid, gas,
solid particles) from one location to another, either by gravity or
applied pressure.


FITTINGS

-

are transition elements for connecting pipes into an
assembly or conduit network. Elbows, tees, flanges, reducers, and
couplings are examples.


PIPING

-

logical assembly of pipes, fittings, valves, and supports.


PIPING ENGINEERING



Important Deliverables:


Static & Dynamic Pipe Stress Analysis, Reports
-

computer
-
aided, hand calculations, and “by
-
inspection” judgement.


Finite Element
Analysis (FEA)

-

on
equipment nozzles, header
branches, and support attachments
.


General Pressure Calculations



wall thickness, branch
reinforcement, leak
-
strength testing, and hot
-
tap calculations.


Sizing of Engineered Restraints

-

for spring supports, rollers,
sway braces, sway struts, seismic
snubbers
, etc.


Detailing of Special Pipe Supports

-

as required by stress
analysis results or vendor special requests.


PIPING ENGINEERING

Plant Piping

3D layout of piping

a
nd pressure vessels

Offshore platform piping

a
nd equipment

PIPING ENGINEERING

Usual entry
-
level positions:


Piping Design Engineer


Pipe Stress Engineer


Piping
M
aterials Engineer


Minimum
S
kill
S
ets for a Junior Piping Engineer:


U
ndergraduate degree in Mechanical Engineering, Chemical
Engineering, or related sub
-
discipline.


Basic knowledge of Structural Mechanics, Strength of Materials,
Fluid Dynamics, Machine Elements Design, Materials Science,
and Welding Technology.


Supplemental knowledge in Chemical Processes, Heat Transfer,
Thermodynamics, and Stationary/Rotating Mechanical
Equipment.

PIPING ENGINEERING

Examples of Engineered Restraints

Constant spring can

Variable spring hangers

Sway strut assembly

Seismic

snubber

Sway brace assembly

PIPING ENGINEERING

Example of Custom
-
Ordered Supports

Support clamp with

f
abric lining, for

v
ibrating lines

Rigid hanger clamp,

for pre
-
insulated line

Pipe clamp and shoe, for

pre
-
insulated cold line

PIPING ENGINEERING

Piping Engineering and Beyond:


Full Integration of computational Analysis Software with
3D CAD Model
……seamless and bi
-
directional
compatibility of both CAD and CAE activities, thus
substantial savings of time and resources.


FEA/CFD Multi
-
Physics to the Mainstream
……complex
analysis and engineering calculations can now be
simultaneously performed e.g. structural
mechanics, fluid
flow,
vibration, and
heat
transfer.


Opportunities in Oilfield Frontier Areas
…….more
complex piping needs for fixed offshore platforms,
floating FPSOs, marine tanker, and Arctic process
modules.

PIPING ENGINEERING

FEA & Multi
-
Physics Analysis Tools

Multi
-
Physics Analysis

(thermal + structural)

of vessel

FEA of stab
-
in

branch

FEA of

c
rimped pipe

PIPING ENGINEERING

CFD & Multi
-
Physics Analysis Tools

ANSYS

3D Multi
-
Physics (wind +

t
hermal +
struct
.)
around reactors

ABAQUS

2D Multi
-
Physics
(fluid flow + thermal)

COMSOL

3D Multi
-
Physics (fluid

flow + thermal) through elbow

PIPELINE ENGINEERING

PIPELINE ENGINEERING


PIPELINE ENGINEERING
-

a Mechanical sub
-
discipline mainly to validate
Pipeline
Design
’s overland or seafloor routing, by computational analysis or technical
reasoning, outside the fenced industrial area.


Such activities usually start after initial project development, geodetic (land) or
bathymetric (ocean) surveys, and preliminary right
-
of
-
way routing.

Pipelines are generally classified into:


Land Pipelines, Underground (Buried)


Land Pipelines, Aboveground


Underwater Pipelines

Important Deliverables/Involvement:


Hydraulic
A
nalysis
, Steady
-
State and/or Transient (Surge)


Pipeline
Stress Analysis


HDD (Horizontal Directional Drilling) and
Crossing Studies


Lateral and Upheaval
Buckling Analysis

PIPELINE ENGINEERING

Usual entry
-
level positions:


Pipeline Design Engineer


Pipeline Stress Engineer


Pipeline Hydraulics Engineer


Minimum Skill Sets for a Junior Pipeline Engineer:


U
ndergraduate degree in Mechanical or Civil Engineering.


Basic knowledge of Engineering Surveying, Structural
Mechanics, Strength of Materials, Fluid Dynamics, Machine
Elements Design, Materials Science, and Welding Technology.


Supplemental knowledge of Heat Transfer, Thermodynamics,
and Stationary
-
Rotating Mechanical Equipment.

PIPELINE ENGINEERING

Land Pipeline Routing

Natural gas pipeline

right
-
of
-
way

Routing
S
tudy

taken from terrain

survey

Plan
-
and
-
Profile Drawing
,

w
ith data from routing study

a
nd terrain survey

PIPELINE ENGINEERING

Pipeline Analysis

R
iver crossing…..suspension

bridge and cable stay details
for
Trans
-
Alaska Pipeline

Seismic analysis….and mitigation
measures for
Trans
-
Alaska Pipeline

while crossing the Denali fault line

PIPELINE ENGINEERING

Engineered Pipeline Supports

Detail of H
-
Support

and side bumpers

Trans
-
Alaska

Pipeline
ammonia
-
filled

H
-
Support
,
with cooling fins, pile

driven through permafrost

PIPELINE ENGINEERING

Underwater Pipelines

Underwater gas pipeline

o
n uneven seafloor, with

f
ree
-
spanned sections

Underwater pipelines, for oil
-

a
nd
-
gas production gathering

PIPELINE ENGINEERING

Seafloor Routing
S
tudy of underwater oil pipeline

PIPELINE ENGINEERING

Pipeline Stability Analysis & FEA

Overstress at seabed touchdown

a
rea, due to excessive bending

f
rom
pipelay

surface vessel

PIPELINE ENGINEERING

Pipeline Engineering and Beyond:


Integration of Pipeline Surveys with Routing
Selection
……in intelligent 3D format, these related
activities will be fully synchronized for accuracy and
cost savings.


Pipeline 3D Models Imported Into Multi
-
Physics
Simulation
…..like stress analysis, hydraulic surge, flow
assurance, global buckling, or ice gouging hazards.


Deeper, Colder
……in search for oil and gas, the
industry is pushing the limits of pipeline technology
beyond the world’s Continental Shelf and in harsher
Arctic environments.



PIPELINE ENGINEERING

Arctic Pipelines, Ice Gouge Hazard Analysis & FEA

B
urial depth is

critical, to prevent

pipeline damage

Gouged seafloor imaging

Berg gouging

Sea ice gouging

PIPELINE ENGINEERING

CFD & Multi
-
Physics Analysis Tools
(ANSYS)

3D CFD (fluid flow +

thermal) at junction

3D CFD (fluid flow +

s
tructural) through valve

3D CFD (fluid flow

o
nly) through blades

Trivia Question:

What’s the difference between

“PIPING” and “PIPELINES”?

Other than spelling, of course.

Answers:

PIPING


Inside the enclosed industrial area or fenced plot limits.


Physical configuration can be very complex.


Mostly of short length, specified in feet or meters.


Uses lower grade steel, thus pipe wall is thicker.


Can operate at very high temperatures and pressures, or
conversely at cryogenic temperatures and partial vacuum.

PIPELINES


Outside the enclosed industrial area or fenced plot limits.


Physical configuration is usually simple, from point A to point B.


Almost always very long, specified in miles or kilometres.


Uses higher grade steel, thus pipe wall is thinner.


Usually operates at moderate temperatures and high pressures.