Manifestations - Cold Spots - Kinetic Energy - The Paranormal MD

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29 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Thermodynamics

Physics

Quantum Physics

Absolute

Zero

is precisely the equivalent of 0 degrees

Absolute zero is the point at which the fundamental particles of nature have minimal vibrational motion,
retaining only quantum mechanical, zero
-
point energy
-
induced particle motion.

Unlike classical physics,
quantum physics reveals astonishing and fascinating new phenomena
. For
example,
atomic particles still move about at absolute zero

-

a consequence of Heisenberg’s Uncertainty
principle. These
quantum fluctuations can result in transformations between different material states
. If
these
phase transitions

occur at absolute zero they are referred to as
quantum
-
critical points
, the study of
which has delivered many surprising new findings in recent years.

When scientists know beyond all reasonable
doubt that a particular principle is the case, then it
is dubbed a law
. Laws address the fact that
certain things happen, as well as how they
happen. A theory, on the other hand, attempts
to explain why things happen.

By definition, an
idea that is dubbed a theory has yet to be fully
proven, and such is the case with the atomic
theory of matter.

What is heat? How does heat transfer take place? What are the effects on
matter when heat transfers from one body to another?

Heat transfer is a process by which internal energy from one substance transfers to another
substance. Thermodynamics is the study of heat transfer and the changes that result from it.

The basic effect of heat transfer is that the
particles of one substance collide with the
particles of another substance. The more
energetic substance will typically lose internal
energy (i.e. "cool down") while the less energetic
substance will gain internal energy (i.e. "heat up").

The most blatant effect of this in our day
-
to
-
day
life is a phase transition, where a substance
changes from one
state of matter

to another

Heat Capacity

The
heat capacity

of an object helps define how that object's temperature responds to
absorbing or transmitting heat. Heat capacity is defined as the change in heat divided by
the change in temperature.

Laws of Thermodynamics

Heat transfer is guided by some basic principles which have become known as the laws
of thermodynamics, which define how heat transfer relates to work done by a system
and place some limitations on what it is possible for a system to achieve

Heat

A form of energy
associated with the
motion of atoms or
molecules and
capable of being
transmitted through
solid and fluid media
by conduction,
through fluid media
by convection, and
through empty

The simplest way to describe a state of matter is that it indicates how much heat is contained within the
molecules of the substance. The more heat that is added, the more the molecules move and the harder
it is for them to stay close together.
The state of matter is dependent therefore upon both the
temperature and pressure of a given substance
.

There are essentially 5 states of matter:

gas

liquid

solid

plasma

superfluid (such as a Bose
-
Einstein Condensate)

In common experience, you will typically only run into the first three
-

solids,
liquids and gases.

Plasma is actually the most abundant state of matter in the universe, because it
is the state that exists inside stars that are undergoing nuclear fusion. Ball
lightning is an example of plasma that manifests on the Earth.

Superfluids exist only for certain types of molecules when they are cooled to
temperatures near absolute zero, when quantum effects begin to manifest
.

Substances can go through a number of transitions between their
states:

condensation
-

gas to liquid

fusion (or freezing)
-

liquid to solid

melting
-

solid to liquid

sublimation

-

solid to gas

vaporization
-

liquid or solid to gas

As mentioned before, these transitions are governed for a given
substance by the temperature and pressure

Sublimation

is the term for when matter undergoes
a phase transition directly from a solid to gaseous
form, or vapor, without passing through the more
common liquid phase between the two. It is a
specific case of vaporization.

The current measurements of magnetization and length changes when a magnetic field is applied
YbRh2Si2 gave the researchers proof of the fundamental difference of quantum phases compared to
classical phase transitions as listed on previous page.

Whereas in the latter example, the physics can be described fully by the fluctuation of one order
parameter, in this case the molecule density, there is an additional change to the properties at the
quantum critical point in YbRh2Si2.

"Our measurements," says Phillip Gegenwart, who until recently headed the Low Temperatures
competence group at the Max Planck Institute in Dresden and is now Professor at the 1st Physical
Institute at the University of Göttingen,
"prove the existence of another energy scale at the quantum
critical point that cannot be explained by the fluctuations of magnetic order parameters
". The
analysis shows that the additional energy scale can be traced back to a change in the electronic
properties, or more precisely, a change of the Fermi volume. In classical phase transition, these effects
do not occur

March 5, 2007

A team of German and American researchers observe a new phase transition

The results show that unexpected behavior, which cannot be reconciled with the
current theoretical model, occurs repeatedly in the quantum world. This motivates
theoreticians, such as the participating American researchers Qimiao Si from Rice
University and Elihu Abrahams from Rutgers University, to search for new
approaches in order to gain a better understanding of quantum systems. New
theoretical models are needed to better understand the complicated behavior of
modern complex systems, such as the high
-
temperature superconductor.

Quantum Effects Make the Difference

The atomic constituents of matter are never still, even at absolute zero (
-
273.15
degrees Celsius). This consequence of quantum mechanics can result in continuous
transition between different material states

.
Until now, it has been assumed that the properties of a transition of this
nature can be described completely with the fluctuations of one parameter,
in this case, magnetic order. However, the experiments that have now been
published reveal, completely unexpectedly, an additional change to the
electronic properties of the transition. It confirms again that quantum
effects can result in phenomena that are inconceivable in classical physics.
On the one hand, the results extend the general understanding of phase
transitions and, on the other, are also relevant to complex systems, such as
high
-
temperature superconductors

the mechanism that results in the
creation of high
-
temperature
superconductivity is still not understood,
more than 20 years after its discovery.

The relationship of temperature, motions, conduction, and heat
energy

The nature of kinetic energy, translational motion, and temperature

At its simplest, “temperature” arises from the
kinetic energy

of the vibrational motions of matter’s particle constituents
(molecules, atoms, and subatomic particles). The full variety
of these kinetic motions contribute to the total heat energy in
a substance.

The

thermodynamic temperature of any
bulk quantity

of a
substance (a statistically significant quantity of particles) is
directly proportional to the average

or “mean”

kinetic
energy of a specific kind of particle motion known as
translational motion.

Internal energy

The total kinetic energy of all particle motion

including that of conduction electrons

plus the
potential energy of phase changes, plus zero
-
point
energy comprise the
internal energy

of a substance,
which is its total heat energy. The term
internal energy

mustn’t be confused with
internal degrees of freedom.

Whereas the
internal degrees of freedom of molecules

refers to one particular place where kinetic energy is
bound, the
internal energy of a substance

comprises
all forms of heat energy.

The
electron
, which is a fermion, is
bound to the nucleus by
photons
,
which are bosons. The whole
shebang together forms atoms.
Atoms form molecules. Molecules
form objects.

Energy transmitted through space or through a material medium in
the form of
electromagnetic waves
. The term can also refer to the
emission and propagation of such energy. Whenever an electric
charge oscillates or is accelerated, a disturbance characterized by
the existence of electric and magnetic fields propagates outward
from it. This disturbance is called an
electromagnetic wave
. The
frequency range of such waves is tremendous, as is shown by the
electromagnetic spectrum in the table. The sources given are
typical, but not mutually exclusive

In theory, any

can be detected by its
heating effect
. This method has actually been used over the range
from x
-
rays to radio. ionization effects measured by cloud chambers,
photographic emulsions, ionization chambers, and Geiger counters
have been used in the γ
-

and x
-
ray regions

propagated with the speed of light. Electromagnetic radiation

"The more I study physics,

the more I am drawn to metaphysics."

~ Albert Einstein

Conduction

is when heat flows through a heated solid.

Convection

is when heated particles transfer heat to
another substance, such as cooking something in boiling
water.

is when heat is transferred through
electromagnetic waves, such as from the sun. Radiation can
transfer heat through empty space, while the other two
methods require some form of matter
-
on
-
matter contact for
the transfer.

Under the kinetic theory, the
internal energy of a substance is
generated from the motion of
individual atoms or molecules.
Heat energy is the form of energy
which transfers this energy from
one body or system to another.
This heat transfer can take place in
a number of ways:

Heat transfer (also called thermal
transfer) can occur only if a
temperature difference exists,
and then only in the direction of
decreasing temperature.

Practically all of the energy that reaches the earth comes from the sun. Intercepted first
by the atmosphere, a small part is directly absorbed, particularly by certain gases such
as ozone and water vapor. Some energy is reflected back to space by clouds and the
earth's surface. Most of the radiation, however, is absorbed by the surface.

If you were standing next to the camp stove, you would be warmed by the

emitted by the gas flame. A
portion of the radiant energy generated by the gas flame is absorbed by the frying pan and the pot of water. By the
process of
conduction
, this energy is transferred through the pot and pan. If you reached for the metal handle of
the frying pan without using a potholder, you would burn your fingers! As the temperature of the water at the
bottom of the pot increases, this layer of water moves upward and is replaced by cool water descending from
above. Thus
convection

currents that redistribute the newly acquired energy throughout the pot are established.

Radiation is the transfer of heat energy
by electromagnetic wave motion. The
transfer of energy from the sun across
nearly empty space is accomplished
without the involvement of a physical
substance as the medium. The sun
emits many forms of electromagnetic
43% of the total radiant energy emitted
from the sun is in the visible parts of the
spectrum. The bulk of the remainder lies
in the near
-
infrared (49%) and
ultraviolet section (7%). Less than 1% of
solar radiation is emitted as x
-
rays,

There is a natural phenomena
that has a real physiological
effect on someone without a
change in the air temperature.

Draughts are the obvious
example but there are others
.

Draughts and convection Air is almost always on the move in a
room, even with the door and windows closed. This is because the
surfaces of some objects are at different temperatures to others.
Heat will be exchanged between the objects in an attempt to
equalize the temperature. This is done mainly through convection.

Some people suggest that the coldness
of a cold spot indicates that heat has
been abstracted for some paranormal
process. If so, it is curious because
heat is about the worst source of
energy you could choose.

Convection and Heat

As indicated in the preceding paragraph,
convection is related closely to heat and
temperature and indirectly related to another
phenomenon, thermal energy. What people
normally call
heat

is actually thermal energy, or
kinetic energy (the energy associated with
movement) produced by molecules in motion
relative to one another.

Some concepts and phenomena cross
disciplinary boundaries within the earth
sciences, an example being the physical
process of convection. It is of equal
relevance to scientists working in the
geologic, atmospheric, and hydrologic
sciences, or the realms of study concerned
with the geosphere, atmosphere, and
hydrosphere, respectively.

Convection

can be defined as vertical
circulation that results from differences in
differences in temperature, and it involves the
transfer of heat through the motion of hot fluid
from one place to another. In the physical
sciences, the term fluid refers to any
substance that flows and therefore has no
definite shape. This usually means liquids and
gases, but in the earth sciences it can refer
even to slow
-
flowing solids.

Heat Transfer Through Convection

convection requires a medium. However, in
conduction the heat is transferred from one
molecule to another, whereas in convection
the heated fluid itself is actually moving. As
it does, it removes or displaces cold air in its
path. The flow of heated fluid in this
situation is called a convection current.

CONDUCTION
: Conduction occurs when two object at different temperatures are in
contact with each other. Heat flows from the warmer to the cooler object until they
are both at the same temperature. Conduction is the movement of heat through a
substance by the collision of molecules. At the place where the two object touch, the
faster
-
moving molecules of the warmer object collide with the slower moving
molecules of the cooler object. As they collide, the faster molecules give up some of
their energy to the slower molecules. The slower molecules gain more thermal
energy and collide with other molecules in the cooler object. This process continues
until heat energy from the warmer object spreads throughout the cooler object.
Some substances conduct heat more easily than others. Solids are better conductor
than liquids and liquids are better conductor than gases. Metals are very good
conductors of heat, while air is very poor conductor of heat. You experience heat
transfer by conduction whenever you touch something that is hotter or colder than
your skin e.g. when you wash your hands in warm or cold water.

Conduction

is the transfer of heat by direct contact of particles of matter.
The transfer of energy could be primarily by elastic impact as in fluids or
by free electron diffusion as predominant in metals or phonon vibration as
predominant in insulators. In other words, heat is transferred by
conduction when adjacent atoms vibrate against one another, or as
electrons move from atom to atom. Conduction is greater in solids, where
atoms are in constant contact. In liquids (except liquid metals) and gases,
the molecules are usually further apart, giving a lower chance of
molecules colliding and passing on thermal energy.

Whereas the Sun's
electromagnetic energy
is the source of heat
behind atmospheric
convection, the energy
that drives geologic
convection is
geothermal, rising up
from Earth's core as a
decay.

Though it is less obvious than convection, cold spots can also be

When you stand directly in front of an electric fire or radiator, you will
feel heat. Less well known is that people can LOSE heat in the same
way. If you stand directly in front of a cold object, such as an un
-
curtained window on a cold night, you will feel colder. Your body is
radiating heat in all directions. However, it will radiate more, to maintain
its temperature, in the direction of cold objects. This additional loss of
heat will be felt as cooling. Generally, you need to be quite close to a
cool object to get the radiative loss. Like a heater, if there is anything
between you and cool object, you may not feel the effect. Like
convection, a conventional thermometer will not register this apparent
temperature drop.

Objects emit radiation when high energy
electrons in a higher atomic level fall down to
lower energy levels. The energy lost is
emitted as light or electromagnetic radiation.
Energy that is absorbed by an atom causes
its electrons to "jump" up to higher energy
levels. All objects absorb and emit radiation.
absorption of energy balances the emission of
energy, the temperature of an object stays
constant. If the absorption of energy is greater
than the emission of energy, the temperature
of an object rises. If the absorption of energy
is less than the emission of energy, the
temperature of an object falls.

Radiant heat is produced by surfaces (such as walls, windows,
furniture, etc.). The temperature of the heat given off is directly related
to the temperature of the surface ('black body radiation') and NOT to
the surrounding air. It is radiant heat that is measured by those infra
-
red ('laser') thermometers that you point and shoot. Radiant heat goes
straight to other surfaces nearby, including people.

Through rudimentary physical science we know that when a natural temperature differential in an area occurs it is
understood to be the result of a physical interaction caused by the convection process where warm and cool air masses
collide and the warm air rises and the cooler air sinks. However, when dealing with the subject of paranormal cold spots
we know that research indicates this particular type of manifestation occurs on the infrared wavelength of the
electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. Infrared energy is experienced as heat though, so that explanation seems to take us in
the opposite direction of the answer we are looking for…or does it?

The key here is that generation of heat only occurs in the case of IR (infrared) radiation. Speaking strictly from the
standpoint of light and not conductive radiation, we know that IR light on the EM spectrum is expressed as:

Wavelength: 0.01
-

7x10 to the negative fifth (
-
5th ) power

Frequency: 3x10 to the twelfth (
-
12th) power to 4.3x10 to the fourteenth power (14th)

Energy: 0.01
-

2 eV (eV
-

electron volts).

What this means is that although anomalous paranormal occurrences take place on the infrared portion of the EM
spectrum they create a pocket of ionized air when they physically manifest in our local environment. The bioelectric
charge of the anomaly creates a weak electrical matrix in the local atmosphere when the anomaly manifests. The
electrical matrix then ionizes the air around the area of the manifestation. The ionized air symmetrically radiates outward
from the point of manifestation and is experienced as a cool sensation or, as paranormal investigators calls it, a cold
spot. From this explanation we understand that although the manifestation takes place in the infrared spectrum it is
actually the ionized air that creates the cooling effect.

If ionized air is electrically charged and conducts a weak electrical pulse through it, the current would then spark from the

anomalous manifestation into the area around it creating a String Effect matrix, somewhat like connecting
-
the
-
dots. How
does this matrix work? The particle
-
wave duality of quantum mechanics creates a state where mediating fields, such as
those that occur during a paranormal manifestation, can be described as fields that “exchange particles” where the
transfer of momentum and energy between objects occurs. In this instance the “objects” would be the paranormal
anomaly and the local environment and the “energy and momentum” would be the negatively charged electron exchange
that acts as the causation for the ionization process in the air. What this means is that, crudely speaking, the paranormal
manifestation and the local environment interact as they emit and absorb charged particles, in effect playing a subatomic
game of “catch” with electrons.

As the particulate exchange takes place the charged particles create invisible contrails, or
spectral lines. These spectral lines, when affected by magnetism such as the Earth’s
geomagnetic field, split into more lines exponentially increasing their numbers. This splitting is
called the Zeeman Effect. The pattern and amount of splitting that takes place during this
process are physical signatures that a magnetic field is present. All magnetic fields have a
charge which is either positive or negative and the spectral lines associated with Zeeman
splitting exhibit these polarization effects.
Polarization, whether positive or negative, show
the direction in which the electromagnetic fields are vibrating. This in turn, can have an
effect on whether the spectral light can be observed or not and may explain the “now you
see it, now you don’t” effect when taking multiple photographs in an area where you have
a paranormal anomaly in one photo but not in others. Speaking of photographs,
understanding the bioelectric matrix during an anomalous manifestation can also aid us
in our knowledge of paranormal photography. How? When a paranormal anomaly
manifests, the bioelectric matrix around it is usually polarized with a negative charge
caused by electrons, which ionizes the air in the immediate vicinity. This polarized charge
within an ionized local environment allows photographic devices to interpret the
anomalous occurrence as a semi
-
solid form of manifested bioelectricity rather that a light
reflective solid as some researchers previously theorized
. Some researchers or paranormal
investigators may say that it is not possible to capture energy of this nature in a photograph. All
evidence and photos aside, in rebuttal, I would ask if they have ever seen a photo of lightening

this effect, as explained above, is of the same nature, only in this instance we are working with a
lesser electrical charge.

The above processes may also offer explanations in some instances where electromagnetic
“haze” is observed in paranormal photographs and may also weigh in on the subconscious level
as to why people get certain feelings of fear or dread when they

are in an area that is active with paranormal occurrences.

The velocity of a substance's molecules
determines its temperature; the faster the
molecules move, the more volume they
require, and the higher the temperature
becomes.

A
molecule

is
comprised of two or
more
chemically
bonded

atoms. The
atoms may be of the
same type of element,
or they may be
different.

Internal energy , a specific quantum of
thermodynamics

, is the sum total of the kinetic energy

of a body that has well defined boundaries, due to
the three types of movement( vibrational,
rotational, translational) of molecules within the
body. It is different in proportion to the macroscopic
energy that is usually found in moving objects.
Internal energy is microscopic in nature and
invisible as it is on the atomic and molecular scale
of measurement.

A ferromagnet heated
to a temperature higher
than the "Curie
temperature" will lose
its magnetization.
However, as it is
cooled, it will again
develop a magnetic
field with a specific
direction