The most important advance in our modern world

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15 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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The most important advance in our
modern world


No telephone, telegraph, radio, television or
computers


No lighting other than that produced by burn
something


No cars busses or trains


No central heating


No music in our homes


Almost no industrial output


No advanced medical monitoring and diagnostics


Distribution of food and goods at a near standstill



Heating


Magnetic


Chemical


Newton

took control of The Royal Society. Head of
demonstrations
Frances
Hauksbee

demonstrates a
blue glow by placing his hand close to an revolving
evacuated glass sphere.


Elizabeth 1
the first marvelled at static electricity's
power to lift feather.


Stephen Grey at Charterhouse charged up a
boy and his hand picked up gold leaf and
feather. This led to him realising that electricity
could travel through some things and not
other. He called them conductors and
insulators.


Grey could not store electricity


Professor Pieter van
Musschenbroek

in
Leiden Holland, discover the Leyden jar for
storing electricity. The equivalent of the
capacitors we use today.


Benjamin Franklin
set out to
explain lightning and
designed experiments to
prove his theories.


Later invented the lightning
conductor


Georges
-
Louis
Leclerc

and
Thomas
-
François
Dalibard

conducted Franklins experiment and
stored a charge in a wine bottle acting as a
Leyden jar.


Benjamin Franklin
solve the problem of the
Leyden jar


Henry Cavendish
made an artificial Torpedo
fish using Leyden jars but the real fish did not
produce a spark. Leyden jar high voltage low
charge fish high charge low voltage. Fish
produces about 240 volts. Ten times less than
the Leyden jar.


He published very little but some years after
his death Maxwell read his papers and realised
he had actually discovered much that others
had been given credit for


Luigi Galvani

said that the body worked through
body electricity which flowed from the brain to the
muscles.


Alessandro Volta
rejected Galvani and built the
Voltaic pile (first battery) to backup his belief.


Alessandro Volta
studied the structure of the
torpedo fish and replicated it in metal to
produce the pile. This was the first battery and
it was now possible to produce constant
electricity.


Humphrey Davy
built the worlds largest
battery in the Royal Institution. It filled a room
with over 800 voltaic piles. He connected it to
two carbon electrodes and when they touched
they produce a blindingly bright light The arc
lamp.


Michael Faraday a 20 year old book binder
enters the Royal Institution.


Faraday got a ticket to see one of Sir
Humphrey Davys last lectures and that
changed his life.


Faraday became assistant to Royal Institution


Oersted

discovered that if you pass an electric
current through a wire it will deflect a compass
needle


Faraday demonstrated circular motion


Faraday designed the first dynamo


William Sturgeon (Britain) and Joseph Henry
(America) invented the electro magnet


Ohms law published
by
Geog Simon Ohm

R =V/I


V=IR


I=V/I



First Transatlantic telegraph cable


The first message of 98 words took 16 hours to
send


Cable soon failed when a British engineer
thought it would work better at a higher signal
voltage


A new successful cable was laid in 1866


1n 1864 published his theory
that light was an
electromagnetic wave after
he measured the speed
electricity travels is the same
as the speed of light


Developed the Maxwell
equations which explained
many of Faradays theories'


Edison and Swan formed the Swan Edison
Company


Edison lit the financial district of New York
with his DC system and underground cables


The young German physicist
Heinrich Hertz
is
remembered as the first person to detect radio
waves, and in doing so he also proved that
Maxwell's calculations and theories were all
correct.


Tesla invented AC motors
and designed AC
transmission systems


Westinghouse were nearly
crippled by high royalties on
Tesla’s patents so Tesla came
to a settlement with them


The battle of the currents also
almost ruined Edison and the
AC system finally won the
day over his DC system


Did Marconi invent the radio?


What he did was to turn the
research work of Maxwell, Hertz,
Righi
, Lodge and others into a
practical and commercial
communications system


In 1909 he shared the Nobel Prize
for Physics, with Professor Karl
Braun

John Bardeen

William Shockley

Walter Brattain


23 December 1947 demonstration at Bell Labs of the
first point contact transistor


Augusts 1948 Herbert F.
Mataré

and Heinrich Welker
announced the
transistron


July 4, 1951 Shockley announced the junction transistor


January 1954 first silicon transistor


In 1956 John Bardeen, Walter Houser Brattain, and
William Bradford Shockley were honoured with the
Nobel Prize in Physics


Robert
Noyce

and Jack
Kilby

independently invent the
integrated circuit


Ted Hoff's invention of the microprocessor


At a critically low temperature certain
materials become superconductive and
have no electrical resistance.


The phenomenon was discovered by
Heike
Kamerlingh

Onnes

in 1911


Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer proposed
the complete microscopic theory of super
conductors in 1957 and were later
awarded the Nobel Prize. Bardeen is the
only physicist to have been awarded two
Nobel Prizes as he shared the award for
the invention of the transistor in 1956


In 1986, a new compound was discovered
that broke the theoretical temperature
limit that the theory (known as BCS
theory) predicted for superconductivity. It
had to be working in a different way.


We are still waiting for a brilliant mind to
come along and explain

John Bardeen


Sustainability


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Thinking the unthinkable