1911: The Discovery of Superconductivity

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15 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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1911: The Discovery of Superconductivity

Heike
Kamerlingh
-
Onnes


1853
-
1926

Kamerlingh
-
Onnes

measured the
electrical conductivity of pure metals
such as mercury, tin and lead. Before
Kamerlingh
-
Onnes
’ observation of
superconductivity, it was disputed
whether or not resistance went to
infinity or to zero when temperature of
a conductor was going to zero. He
received the Nobel Prize in Physics in
1913 for his discovery. His work paved
the way for many studies and
applications in the future.
Superconductivity had its first practical
application in 1954 with the invention
of the cryotron. It is today used in
devices such as SQUIDS
(superconducting quantum
interference devices), and
superconducting electromagnets.
Today, superconductivity is the basis
for a large amount of research.

Onnes

shows that below
4.2K, the resistance of
mercury miraculously drops
to zero! The metal, in a
superconductive state, also
exhibits the expulsion of
magnetic fields.