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29 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 15 μέρες)

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1.1

Identification of necessary research infrastructures


For those manufacturing solutions for food industry applications, which are not available further
research is necessary.
M
anufacturing solutions, which can be developed without additional research
infrastructure for further research were classified as solutions, which can be available in short term.

To enable this research in many cases specific research infrastructures are n
ecessary. In the
previous chapter those
manufcturing solutions, which can be developed without additional research
infrastucture for further research were classified as solutions, which can be available in short term.

This chapter is identifying those rese
arch infrastructures and their elements, which are necessary to
enable the development of the envisaged manufacturing solutions.


1.1.4

Science & Technology for Food & Manufacturing


In terms of research capacity, it is estimated that 70 to 90.000 researchers ar
e involved in food and
health research in the 32 countries covered by the study. More than 470 research organizations have
been identified.

Research is mostly undertaken at universities and public research institutes and the number of
private actors involv
ed in food and health research is rather limited.

In terms of research programming, the 32 country reports identified 363 research programs at
national and regional levels. Among these 363 programs, 155 are general research programs that
can support food a
nd health research, 114 cover
food and health research among other research
priorities and 94 are specifically targeted at food and health research.


I
n order to ascertain the necessary research infrastructure
s
, the list of the current problems and
solutio
ns was taken into consideration and each was analysed for its requirements. Later the
related,
requested
RI
s were listed as follows:


Sustainable food manufacturing

Technologies and facilities which booster processing milder and avoid heating introduction
to the
food nutrients may facilitate dealing with the proposed issues which can be addressed as:

-

Non thermal processing machineries such as pulsed electric fields (PEF), high pressure
processing unit (HPP), cold plasma, etc.

-

CO
2

management facilities

-

Cold

storage and freezing (vacuum freezing) facilities

-

Non
-
thermal
processing pilot plants

-

Training food factory staff about the appropriate methods of food processing

-

Portals introducing non
-
thermal processing methods to the industry

Portals informing the pub
lic about the effects of over processing food products.

-

Enabling ICT
-
based and e
-
research infrastructures


Shelf life extension & food
hygene

-

Clean rooms,
compartition,

zoning, cleanroom technology, air preparation

-

Nanotechnology R&D institutes developing
functional nano
-
particles to be applied in
packaging material

-

Biotechnology research institutes generating edible and resistant coatings and packaging
films

-

Robotics research centers introducing more flexible automation coworker robots (Little
Helper’s), w
here sterile pattern of action is of priority

-

Development of efficient barrier
-
technology in order to extend shelf life

-

Non
-
thermal processing machineries such as pulsed electric fields (PEF), high pressure
processing unit (HPP), cold plasma, etc. in pilot

scale

-

Infrared facilities

-

Smooth, less porous, or self
-
washing surfaces

-

Imaging systems for
precise

surveillance over production line

-

Advanced sensing and control methods and tools for quality control

-

Virtual supermarket in order to mitigate dealer links

and accelerate delivery

-

Modular manufacturing systems (MMS)

-

Enabling ICT
-
based and e
-
research infrastructures



Uneven cutting

Ultrasound cutting units/facilities are necessary as a part of a pilot plant, which should be adjustable
and controllable to
different applications, food products and linked to wireless communication
network system.



Rapid detection

-

Multi
-

and hyperspectral imaging equipment/system for experiments

-

X
-
ray detector

-

Analytical laboratories equipped with facilities for rapid detecti
on of micronutrients in the
final product

-

Flexible and modular laboratory facilities for

rapidly testing state
-
of
-
the
-
art hardware
equipment (e.g. novel sensing devices) and software algorithms (e.g. advanced control
strategies). This requires reasonable a
greements with system suppliers to ensure that we
always have the latest and best equipment available. Urgent examples in the food domain
include 3D printing, RFID tags, X
-
ray imaging, CT scanning, 3D vision, iterative learning,
machine learning, and etcet
era. Also, this might include experts to perform the necessary
basic research and experimentations.

-

A set of sensors, data transferring, data processing and data anal
yses facilities for detection
and identification of foreign bodies.

-

Sensors, actuators and

product moving system (like transport belt and chutes, etc.) should
enable setting up experimental installations with variable parameters, which can be adjusted
for
different applications.

-

Database of images of foreign bodies identified with identificatio
ns of sources where it is
known.

-

Enabling ICT
-
based and e
-
research infrastructures



ICT manufacturing

-

Intelligent data acquisition and processing in industrial environment applying WSN
technology

-

Enhanced traceability; radio
-
frequency identification
(RFID)

-

Advanced sensing (e.g. 2D/3D vision, thermal imaging, CT scanning, X
-
ray imaging, tactile
sensing and etcetera) For controlling the food products

-

Mathematical modelling and techniques for model reduction

Enabling ICT
-
based and e
-
research infrastruc
tures



Automation and robotics

-

Design, development and testing facilities for advanced sensor
-
networks

-

Wireless sensor network with data
-
mining facilities and softwares

-

Playground factories (full
-
scale industrial test beds or emulated industrial
laboratory
facilities) for developing and testing pilot equipment, e.g. modular manufacturing systems,
autonomous, flexible and/or mobile manufacturing solutions, and etcetera. The “factories”
must resemble real
-
world industrial environments (including hum
an
-
machine
-

and machine
-
machine
-
interactions), but are able to withstand disturbances.

-

Multi
-

and hyperspectral imaging facilities

-

NIR spectroscopy

-

Conventional imaging

-

Hyperspectral imaging (HIS)

-

X
-
ray facilities

-

Modelling simulation

-

Disseminating centers

providing information on automation

-

Enabling ICT
-
based and e
-
research infrastructures


Web applications

Facility equipped with:

-

Mobile data transferring systems

-

Scanners

-

Wireless communication network systems

All processing equipment should have the
ability to be linked with other equipment flexibly to
simulate specific processing lines and linked to wireless communication, control network system.

All RI parts (elements) should include facilities for practical training of researchers and industry
staf
f.


Nanotechnology findings

New material Development Unit, facility for nano
-
surfaces for development and testing of new food
contact surfaces based on the use of nanotechnology.


-

Encapsulation facilities for food molecules, ingredients

-

Facility for testin
g nano
-
sensors (biosensors) and anti
-
microbial activators

-

Preparation and testing of smart and intelligent packaging material and surfaces to improve
hygiene

-

Facilities for development and testing edible films and coatings

-

Nanotechnology research centers d
eveloping less porous and or self
-
washing surfaces

-

Enabling ICT
-
based and e
-
research infrastructures


Novel packaging materials

Research facilities for design material development and experimental testing facilities for
monolayer and multilayer packaging
materials with particular focus on biodegradable materials.

-

Research centres for different packaging materials with elevated barrier properties

-

Nanotechnology research centres for developing nano
-
particles aiding current packaging
materials with added
desirable properties.

-

Institutes suggesting packaging materials which stand pressure, moisture and
thermal
treatments applied

in HPTS units.


Waste management

Membrane sieving facility is necessary, which ensures variable adjustment of different parameters

(pore size, pressure drop, permeate flux) and to be built into a line.

-

Analytical laboratories for controlling the authenticity of the refined waste water

-

Nanotechnology and biotechnology R&D institutes developing tailor made membrane for
different applic
ations with specified pores and flow.

-

Databases containing information about methods of shelf life elongation in food products.

-

Clean water technology

-

Installing waste heat recovery technologies.

-

Capturing and reusing the waste heat in industrial processes for heating or for generating
mechanical or electrical work. Example uses for waste heat include generating electricity,
preheating combustion air, preheating furnace loads, absorption cooling, a
nd space heating

-

Developing low cost, novel materials for resistance to high temperatures.

-

Research centers introducing alternative manufacturing processes that generate less waste
heat.

-

Research institutes developing novel piping materials with less
heat exchange with the
environment or designing special coatings for the pipe lines.

-

By
-
products technology



Additive manufacturing

As this technology is still in its infancy there should be more training and education considered to
develope it.




1.1.5

Indust
ry, Knowledge Transfer, and Education



Pilot plant and testing facilities

In order to implement new technical solutions in the food sector, RIs are needed such as:

-

Pilot plant facilities for production and testing

o

to develop production processes with redu
ced energy, water, material use as well as
CO
2

footprint. Areas of interest are for example drying, heating/cooking/ and
separation processes.

o

to explore the possibilities of retrofitting of new technologies into existing
production facilities

o

to explore possibilities with membrane based filtration. Adequate pumping system
facilities for large volumes of fluids are needed.

o

to develop ultrasonic flight time measurement tools for fouling monitoring, and to
refine methods for quantitatively assess
ment of the efficiency of cleaning methods
for fouling removal. Also, development of ICT with novel sensor technologies to
continually monitor fouling development and for feedback control systems.

o

to explore the ability of novel coating or materials of con
struction to extend
production run times.

o

to implement vision systems, including improved cameras, light sources, hard and
soft wares and to adjust robotic systems and gripper technology to the food sector

o

to implement super
-
heated steam technology, incl
uding drying equipment, heat
recovery systems, scaling
-
up facilities


-

Facilities for scaling
-
up of innovations developed at research facilities to industrial scale,
which involves close cooperation between RTD facilities, food processors and machine
builders

-

Experimental installations for testing of alternatives for automatic filling with weight control
and development of check
-
weighting solutions. The unit should be adjustable for different
applications and product geometries and texture.

-

Necessary R
I for multifunctional and flexible foreign body detection systems consists of the
following elements:

o

A set of sensors, data transferring, data processing and data analyses facilities for
detection and identification of foreign bodies.

o

Sensors, actuators a
nd product moving system (like transport belt and chutes, etc.)
should enable setting up experimental installations with variable parameters, which
can be adjusted for different applications.

o

Sensors with high resolution and penetration depth for imaging s
ystems.

o

Database of images of foreign bodies identified with identifications of sources where
it is known.

-

A set of RFID tags to build smart storage and commission/depot systems, as well as data
transferring and processing systems, wireless communication n
etworks, which ensure
building up individual experimental setups for simulation of incidents with variable
adjustment opportunities of key parameters.

-

CCTV to record food manufacturing events to identify errant behavior regarding hygiene
procedures. Proxim
ity detectors to track employees proximity to risk factors, as used in the
clinical sector (see B16
-
T1).

-

Develop virtual reality and augmented reality for practical training on manual skills and
operational skills. This can be a part of a larger RIs eithe
r integrated into a single site or as a
part of a network with a single entry point.

-

Facilities to explore safe manufacturing of powdered ingredients, including post
pasteurization and powder pathogen decontamination facilities, hygienic building and
proce
ss equipment design, increased automation and total product enclosure, and technology
transfer from pharmaceutical industries.

-

Facilities for development of new imaging methods for visualisation of surface
contamination in small quantities (traces).

-

Facili
ties for sensor technology including:

o

FBG compatible layers sensitive to various analytes of interest to the food industry

o

Knowledge on analytes relevant for food industry and how to make layers sensitive
and selective to those analytes

o

Multidisciplinary t
eams: food scientists, materials technologists, sensor developers,
signal analysis experts

o

Significant funding for layer development and subsequent sensor development

o

Virtual reality and augmented reality for simulation of TPM systems for training
purpose
s.


-

For greenhouse management systems the necessary RI consists of the following elements:

o

well
-
equipped pilot greenhouse

o

FMIS (Farm Management Information System) which is a management information
system designed to assist in the various tasks related to

farm business. Structurally, a
FMIS is a planned system for collecting, processing, storing and disseminating of
data in addition to the smart control of individual farm operations to provide value
-
added functions in the operations of an agricultural farm
.

o

Functional modules/software of the system which should be placed in the cloud:



Data collector to transfer data to and from the Data Collector Database.



Data Analyzer consisting of different sub
-
modules that can process and
analyse different types of data

and different types of context.



Statistical Analyzer to process an amount of data using statistical functions.



Decision module: This module receives input from the Data Analyzer and the
Statistical Analyzer and has the “intelligence” to handle a situation
.



Notifier module to inform stakeholders (e.g., farmers).



Execution module: It is used for actions that can be executed automatically
inside a farm e.g. open the windows, start the ventilation system.



Configuration and Communication: This module sets the
communication
channels to collect raw data from the sensors and the farming
equipment/machinery and also to communicate with services provided from
other parties.

o

A set of sensors, actuators and IP cameras to monitor the following quantities:
temperature,

humidity, soil PH, ground conductance, and brightness and organize
them into a harmonized system providing the necessary input information and
implementing the corrective actions generated by the system.

o

Computers in the greenhouse and in the farmer’s off
ice (remote control) and central
computer station.

o

Weather station, ventilation system, heating equipment, motorized windows, etc. to
handle the identified problems in the greenhouse.


-

For the printing technology for production of powders the necessary RI
s include:

o

Series of pilot scale printing heads for research

o

Pilot scale (research) drying facilities

a.)

classical type (spray
-
drier): for retro
-
fit research

b.
)


custom made for print technology: for optimal powder production research

o

Series of industria
l scale printing heads for research

o

Drying facilities for industrial scale experiments

o

Feed preparation and other equipment: dedicated filtration technology, pumps,
heating/cooling equipment for printing

o

Computer programs and models to optimize drying usin
g printing technology

o

Trained staff for / Knowledge on how to run a powder printer setup

o

Knowledge on printer development, especially for food materials

o

Knowledge on printing in combination with food materials

o

Knowledge on drying in combination with
printing

o

Multidisciplinary teams: food scientists, materials technologists, equipment
developers, printing specialists, drying specialists

o

Network to involve all stakeholders: RM of food is very innovative and industry will
often not yet know what to do wi
th it, hence early networking is required to steer the
R&D and to get the food industry ready.

o

Significant funding for equipment development/building and printing research
activities


-

For 3D food printing technology the following RIs


-

Legislative tools to
facilitate the implementation of novel processes for the manufacturing of
food products.


-

Mathematical programmes and software to predict process parameters, including trained
staff and the ability to test developed programmes against pilot plant processin
g events.





Knowledge and technology transfer and dissemination tools



Technology transfer to SMEs


Regarding technology transfer and education for SMEs, there is a need for RIs to:

-

Build web based facilities enabling the exchange of experiences, practi
ces and information
among groups of SMEs. The virtual community should be assisted by technical experts and
intermediaries.


-

Create virtual clubs on horizontal themes for SMEs where they can access information on
the state of the art of the technology, ask

questions and share experiences. These clubs could
be connected to a “market place” of technical solutions where SMEs can access information
about solutions and also get in contact with the technology owners.


-

Assessment tools for SMEs, such as an easy
-
to
-
use software enabling the user to get a clear
vision of the features of the production process of its enterprise and of its performance
related to a specific issue.
Critical points and solutions can be identifi
ed.


-

Tools for dissemination and exploitation of EU project results to SMEs


-

Virtual reality and augmented reality for simulation of operation of equipment, where OEM
can be used to enable training of staff



1.1.6

Economic, Social and Environmental Sustainabili
ty



Reliable and compehensive databases, together with software tools, are a fundamental resource,
without which any sustainability assessment cannot be perfo
rmed. Some aspects deserve particular
attention for future and ongoing research activities:



enlargement of the number of products/components/materials/processes covered, possibly
sector
-
specific, in line with the recent developments at European level.



Integration of existing databases with information coming from different sources, so to have al
l
the necessary information of the sector in one place. This requires an increasing capacity of data
storage, but mainly a great efforts in terms of scientific collaboration and analysis among the
different disciplines.



activities aimed at a global consi
stency of databases. In fact, beside an enrichment of the
number of data contained in the database, what is important is also their harmonisation.
Presently, several databases exist, whose data sets inside are not always comparables. In the
field of Life C
ycle Assessment
1
, Initiatives such as the “Global guidance principles for life
cycle assessment databases” (UNEP/SETACc Life Cycle Initiatives), which provide global
guidance on Life cycle data for widespread use, are even more important, because they
cont
ribute to increasing the credibility and accessibility of existing LCA data.Thes initiatives
should be agreed upon at international level, considering also what presently available at
European level with the development of the ILCD (International Reference

Life Cycle Data
System) Data Network. The latter is a decentralized network, open to all providers globally,
aimed at providing consistent and quality
-
assured data on resource consumption and emissions
based on requirements of the ILCD Handbook. The data
owners maintain their own data and
give access via their own servers, based on their own license conditions.


Regarding the software, what is necessary is to de
sign them so to serve two different purposes: from
the one side, be suitable to be used by a sm
all and medium
-
sized enterprise. On the other side, they
should be articulated enough to be able to deal with the complexity of the system to be modelled.
The development of open software could serve both purposes, as users could adapt them to their
own ex
igencies.




1.1.7

Management Systems and Business Models


Research infrastructure for developing new technologies for innovative food manufacturing
business models and to test their sustainability


To enable the implementation of innovative food manufacturing
business models, new business
model
-
oriented technologies must be developed. Depending of the type of business model, new
technologies should provide superior operational efficiency, flexibility, reconfigurability,
availability or tele
-
control.

Thus, there

is a need for facilities where a range of food processing equipment and advanced
manufacturing solutions are available on stock, in order to be combined in different ways for
different tasks. This collection can be used for testing new technological solut
ions and, based on
these, concepts such as shared use of equipment at seasonal productions and at products with
largely variable volume demands.


Flexible use of machinery at variable tasks can result in better exploitation of expensive machinery
through s
hared use and better adoption to rapidly changing customer and consumer demands.


The following basic elements are necessary:



A range of food processing equipment necessary for certain product groups, such as
produce, meat products, dairy products, cereal
based production, including equipment for
new technologies on traditional machinery necessary to build up a complete processing line,
etc.



A range of advanced manufacturing technologies that can be combined with specific food
processing equipment in order
to increase process efficiency and to reconfigurability (such
as robots and intelligent transport systems) .







Flexible, adaptive and intelligent control systems that integrate the different food
manufacturing steps in order to achieve global efficiency.



Id
eally pilot scale equipment should be involved together with virtual design and modelling
tools (computing facilities, softwares) to analyse the impact of size/capacity increase of the
machinery, to virtually test the impact of technological solutions befo
re their
implementation, not only in the design phase but also in the operational phase.



Several business models should be available for testing of the approach, how machines and
processing lines can be reconfigured and upgraded for different seasonal prod
uction needs,
for developing standards and patterns for setting up production lines from different
equipment flexibly for multiple purposes.



Typical equipment and technologies to be involved:

o

3D printing technology

o

Application of superheated steam techno
logy

o

Advanced Sensor systems (purpose made)

o

Surface pasteurisation with infrared heating

o

Ultrasound cutting

o

Heat treatment (Sterilisation, Pasteurisation)

o

Manufacturing assistants

o

Modular Manufacturing Systems

o

Modular adaptive and integrated control system


o

Robots cooperating with humans

o

Freezers, chillers

o

Packaging machines

o

Multifunctional foreign body detecting system

o

High pressure homogenisers

o

Mild drying with Supercritical CO
2

o

Traditional vegetable, fruit, meat, cheese, cereal/bakery processing
equipment,
which can be combined with the new solutions to form a processing line.

o

Virtual reality and augmented reality

o

Simulation tools for technology and business decisions


Despite being necessary for the development of new busine
ss model
-
oriented tech
nologies and
business model sustainability assessment, this infrastructure will be useful also for training skilled
personnel that is able to operate advanced technologies, and to offer services to companies (both
equipment producers and food manufacturers
) aimed at supporting the development of new
solutions.


Facilities are necessary where research installations can be set up and modified flexibly for testing
the communication and process control opportunities at different ”events”. For that at least the

following basic components are necessary:



Future Internet FI
-
WARE Testbed of generic enablers such as Cloud Hosting, Data/context
Management Services, Service Delivery Framework, Internet of Things (IoT), Service
Enablement, Interface to the Network and D
evice Security, etc.



A range of pilot food processing equipment on which different process control and
activators, sensors, RFID development tools, RFIDs techniques can be tested.



A system for simulation of events without the physical objects (such as veh
icles, large
stores, etc.)



Auxiliary infrastructure elements to ensure hygienic food and waste handling environment
(refrigerated storage of raw materials and products used of the tests, cleaning and
disinfection) and enable testing/simulation of longer pr
oduction runs.



Trained technical staff, who is able to set up tailor made experimental installations,
maintains the operation and carry out maintenance of the equipment.



An appropriate business model is required to ensure access to new technical developmen
ts
for on
-
going updating the facilities.


It is very likely that this training facility will be more feasible if it is not established as a self
-
standing one, but the experimental facilities for testing the operation
of the different food
manufacturing sol
utions (see the other proposed infrastructure for developing new technologies for
innovative food manufacturing business models and to test their sustainability) will be used part
time for training purposes.

Training facilities should include the following

typical equipment and technologies:



Membrane technologies



Development of tailor
-
made sensors for the food processing section



3D food printing technology



Facilities for setting up operation scenarios, on which Lean techniques can be tested,
modelled



Commun
ication network of machinery



Effective maintenance system



Clean room, high risk area



Reduction of fouling of heat exchangers



Surface pasteurisation



Use of biodegradable packaging material



RFID experimental set
-
ups



Intelligent data acquisition



Ultrasound
cutting



Robotics


robotic co
-
workers



Virtual reality, Augmented reality



Modular, adaptive and intelligent control systems



Systems and models to design and manage food manufacturing plants and networks


Besides providi
ng training through the concept of the

“learning factory”, this infrastructure will also
design and offer focused training courses on issues that are not part of standard curricula of food
and manufacturing engineers, also recurring to novel methodologies such as e
-
learning and virtual
worksho
ps.




1.1.8

General
requirements for testing of new solutions in food production environment


Functions:

-

Storage of raw materials for product testing/ by
-
products/ final test products

o

Cold storage



Chilled



Frozen

o

Ambient storage

-

Changing room (segregated one for

High Risk/ high Care zones for ready to eat food
products)

-

Cleaning and disinfection of equipment, tools, facilities

-

Chilled hall/ room for manufacturing experiments with significant part of the different types
of food products, meat, fish, eggs, dairy, p
roduce, etc.

-

Segregated high risk/high care area as necessary

-

Handing of food waste


Experimental equipment and devices for the different type of food manufacturing operations

-

Simulation of continuous material flow

-

Batch manufacturing

-

Product packaging (a
t least manual)


In terms of
RESOURCES
, the following have been identified:



Data service and storage capacity meeting increasing resolution, model complexity and
simulation length requirements;



Data integration and large
-
scale analytical and modelling fac
ilities



Instruments for measuring and monitoring from fixed and mobile platforms;



Facilities for in vivo tests to evaluate the effects on human health due to nanoparticles used
in food processing;



High performance Computing facilities for running simul
ations, standards and software for
interoperability and access for scientific and socio
-
economic purposes



Observational, experimental, analytical and modelling facilities for dealing with research
activitis in the field of ecosystem services;



Laboratories

and facilities for characterisation of nanoparticles, for the development of
charaterisation factors for calculating health effects of nanoparticles (determination of dose,
effect, fate, transport);



Well trained and skilled personnell able to model
complex system, managing such a broad
range of data and running complex programmes and simulations



Distributed, long
-
term remote controlled observational networks to increase the
understanding of processes so as to develop new models



Significan funding pro
perly allocated to the emerging needs, in particular:

o

studies in the field of social science, in order to take into account social
consequences due to important changes in the modelling steps;

o

highlt qualified training of a new generation of scientists, a
ble to address the
complexities entailed by sustainability evaluations. In this respect it is necessary to
further stenghten initatives such as the mobility programs presently funded by the
EU 7° FP. The new framework programme Horizon 2020 should foresee
more
resources for these actions and, most important, initiatives aimed at advancing the
methodological knowledge in the sustainability field should be encouraged, besides
the technological innovations and developments.


In order to complement the require
ments of RIs, related to them (even if they do not form an RI in
themselves) it is worth mentioning the following CAPABILITIES:



Education.
Concerning the need of developing and improving methodologies such as
carbon footprint, weighting/aggregation indicat
or, social LCA, indirect land use change and
life cycle sustainability assessment, main efforts relate to the advancement of the research
requires efforts at educational level, teaching the new generation of scientist about the
complexity of sustainability

assessment and related methods.



Initiatives should be promoted both at international level, as discussed above, and at national
level. The major requirement in this regard is the inclusion of the sustainability topic into the
academic curricula. Presentl
y this is done not sistematically, and relies mainly on the
willingness of the single teacher. Initiatives at a large scale should be undertaken, promoting
new curricula in the field of sustainability assessment.



Knowledge dissemination and sharing.
Man
y networks exist on sustainability evaluations,
also with specific applications in the food sector. What is missing and would be necessary is
a coordination among the different initiatives. A support in this regard could be given by the
development of web
-
based infrastructures. In fact, they would support the collecting and
sharing information, knowledge and case studies also coming from other sectors, so to take
advantage from other experiences and practices.