al Theory and Behavior
Terrill Hall 308
Thomas F. Patterson, Jr.
208D Morrill Hall
University of Vermont
Our society is an organizational society.
We are born in organizations, educated in
organizations, and most of us spend much of our lives working for organizations.
spend much of our leisure time playing and praying in organizations.
Most of us will
in an organization, and when the time comes for burial, the largest organization of all
must grant official permission.
Amatai Etzioni, Modern Organizations (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice
Hall, 1964), p. 1.
People organize to do things that they can't do alone.
Some scholars suggest that the
ability to form
organizations is one of the greatest of all human
Societies and, in fact, ideologies,
have prospered or languished based
on their ability to organize
and get things done
There's no question that people working
together in an organizational setting have accomplished some incredible feats.
people gotten and stayed together to pull
off these organizational deeds, and how does
working in an organization affect the individual?
These are some of the questions we'll
be exploring this semester.
The heart of this course is the study of how
public sector organizations are structured and
run, and how
interact and work together within an
cover the classical and current readings, investigate a present day organization
project some future scenarios for organizing.
There is a great deal of reading
class, a wealth of small group work, class discussions and activities,
speakers, videos, group projects and student presentations, plus short lectures from your
Informal and formal feedback is especially encouraged and
will be listened to
Students will gain:
An understanding of classical and contemporary organization theory and behavior, and
the ability to translate and apply this understanding
into practice (praxis).
2. An appreciat
the special nature of public sector organizations.
3. An ability to diagnose and affect
change within an organization
4. An understanding of the role of the human resources within an organization.
5. An und
erstanding of how gender, race, nationality, and other cultural diversity
dimensions influence organizational behaviors and outcomes.
6. A familiarity with different theoretical constructs commonly used to analyze
7. An understanding of or
ganization culture, the environments within which
organizations function, and the relationship between the two.
8. A future perspective and direction for organizational renewal and growth.
. An understanding of personal strengths, limitations and prefe
organizational setting based on the Myers
Briggs Type Inventory.
Cox, Jr., Taylor & Beale, Ruby L.,
Developing Competency to Manage Diversity
Koehler: San Francisco, 1997)
Shafritz, Jay M., Hyd
, Albert C.
Classics of Public Administration
(Wadsworth, Cengage Learning: Boston, MA, 2012
Tompkins, Jonathan R.,
Organization Theory and Public Management
(Wadsworth/Thompson: Belmont, CA 2005)
texts and articles
Come to class
prepared to discuss the readings.
Each student will sign up to give a creative presentation
class discussion on one of the reading assignments.
Maintain an ac
thoughtful involvement in class discussions and other activities.
Assume leadership in
class projects when appropriate.
Bring in newspaper clippings, articles, columns,
cartoons, ideas, thoughts, etc. that pertain to our study of organization th
behavior to share with the rest of the class. Your success in this class is directly related to
the extent that you and others come to class prepared and ready to share your ideas.
of the a
throughout the semester,
you are to prepare a
page paper, addressed to your
immediate supervisor (real or imagined),
ither in support or against one of the topics or
theories covered in the assigned reading for that day. In addition,
be prepared to argue
your case in front of the class.
Assume that either your organization needs a change that is covered in the assigned
reading and make a case for it, or assume that your organization is making a change that
you are not in favor of, and
argue against it. Either way, b
e sure you address your paper
to your boss
, and support your argument by other literature, examples, history,
experience, future projections, etc.
Managing Diversity Essay
Cox and Beale's
g Competency to
, is divided into readings, cases and exercises.
I have indicated the
readings below that I suggest you familiarize yourself with, and we will try one or more
of the exercises in class the nig
ht the readings are due,
For the Managing Diversity Essay, choose one of the four alternatives below.
, the week after discussing managing diversity in class
There are many exercises in the book designed to increase
participants' sensitivity to and understanding of diversity in the workplace.
assignment, try one or more of Cox and Beale's exercises on a group of friends/co
workers and write up the results.
Use headings such as:
esults, Discussion and Conclusions.
Keep it below five pages.
After reading the assigned readings from the Cox and Beale book,
participating in the exercises and discussions in class, and reflecting on the concept of
diversity in o
rganizations, write an essay on how your personal concept of diversity has
or has not changed. Cite quotes and ideas from the book that have impacted your learning
in one way or the other. Keep it below five pages.
Select an organi
zation you are familiar with and use one or more
of the Cox and Beale reading topics (e. g. managing diversity v. Affirmative Action,
effects of diversity on organizational effectiveness, diversity v. stereotyping,
acculturation in diverse organizations)
to analyze the organization's current climate of
Summarize the key points of the authors' viewpoint and discuss how your
organization stacks up to the ideal as described by the authors.
Keep it below five pages.
ke my choices above?
Come up with a better one and run it
by me for my approval.
Keep it below five pages.
Complexity is the latest theoretical construct that is being used to
and explain today’s multifac
eted and unique organizations.
Although complexity theory is being utilized in many different applications
Engineering, Science, Mathematics, etc.)
and is still being developed and defined, ther
a growing body of articles
on the web and in referr
theory. This assignment is for students to do their own research and to
contribute to our
three hour class on organizational complexity. Students should develop a
that will help the entire class begin to
understand complexity theory and its application to organizational theory.
On the course
Blackboard site, under the Organizational Culture button, there is a blog to help you
develop your contribution and to
coordinate with other class members for the three hour
, April 11
. In addition, t
here are a number of pdf complexity artic
you can start your research with.
3 to 4 person
must be formed to do one of two major group activities, either a standard organizational
analysis or a creative organizational case study. Either activity involves the application
theory and concepts we have read, discussed and experimented with
over the semester to an actual, current public sector organization.
This is a major semester
long project and a culminating event of the class.
The size and
number of groups will be determ
ined by the size of the class.
Group composition is up to
Please inform me of your group's make up and your organizational
February 22, 2012
I want to meet formally with each group and will be happy to serve
for you throughout the duration of your project.
will be scheduled during the last two weeks of the semester.
Study either a public or non
profit organization, or a subsystem of a larger orga
nization, e.g. a specific department.
Choose a real organization of at least 15 employees, and enter into the organization to
meet people, collect first
hand organizational information through interviews,
zational documents, etc. I
tify some specific organization issues
that are pertinent
this organization, and apply the
concepts developed in the
class to make diagnosis, analyses, and give suggestions.
If you cannot gain access to any organization, you can also choose
you can get information from public data sources as your target of analysis. In this way,
you may collect data from
, organizational data banks;
research articles, newspapers and magazines;
used must be explicitly referred, and a
comprehensive reference list is required.
Among the two methods, the former is strongly recommende
The purpose of your group is to fulfill the following specifications and to present your
dings in a half hour class presentation and a comprehensive written report.
is due the same day as your presentation.
What is the history of the organization?
Why and how was it formed
and how has it changed over the years?
at is the current mission of the organization?
Has the mission changed since the organization was formed?
Describe the current
organizational structure, culture and human resources of the organization. What changes
in the environment have affected the or
ganization throughout its history.
Select a research tool or lens to aid your organizational study.
should be selected based on your initial analysis of the organization.
For example, if
turnover and personnel issues dominate y
our organization, then you will want to use
human resources as an investigative lens.
If you want to study the total functioning of the
organization, then you may want to use a systems approach to inquiry.
If you chose to
study organizational leadership
behavior, then a focus on decision making may be in
Justify your inquiry tool(s) selection
why did you chose this way of looking at
What did you learn from this approach?
There should be a small
literature review in your fin
al paper to convince the reader that you are familiar with the
historical and current literature on the research tool(s) you have chosen.
Findings and Recommendations
Discuss what you found
how your organization
looks under the research lens.
problems and opportunities did your theoretical lens
Finally, design a comprehensive action plan for renewing and improving your
Discuss how you would implement it.
A written report
of the Group
Project of maximum 15 pages (not
including cover page,
using Times New Roman, font size 12,
spaced) is to be submitted
the day you
give your group oral report.
The Team Project report will be evaluated by the following criteria:
. Clarity of writin
g and articulation and contin
uity of arguments.
. Depth and completen
ess of observation and analysis.
. Integrated understanding of key concepts and evidence of
use them to analyze
ncrete organizational phenomena.
ights suggested to
: Preparation of a
, that i
ncludes contact with individual(s)
and the organization
involved. Historically, case studies
have been cr
eated as discussion
based teaching tools
the application of concepts
Cases are narratives, situations, select data samplings, or statements that present
unresolved and provocative issues, situations, or questions. As a teaching/learning tool,
challenge participants to
critique, make judgments, speculate and e
reasoned opinions. Above all,
although information can be real or invented, a case must
be realistic and believable
. The information included must be rich enough to make the
situation credible, but not so complete as to close off discussion or explo
ration. Cases are
important for bringing real world problems into a classroom or a workshop
active participation and may lead to innovative solutions to problems.
will be no exception. At the same time, they provide a m
opportunities for you:
• To learn how to distinguish and articulate a critical issue(s) in an organization. Each
case study will concentrate on a specific issue critical to the organization you will be
• To learn how to research thi
s issue, including questioning of participating parties and
developing conflicting analytical positions and alternatives. Case studies are meant to be
mimetic of real situations.
• To deepen your knowledge and understanding of course concepts by applying
rinciples you have learned while dealing with issues of newly emerging data.
• To develop the ability to exercise judgment and discretion as you manipulate the flow
of information necessary to producing the best teaching product for potential future
s and users of your case study.
• To work with and develop a relationship with a volunteer protagonist within their
Students can do their case study assignment individually or in pairs
. I will give you
opportunity early on in class
to discuss your potential case study organizational subjects
and to dec
ide whether to go
Three documents are due from you to
fulfill this assignment.
1. The case:
repare a case study of no less than 7 pages, double spaced (font and siz
Times New Roman 11) and no more than 11 pages. In addition to the body of the text,
you should include relevant exhibits. They should not exceed 8 pages in length. There
will be ample support for you in this project. Details to follow
in part 2.
In addition to the case study, you are expected to hand in,
, your own teaching note of approximately 500
600 words. This will be
explained in part 2 of the assignment.
Lastly, you are expected to hand in,
, your reflection
takeaways. Takeaways (250
500 words) are what you have learned from doing this
project. This will be explained in part 2 also.
Summary of Activities and Grading Criteria
% of Final
Presentation & Discussion
Presentation & Discussion one
signed up day.
Persuasive Papers and
page papers due anytime
throughout the semester.
Managing Diversity Essay
February 29, 2012
Theory Application Study
April 25, May
TOPIC GUIDELINES AND READINGS
Luther Gulick, "Notes
on the Theory of
Shafritz, Hyde, pp. 81
Anthony Downs, "The
Lifecycle of Bureaus,"
Shafritz, Hyde, pp.
Herbert Simon, "The
Shafritz, Hyde, pp. 127
Chapter 1. An Introduction to
Chapter 2. The Distinctive
ontext of Public Management
Chapter 3. Management Practice
and Organizational Performance
Shafritz, Hyde, pp. 37
Shafritz, Hyde, pp. 44
The Human Side of
Hyde, pp. 153
Chapter 4 Max Weber’s Theory
Chapter 5. Scientific
Management Theory: Frederick
er 6. Administrative
Management Theory: Fayol,
Mooney, and Gulick
and Personality," in
, pp. 100
"The Science of
Abraham Maslow, "A
Theory of Human
, pp. 114
Theory: Mary Parker Follett
Chapter 8. Human Relations
Theory: Elton Mayo and Fritz
Their Relation to
Chapter 12. Participative
Management Theory: Kurt
Lewin and Rensis Likert
Chapter 13. Human Resources
Theory: Douglas McGregor and
Cox & Beale,
A Framework for
Understanding Competency for
Managing Diversity, pp. 1
One: Foundations for
, p. 11
The Meaning of Diversity, pp.
Diversity from Affirmative
Action, pp. 15
Effects of Diversity on
Linkages Between Managing
Diversity and O
Performance, pp. 35
Part Two: Developing
Identities, pp. 51
Stereotyping pp. 78
Diversity from Stereotyping,
Prejudice and Discrimination
Invisible Victims: Individual
Reactions, pp. 100
Sexual Orientation in the
Workplace, pp. 122
Cultural Differences, pp. 147
The Cultural Relativity of the
Quality of Life Concept, pp.
Part Three: Developing
Organization Culture, pp. 201
What is Affirmative Action?
Affirmative Action in
Birmingham, Alabama, pp. 262
A Process for Organizational
Change, pp. 283
Decline and Cutback
, pp. 347
Daniel Katz and Robert
and the Systems
for Social Action,” in
, pp. 306
Chapter 9. The Natural Systems
Chapter 10. Stru
Theory: Robert Merton
Chapter 11. The Open Systems
Perspective: Sociotechnical and
Structural Contingency Theory
Frederick Mosher, et
J. Steven Ott,
Chapter 15. The Organizational
Symbolic Management Theory
Culture," in S
"The Possibility of
"Organizations of the
, pp. 218
Michael Barzelay with
, pp 519
"From Red Tape to
Results: Creating a
Works Better and C
, pp. 541
Chapter 14. Quality
Management Theory: W.
Edwards Deming and Joseph
Chapter 16 Excellence
Lessons for Public
Managers,” in Shafritz,
Hyde, pp. 610