BOWE Literature_Review_finalx

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Name: Michael D. Bowe

Course Leader:

Dr. John Turner

EDC 672: The Microcomputer in the Instructional Program

Date: 15/2/11

1

Literature Review:

Does the

Use of Video
Enhance Student Learning?


Background

My interest in
the use of digital video

for education

began early in this course, as Dr.
John Turner introduced our course to the concept of “disru
ptive technology”,

Clayton

Christenson’s study “Disrupting Education Through On
-
Line Learning “ (2008), which
advocates for teachers/administrators rethinking
when, where and how

students are learning.

That description of “anywhere, anytime, in new mediums” education fits video to
a T.


My personal interest in
video
-
based learning

has been growing these

past few years.

A

student
I know

taught himself guitar to extreme proficiency exclusively through watching

and practicing using

instructional
guitar
videos on You Tube

in just two years
.
My
mother is
currently
enjoying reviewing math concepts on
-
line by watching the Khan
Academy

videos
produced by
Salman Khan,
http://www.khanacademy.org/
.
1


V
ideo has played a major role in adv
ancing my skills in two hobbies. I subscribe to a
video
-
instruction webstite,
http://www.guitarmasterclass.net/
, which offers videos by
professional teachers showing stude
nts how to play a wide range of

guitar styles and pieces.

The videos are well organiz
ed:

introductory full
-
song
video inspires, then 5
-
6 section videos
-

each complete with video, audio, varied camera angles an
d even on
-
screen tablature text


help the student reach the skill level shown in the first video.
In addition I subscribe to Tenni
s
One, a website that offers articles and videos (in real
-
time, in super slo
-
mo, by instructors and



1

This website offers a mind
-
boggling 700+ videos (and growing!) teaching students math concepts


for free,
to be watched anytime and place the student has a
computer and internet access.

Name: Michael D. Bowe

Course Leader:

Dr. John Turner

EDC 672: The Microcomputer in the Instructional Program

Date: 15/2/11

2

pro players alike) for the aspiring tennis player. The synchronicity of “anytime, anywhere”
instruction

through

a variety of videos


professional, amatuar,

HD,
slo
-
mo
, animated

video

etc.

have made my personal learning life richer.

The obvious question is who wouldn’t want to learn with entertaining video, such as
RSA Animate’s series on YouTube, where text, graphic, audio all interact seamless for a
n
effor
tlessly

engaging way to learn?
2


But is watching video
automatically a

true

pathway

to

learning? What research exists that substantiates or debunks

a
concrete

connection between
video and

student learning?


In our age
of

instant video recordings on phone and iPod (among countless other
video recording devices
)
, it is clear that
our
students live in a video
-
driven world. YouTube
videos

are watched billions of

times. History unfolds through cell
-
phone uploads.
The

amount of

video available to students today
shapes their

preference for this medium
. Can and
should

teachers
harness
the

medium of video for the “higher” purposes

of curriculum?
Should students
be encouraged to use
video at their own chosen

time, place and pace?


I
ntroduction


V
ideo instruction is a medium of learning that
seems in harmony
with many of
the
leading educational technology theorists, such as John Dewey (“learning by doing”) and
Seymor Papert

(“computer constructivism”); Gardner would surely approve of video being



2

Fittingly, a popular
-
among
-
educators RSA animate video is entitled “
Changing Education

Paradigms”,
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zDZFcDGpL4U


Name: Michael D. Bowe

Course Leader:

Dr. John Turner

EDC 672: The Microcomputer in the Instructional Program

Date: 15/2/11

3

used to differentiate instruction

and be an outlet for creativity

through its app
eal to multiple
intelligences. In a more modern theoretical context, v
ideo can be a part of an intera
ctive
learning environment along the lines of the “connectivist” classroo
m envisioned by George
Siemens; teachers can video lessons and send by email or store on web
-
based portals for
student access; students can respond
with text or video of their own, be
come digital teachers
and storytellers.

The classroom
expand
s

out to the world as videos can teach our students,
and our students can
teach by
sharing their videos through the internet.
As John Hattie said in
“Visible Learning” (2009), computers can help u
s access “visual
-
audio learning that is but a
web
-
click away”.

As Wilcox (2000) note
d, video

through IVC (
conferencing
)

creates

a learning environment that is both collaborative and communicative and that
turns the synchronous, located nature of the tra
ditional classroom into an
asynchronous and distributed learning environment. With a learning
environment that is more communicative and collaborative, comes opportunity
for more meaningful connections to be created.” (Green, 2006)


The
literature review

t
hat follows will
evaluate
why

video learning is attractive to
student
s

and
evaluate some of the research available on determining the efficacy of learning
through video
.

As Papert surmises, “computers….can help people form new relationships
with knowledge”

(Papert, 4). The popularity of video in student’s lives is proof that they
already
have a deep and lasting
relationship

with this
technology
.

But c
an they build a
relationship to
knowledge
by using
video
?
This literature review will trace the educational
basis for
expanding
video

use beyond entertainment to the realm of sound educational
practice.



Name: Michael D. Bowe

Course Leader:

Dr. John Turner

EDC 672: The Microcomputer in the Instructional Program

Date: 15/2/11

4


Video
Format
s
:

Video learning
includes

a wide spectrum

of technology and software
, from one
-
way
video and a
udio, to configurations
including two
-
way audio, or two
-
way video & audio such
as

satellite videoconferencing

(IVC/
Skype etc.). Video can be animation,

semi
-
still images
like screen casts,

real
-
time images

like IVC
,
altered images such as
slow motion capt
ure,
even a sequence of stills with audio or text. (Voicethread etc.) Videotapes and DVD can be
professionally made by educational materials companies, or made by students and teachers
themselves. The quality of video, audio and instruction varies widely,
as any YouTube or
TeacherTube search will show.




History:

Video has been
a part of education for decades
.
Ana
log super
-
8 reels became smaller
VHS cassettes, and
for more than 15 years

digital video is the norm. But digital video itself
has improved enormously. Lee & Lee state
d

in 2003
,


When it first came to prevalence, videos were the size of postage stamps and ran at
substantially reduced frame
-
rates, resulting in choppy

video of min
imal quality. Today
digital technology is capable of producing full
-
screen, television
-
quality playback. As
such, it now serves as a substantial resource for educational technology development,
visual communication, and both classroom and online instructio
n. (Lee, 1)


The machines and programs needed to access, produce and share video have become
so
much more powerful and adaptable

in the

Web 2.0 age, as “
the software used for digital
video capture and digital manipulation of video has seen considerable imp
rovement
..
.
One beneficial change has been economical: both hardware and software have become
more powerful and less expensive
.


(Lee, 2)



Name: Michael D. Bowe

Course Leader:

Dr. John Turner

EDC 672: The Microcomputer in the Instructional Program

Date: 15/2/11

5

A clear change in video production and viewing is the ad
vent of powerful mobile
devices such as cell phones or iPads
.


The

trend is towards convergence where a single
device is capable of handling multiple functions and media
” as Najmi notes in
How A Design
Model With Behaviorist Underpinnings Can Offer A Framework For Learning, Anytime,
Anywhere

(2010)
.



Using Video to Increase Student
Motivation


One

advantage of using video in the classroom is it appears to increase student
motivation to learn.

Melanie Allison

partially agrees,

Video
-
based classes offer graphics
and sound that can excite the learner no
matter his/her learning style and provide a
stirring environment that most other types of classrooms cannot.” (Allison, 2006).


Paul Newhouse

(2002)

advocates video use in teaching as it “…engages students by

motivation and challenge”. He

supports his the
ory through
aligned
research on the use of
ICT in the classroom.
Citing

several sources her writes,

Students have more positive
attitudes towards their classes and

l
earning when ICT use is included (Baker, Gearhart, &
Herman,
1994; Kulik, 1994)” and “
The u
se of ICT has consistently improved students’
attitudes

towards learning and their own self
-
concept (Sivin
-
Kachala, 1998).



Specifically to video he cites, “
Educational technology has had positive effects on
student attitudes

toward learning and on
student self
-
concepts. Evidence of such is

s
trongest
in language arts, mathematics, science, and

telecommunication/video technologies

[emphasis
mine]”

(The Software Information

Industry Association
, 1999)
. He also notes,


Content
-
related graphics (both st
atic and animated) and video
can

help improve student attitudes and
motivation in mathematics and

science. (The Software I
nformation Industry Association
,
1999)
.

While the last two sources (Software Information Industry Association)
are surely not

objec
ti
ve in their research findings, a

more academic source is

“Pedagogical Approaches for
the Use of Digital Vi
deo” (Samuel & Lauen Fee, 2003).

Indeed Lee & Lee are convinced
that,

…there is significant pedagogical value to the use of digital video in the classroom.

Name: Michael D. Bowe

Course Leader:

Dr. John Turner

EDC 672: The Microcomputer in the Instructional Program

Date: 15/2/11

6

V
ideo projects tend to generate consider
able motivation among students
.” (Lee, 2)

Student
s

who are
using video

ar
e more motivated to engage with the
activity and
natura
lly increase the retention of learned compared to passive listening
.


As Najmi (2010) states,

Student achievement was seen to improve when authentic,
personal and visual content were added to mobile learning” (Najmi, 3)
. Najmi continues:

Video
-
based classes offer graphics and sound that can excite the learner no matter
his/her learning style and provide a stirring environment that most other types of
classrooms cannot.



Video allows access to real events in realistic detail and motion, s
uch as video
used in the history classroom. Dr. Chareen Snelson recommends accessing the wealth
of historical video available for free and online:

Historic film clips such as newsreels, speeches, and advertisements are available
in several online reposit
ories. Archives such as these allow us to obtain silent
films, early sound films, and classroom films that were once sold for classroom
display using film projectors. Now they are digitized and freely available for
scholars, teachers, researchers, and lear
ners of all types. (Snellson, 2009)


Snellson notes the wide variety of materials, without cost, that are appealing to
“learners of all types”


a win
-
win
situation
for teachers and students alike. He notes,
“historic film clips provide us with a glimpse i
nto the past. They record the sights and
sounds of past events in a way that text or images cannot match.” (Snellson, 2009)
.
Students can view original sources of information, though secondary source videos can
be advantageous as well.

Rees (2009) notes t
hat showing videos can be an efficient use of time for
teachers too, “…students are visual learners. Brief primary
-
source film clips can benefit
learners of all kinds through their explanatory power without taking too much time
from other kinds of instruct
ion.”

He calls on
-
line videos “invaluable” for both teachers
and students.



Name: Michael D. Bowe

Course Leader:

Dr. John Turner

EDC 672: The Microcomputer in the Instructional Program

Date: 15/2/11

7


Using Video to Encourage
Independent Learning:

Students who learn
away from the classroom, or on self
-
directed projects,

are engaged
in

independent learning

.
Today, mobile dev
ices make video making and watching possible
anywhere, with a minimum of effort. This can facilitate
opportunities to learn and review
outside the classroom
. Ruby Bohannon et al (2010) sees this potential in the article
Whereve
r
you are, There you can lear
n
; his research indicated that learning is not confined

to the
classrooms or lecture halls of formal educational

institutions…
the design of personal
technologies to support lifelong learning should

aim to facilitate ‘anytime, anywhere’
learning
.”
(Bohannon, 3)


T
eachers can “continue teaching”

virtually if the student has access to video
instruction.
Students can
review & practice
cognitive behaviors that
teachers
have
modeled

for them on video
. Thus the instruction
time
is mult
iplied, as are the t
eacher’s


opportunities

to exhibit candidly specific or potential cognitive behaviors. By
clearly displaying such cognitive activities, the instructor can influence and
smooth the progress of the student’s learning, giving them the ability and
cognitive tools to construct their
own knowledge


(Collins, Brown, & Holum,
1991)



Passive vs. Active

Learning


Video in the classroom is
often takes the form of

one of reception

-

watching videos
that others make. Yet the constructivist approach suggests that
making
instructional videos is
a more meanin
g
ful

source of
added
-
value

learning.

The Fees support creating video in the classroom:


Digital video technology
provides a rich environment for the development of such authentic, active learning
experiences. Not nece
ssarily from solely watching the video itself, but perhaps more
importantly from the act of creating the video and learn
ing as a result of the project.”
(Lee, 1).

Name: Michael D. Bowe

Course Leader:

Dr. John Turner

EDC 672: The Microcomputer in the Instructional Program

Date: 15/2/11

8


The

technology to make video is now ubiquitous


Flip, iPhones, iPods, cell phones,
digital

cameras. As Lee & Lee note, “
… advancements in software technology have made it
much easier to develop digital video materials. As a result, these technological advances have
made it relatively easy to use digital video in the classroom, and well worth th
e time and
effort involved.” (Lee, 2)



Lee & Lee
combine constructivism with connectivism when they

recommend
students “use [video] to assess their own learning. For example, a student might use
digital video to make a movie modeling a concept th
at he/she has already mastered”
(Lee, 6)
. Students can
then

become models for other students:
“The use of digital video
makes it possible for the students in the video to repeat these moving experiments for
other learners” (Lee, 7)



Disadvantages

of Video Use in the Classroom


Arreymbi et al in “Mobile Education: A Paradigm Shift with Techn
ology” note

that
video is a bandwi
d
th demanding technology. If videos are being shared or streamed then

the
demand on the network will increase across the school. A slower network affect
s

all who use
school
email and internet. Yet the solution seems to be more (expensive) network speed:

faster download time is very necessary to maintain interest and incre
ase service usage.”
(Arreymbi, 6).


Jonathan Rees (2008) blogs that “
movies have a b
ad reputation in the classroom.
Many teachers…
tend to schedule period
-
long films on the days that they can't be in class
for some reason. Therefore, many students interpret

a movie screening as a signal that
they don't have to pay attention that day.”

(
Yet he distinguishes Hollywood style
entertainment from quality video clips available on YouTube
, many of which are
authentic

and valuable historical

images.
)


Name: Michael D. Bowe

Course Leader:

Dr. John Turner

EDC 672: The Microcomputer in the Instructional Program

Date: 15/2/11

9


Another prob
lem with video use in the classroom is the question of legality and
availability. As Rees (2009) points out videos disappear from the web regularly, quite
inconvenient if you plan to use that source in class that day:

The main problem with using the Web f
or anything is that the information you
use today may not be available to you tomorrow or next month or especially 10
years from now. This is certainly true with YouTube. I have been using the site
for about a year now and already some of the clips I have
used in class are no
longer available.


Also needing consideration is the legality of the content of some video streamed online.
Rees notes that YouTube “has faced several lawsuits over its brief history from media
firms seeking compensation for uncompens
ated use of their copyrighted material
posted by YouTube members.” (Rees, 2009). Yet Rees is “unaware of any such lawsuits
being provoked by hi
storical footage.”
(Rees, 2009)


“A Teachers Guide to Distance Learning” (
Dr. Ann Ba
rron, 1999, updated 2009)

ra
ises
several valid concerns
about video instruction, as cited in the Hartmann (2006)

article
Static
vs. Dynamic Pictures in Procedural Instruction
. Barron

notes that video can distract from
content: “…
a lot of the video material used in today's learning
environments is not

used for
instructional, but for motivational or decorational purposes. In these cases,

learners might get
distracted from other, information containing elements of the screen.”

(Hartmann, 2006).
Hartmann further
cites
Moreno and Mayer (
1999)
to show

that visual images and text
compete for learner attention:

In learning with text and pictures, best

results are achieved if information is provided
through different channels of perception.

While pictures have to be visually
perceived, text s
hould be provided through the

auditive channel, for recipients are not
able to process both visually presented text and

pictures at the same time.
(Moreno &
Mayer, 1999)


Hartmann

says

that learner’s “media
-
related”
competence

need consideration in using video
instruction. His main research question was “
whether videos transfer more information than
o
ther codes (still images etc.)”.
The research is divided, yet

many studies found “static
Name: Michael D. Bowe

Course Leader:

Dr. John Turner

EDC 672: The Microcomputer in the Instructional Program

Date: 15/2/11

10

pictures to be superior over dynamic pic
tures for
novice learners
” (Hartmann, 2006). For
learners with low levels of previous knowledge, animations may confuse more than facilitate
learning. Other research (Spotts & Dwyer, 1996) takes the middle ground, with “simple
animations to be superior ove
r both static pictures and complex animations” (Hartmann,
2
006).


Conclusions are not clear
cut, as
the
“level of realism, means of presentation, size and time of
perception” all affect the learning outcomes.


Yet, in one scientific study
,

the
results did
show that for an origami folding task,
“evidence was found for a general advantage of video
over static pictures in procedural instruction” (Hartmann, 2006)
. The advantage of video
instruction for “highly spatial” procedures seems conclusive.

T
his supports the use of video
in the classroom, especially for visual
-
spatial tasks, like often found on the “how
-
to”
websites, such as
http://www.pupiltube.com/
.

Yet
, if
still
-
images with verbal instructions
are
often nearly as effective,
i
s video worth the time, expense and technology?


Conclusions

Watching
well
-
made videos,
and
especially
creating digital video

themselves,
is
clearly

supported in the literature as
an effective way to motivate, connect and empowe
r student
learners. As Lee & Lee conclude:


..us
ing digital media provides the opportunity for the students to take both ownership
and responsibility for their learning… students [can] construct knowledge in a fashion
that makes sense to them, and provide
multiple approaches for knowledge

construction
to their peers. Further, their choice to use digital video provided an excellent occasion
for students to work collaboratively. (Lee,
7)


After reading the literature I see the use of
video
is recommended for teachers
to model
concept
s and skills
,
and
for students
create own videos in project settings.
I feel that
video
should be used to

help my students to consolidate their knowledge
, construct new knowledge,
review concepts, and

engage with

the learning material.
Yet
,

as with all teaching materials
Name: Michael D. Bowe

Course Leader:

Dr. John Turner

EDC 672: The Microcomputer in the Instructional Program

Date: 15/2/11

11

used to facilitate learning, the video technology must be selected carefully;
Talley &
Martinez, (1998) state it well:

“…i
n considering the use of IVC and or CD
-
ROM videos…
a basic concern, as wi
th the development of any type of technology as a tool for
education, is that the efforts to use technology should be based in the
needs of learning

rather than on the
powers of the technology

(Greene, 2009).

[emphasis mine]


Further Research

I am
convince
d that the naturally affinity current students have with animation and moving
images can be harnessed in the classroom. The opportunities to experiment with video in the
classroom are numerous and easily integrated into my current teaching practices. I wou
ld like
focus on using video
to create
learning conversation
s

with my students. This could take the
first
form of the students
in a receptive mode,
watching video (mine, or another teachers) as
the basis or part of a learning activity.
Then it could

be
come more participatory, such as

an
interactive videoconference

with students. Finally, I would like to use video to allow
students to refine, express, and celebrate their learning, as they produce video for other to
learn by. Drawing upon my research abo
ve, I see the need to use video judiciously, and
not

let the technology distract from the content. Video should not overwhelm the message, rather
it should be the supporting medium of communication. But the possibilities to learn, create,
share and celebra
te through video are with question valid and viable in my future teaching
practices.



Name: Michael D. Bowe

Course Leader:

Dr. John Turner

EDC 672: The Microcomputer in the Instructional Program

Date: 15/2/11

12


Bibliography


Online database articles

(1)
Newman, Paul (2002).
Measuring the Impact of ICT on Teaching and Learning
.

Prepared for the Department of Education and
Training

(WA), 2002.

(pp. 23
-
24)


Retrieved
from:
http://www.det.wa.edu.au/education/cmis/eval/pd/reading/reading1.htm#measuring

(2)
Fee, S. &

Fee, L. (2003). Pedagogical Approaches for the Use of Digital Video. In C. Crawford
et al. (Eds.),
Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International
Conference 2003

(pp. 1407
-
1414). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.

Retrieved from
http://www.editlib.org/p/18186
.


(3)
Collins, Brown, & Holum, (1991) Making Thinking Visable. Reprinted from
American
Educator (Winter 1991).
Retrieved from

elc.fhda.edu
/create/resources/
collins
_
brown
_
holum
_
1991
.pdf


(4)
Bohannon, R. (2010). Wherever You Are: There You Can Learn; Mobile Devices for
Informal and Lifelong Learning. In Z. Abas et al. (Eds.),
Proceedings of Global Learn Asia
Pacific 2010

(pp. 2032
-
2037). AACE.
Retrieved from
http://www.editlib.org/p/34392
.


(5) Arreymbi, J., Agbor, E. & Dastbaz, M. (2008). Mobile
-
Education
-

A paradigm shift
with Technology. In J. Luca & E. Weippl (Eds.),
Proceedings of World Conference on
Educational Multimedia, Hype
rmedia and Telecommunications 2008

(pp. 5114
-
5122).
Chesapeake, VA: AACE.

Retrieved from
http://www.editlib.org/p/29083
.


(6)
Najmi, A. (2010). How A Design Model With Behaviorist Underpinnings Can Offer A
Fra
mework For Learning, Anytime, Anywhere. In D. Gibson & B. Dodge (Eds.),
Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International
Conference 2010

(pp. 737
-
742). Chesapeake, VA: AACE.

Retrieved from
http://www.editlib.org/p/33433
.


(7) H
artmann,
Stefan (2006).
Static Versus Dynamic Pictures In Procedural Instruction:

A Qualitative Study On Video
-
Based Learning. Universität Erfurt / University of Erfurt


(8)

Allison, Melanie R. (2006) Online Learning vs. Video
-
Based:

The Pros and Cons of Each Learning Environment. Jefferson Elementary School,
Jefferson, South Carolina.
Retrieved from
http://www.oppapers.com/essays/Online
-
Learning
-
Vs
-
Video
-
Based/95147


(9)
Greene, H. C. (2009, May). Multimedia Observations: Examining the Roles and
Learning Outcomes of Traditional, CD
-
ROM Based, and Videoconference Observations in
Pre
-
service Te
acher Education.
Current Issues in Education

[On
-
line],
11
(3).
Retrieved from
Name: Michael D. Bowe

Course Leader:

Dr. John Turner

EDC 672: The Microcomputer in the Instructional Program

Date: 15/2/11

13

http://cie.ed.asu.edu/volume11/number3/


Book:

(1)
Papert, Seymore. Mindstorms. Brighton: Harvester Press ltd., 1982.


Online Blog


(1)
Snelson,

Dr. Chareen
, (2009). Web
-
Based Video in Education.

BSU EDTECH

Retrieved from:
http://web
-
based
-
video.blogspot.com/2008/05/using
-
web
-
based
-
video
-
clips
-
to
-
teach.html


Word Count (
excluding bibliography)

3,081