Complementary and Alternative Medicine

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16 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Complementary
and Alternative
Medicine

(CAM
)



Complementary
and
alternative medicines



(CAM)


Alternative
medicine was defined late in the 20th
century as a type of medicine or treatment other
than conventional medicine or health
care.


Complementary and alternative medicine
was introduced to the western world through
immigrants from other countries.


What is Complementary and Alternative Medicine
(CAM
)?




CAM
is a group of diverse medical and health care
systems, practices, and products that are not
generally considered part of

conventional
medicine. Conventional medicine (also called
Western or allopathic medicine) is medicine as
practiced by holders of M.D. (medical doctor) and
D.O. (
doctor of osteopathic medicine) degrees



and by allied health
professionals, such as physical
therapists,
psychologists
, and registered nurses.



Difference between Complementary and
Alternative Medicine:



Alternative Therapies

Complementary Medicine

Alternative or unorthodox
therapies are medical practices
that do not conform to the
standards of the medical
community, are not taught
widely in the medical and
nursing communities, and are
not generally available in the
allopathic health
-
care system.



These include such therapies
as acupuncture, massage
therapy, and chiropractic
medicine.

Refers to a group of therapeutic
and diagnostic disciplines that
exist largely outside the
institutions where conventional
health care is taught and
provided.
.


Alternative
medicine means:


Treatments that you


use instead
of
standard


ones.


Complementary medicine


means:



Nonstandard treatments



that
you use along with
standard ones
.

National Center for Complementary and
Alternative Medicine classifies CAM
therapies into five categories, or domains:



1)
Alternative
Medical Systems:




Alternative
medical systems are built upon complete
systems
of
theory and practice. Examples of alternative medical systems
that have
developed
in Western cultures include homeopathic
medicine and naturopathic medicine. Examples of systems that
have developed in non
-
Western cultures include traditional
Chinese medicine and Ayurveda
.



2)

Mind
-
Body
Interventions:




Mind
-
body
medicine uses a variety of techniques designed to
enhance the mind’s capacity to affect
body
function and
symptoms. including meditation, prayer, mental
healing
and
therapies that use creative outlets such as art, music, or dance.




3
)Biologically Based Therapies
:




By
useing

substances found
in nature, such as herbs, food and
vitamins. Some examples include dietary supplements, herbal
products and the use of other so called natural but as yet
scientifically unproven therapies (for example, using shark
cartilage to treat cancer).

4
)Manipulative
and Body
-
Based Methods:



Manipulative
and body
-
based methods in CAM are based on


manipulation
and/or movement of one or more parts of the


body
. Some examples include chiropractic or osteopathic


manipulation
and massage.


5)
Energy
Therapies:
Energy

therapies involve the use
of energy fields. They are of two types:







A
)

Biofield

therapies
:


are
intended to affect energy fields
that purportedly surround and penetrate the human body.
The existence of such fields has not yet been scientifically
proven. Some forms of energy therapy manipulate
biofields

by
applying pressure and/or manipulating the

body
by placing
the hands in, or
through
these fields
. Examples include Reiki
and Therapeutic Touch.


B)

Bioelectromagnetic
-
based:

therapies involve the
unconventional use of electromagnetic fields, such as pulsed
fields, magnetic fields or alternating
-
current or direct
-
current
fields.





Aromatherapy

Definition:

is a form of

alternative
medicine

that uses volatile plant
materials, known as

essential oils,
and other aromatic compounds for
the purpose of altering a person's
mind,

mood, cognitive function

or
health. The most important group
is essential oil.







What are essential oils?



Essential oils are concentrated extracts taken from the roots,
leaves, seeds, or blossoms of plants. Each contains its own
mix of active ingredients, and this mix determines what the
oil is used for. Some oils are used to promote physical
healing , for example, to treat swelling or fungal infections.
Others are used for their emotional value . They may
enhance relaxation. Orange blossom oil, for example,
contains a large amount of an active ingredient that is
thought to be calming.




Essential oils are highly volatile and evaporate quickly if left
in the open air. When left in the open air, the oils create an
aromatic scent, as reflected in the name aromatherapy.



Methods
of isolation of essential oils:









1
-

Distillation


2
-

Expression


3
-

Solvent extraction


4
-

Enfleurage


Essential oils may be found in different parts of the



aromatic plants, for example:




1
-

In petals (rose oil). 2
-

leaves (eucalyptus oils).



3
-

grass roots (vetiver oil). 4
-

fruit rind (lemon oil).




The essential oil may also be found in different parts of



the plant for example:



1
-

The orange tree from which neroli oil is obtained


from the flowers.


2
-

petit grain oil from the leaves.


3
-

orange oil from the fruit rind.




rose oil vetiver oil




eucalyptus

petit grain oil


oil




lemon oil


orange oil



An
essential oil may contains more than



100
chemical constituents, but they are


present in a very
low percentage of
the


essential
oil,
these constituents
make


it effective.




Some essential oils contain one or



two major constituents, and the


therapeutic and toxicological


properties of the oil
can largely


be attributed
to
those
constituent(s).



Methods
of using essential oils:


1
-

Massage

2
-

Bathing

3
-

Compress

4
-

Inhaling through vaporization

Should
anyone avoid aromatherapy
?



Pregnant
women, people with severe
asthma
and people with
a history of allergies should only use essential oils under the
guidance of a trained professional and with full knowledge of
your physician
.



Pregnant women and people with a history of seizures should
avoid hyssop oil
.



People with high blood pressure should avoid stimulating
essential oils, such as rosemary and spike lavender
.



People with estrogen dependent tumors (such as breast or
ovarian cancer) should not use oils with estrogen like
compounds such as fennel,
aniseed and
sage
.



People receiving chemotherapy should talk to their doctor
before trying aromatherapy.


Concept of Aromatherapy


Essential oils can be used not only for the treatment and
prevention of disease, but also for their effects on mood and
emotion.



Aromatherapy is claimed to be an holistic therapy.



Aromatherapists

believe that the constituents of essential oils
work synergistically.



Essential oils are described not only with reference to reputed
pharmacological properties (e.g. antibacterial), but also by
terms that are not recognized in conventional medicine (e.g.
balancing, energizing).



Essential oils are believed to act both by exerting
pharmacological effects following absorption into the
circulation and the effects of their odor on the olfactory system.


Examples of use of essential oils in
aromatherapy
:



Antibacterial
:

Laboratory tests confirmed the antimicrobial effects in certain oils including
rosemary oil, cinnamon, clove, lime, and tea tree oil
.



Antivirals:

Who supported tea tree oil, lemongrass, sandalwood, mint, ginger,
thyme
.



Amadadt

fungi:

Approved by laboratory experiments for Alafindr oil, thyme, cloves, juniper,
and tea tree
oil.



NSAIDs (Non
-
steroidal anti
-
inflammatory drug ):

Cloves, cinnamon, sage, black bean, bay leaf
.



Anxiolytics:

There have been in animal models using lavender oils, rose
.



Cramping removers:

Catnip,
Alafindr

and New Zealand tea tree oil.









Samuel Hahnemann and


Homeopathic History
:


Samuel Hahnemann was a qualified
physician as well as an expert
linguist
and
chemist.


He decided

that the cause
of disease
may also be its remedy and more
importantly
above all
do no
harm
.




Hahnemann believed that symptoms are no more than an outward reflection
of the body's inner fight to overcome illness: not a manifestation of the illness
itself.


He stated that the medicine given to cure should reinforce these symptoms
rather than counteract them
.

The Principles behind Homeopathic Medicine
:


Homeopathy is based on three
principle:




1)
The
Law of
Similars
:


A
substance
which
used in large doses, causes a




symptom(s
) in a healthy person can be used to treat that



symptom(s
) in a person who is ill.



e.g
.
Coffee, a remedy prepared from the coffee
bean(a



constituent
, caffeine, is a central nervous system stimulant)



would
be used to treat insomnia. This is the so
-
called ‘like



cures
like’ concept.




2)
The
Law of Proving
:



This
principle refers to the method of testing


a substance to determine
its medicinal effect
.



To
prove
a remedy, a group of healthy people



are given
a dose of the substance daily, and



each person
carefully records the symptoms


experienced when
the proving is completed, all


the symptoms that
the people consistently




experience are recorded
and listed in



the
Materia


Medica
,
a prescriber’s
reference.



The
Law of Potentization :
(

3




An
initial extraction to be used in




homoeopathy is prepared from freshly



gathered material. Usually, the
process




involves washing the plant to removed



dust, macerating
in a
mincer. Soaking in


pure alcohol for several days
before
finally



filtering and collecting
the resulting



solution
.
The solution
is
termed
the mother




tincture
.
Where the initial material is insoluble in

alcohol
.






In
addition to the basic principles of homoeopathy,



modern
homoeopaths also believe
:



That
illness results from the body’s inability to cope




with
challenging factors such as poor diet and



adverse
environmental conditions
.




That
the signs and symptoms of disease represent




the
body’s attempt to restore order.





That
homoeopathic remedies work by stimulating



the
body’s own healing activity
(The
‘vital force’)



rather
than by acting directly on the disease process.




That
the ‘vital force’ is expressed differently in each




individual
, so treatment must be chosen on an


individual (
holistic)
basis.


Homoeopathic
remedies:
Homoeopathic remedies and herbal
medicines are often confused and/or deemed to be similar. The
fundamental differences between the two types of preparation
are:

1.
Homoeopathic
remedies are (mostly) highly dilute whereas
herbal medicines are used at material strengths
.


2.
Many
homoeopathic remedies (around 65%) originate from
plants, whereas by definition all herbal medicines originate
from
plants.

3.
Many
of the plants from which homoeopathic remedies are
derived have a history of medicinal use
.


4.
Other
types of material used in the preparation of
homoeopathic remedies include animal, insect, biological,
drug/chemical and mineral
.


5.
The
starting point for the production of most homoeopathic
remedies is a mother tincture, usually an alcohol/water
extract
of
crude plant material.

Allopathy


Homeopathy

Symptoms are

manifestations of the

disease, to be opposed or

suppressed
.

Symptoms are a healthy

reaction of the body’s

defense mechanism
.

Treats the patient

according to the disease
.

Treats the patient

according to the

symptoms
.

The aim is to identify the

organism and select a

drug to destroy the

specific germ
.

The aim is to strengthen

the body so it can resist

harmful organisms
.

A Comparison of Homeopathy and standard
medicine (allopathy):