Mapping ICT Policy

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Mapping ICT Policy

Issues, Values and Processes


Belgrade, Feb.
27
,
2004



Stefaan Verhulst

Markle Foundation

Starting Points…


ICT has huge potential to address societal
and individual needs…


Benefits comprise: efficiency,
accessibility, enhanced service delivery,
cost reductions, flexibility, etc.


Yet, to achieve those benefits… strategic
planning and implementation, leadership,
investment and commitment is required.


ICT Policy: Why? (1)


“This is a wonderful innovation coming down the track
like a speeding freight train. I am here today to help
make sure that our state and local government aren't
tied to the tracks ahead of this train.”

Lamer Alexander, R
-
Tx, in a debate on regulating VOIP



Enabling, Guiding and Managing Societal and
Economic Change due to Technological
Developments


Change: Disruptive versus Liberating


Enabling the Potential, Limiting the Harm


Determined by Oil Spill, Opportunity Cost and
Conflict of Interests


ICT Policy: Why? (
2
)


To make sure systems work and that they
can be used;


To allocate scarce resources among
competitive users;


To encourage and protect investment;


To prevent abuse of market power;


To ensure universal access to basic
services;


To protect public order and national
security.


ICT Policy: How?



Legislation and
Regulations

Court Decisions and
Dispute Resolutions

Standards and
Technology

Investment and R&D

ICT Policy:Key Drivers

Digitalization

Decentralized

Convergence

Globalization

ICT Policy: Responses?


Analogies


Telephone? Television? Library? Mall?


Metaphors


Superhighway? Cyberspace?
Neverland?


New Wine in Old or New Bottles?

ICT Policy: Responses


Re
-
thinking of the policy framework;


Re
-
defining of the boundaries;


Re
-
balancing of values and rights;


Re
-
engineering of the policy process

Old
Sectoral

Framework

Telecom

Law and

Policy

Media

Law and

Policy


Computer

Law and

Policy


Industrial

and

Competition

Policy


Content and Services

Layer

Logical

Layer

Physical

Layer








Competition

Policy


New
Layered

Framework

Physical Layer



Bottlenecks and Vulnerabilities

Satellite

Cable

Wireless

Phone

Power

Physical Layer


Bottlenecks


Interconnection


Open Access/Unbundling


Interoperability


UNIVERSAL ACCESS


Vulnerabilities


Security


Critical Infrastructure


DNS Stability

Services Directive (90/388/EEC)

extended to: Satellite (94/46/EC)

Cable (95/51/EC)

Mobile (96/2/EC)

Full competition (96/19/EC)

Cable ownership (1999/64/EC)


ONP Framework Directive


(90/387/EEC amended by 97/51/EC)

Licensing Directive (97/13/EC)

GSM Directive (87/372/EEC)

ERMES Directive (90/544/EC)

DECT Directive (91/287/EEC)

S
-
PCS Decision (97/710/EC)

UMTS Decision (99/128/EC)

European Emergency Number Decision (91/396/EC)

International Access Code Decision (92/264/EEC)

ONP leased lines Directive


(92/44/EEC amended by 97/51/EC)

TV standards Directive (95/47/EC)

Interconnection Directive

(97/33/ EC amended by 98/61/EC)

Voice telephony Directive (98/10/EC)

Telecoms data protection Directive (97/66/EC)

Liberalisation and

Competition Directive

Framework Directive


Authorisation Directive


Access & Interconnection

Directive



Universal service Directive


Data protection Directive


Radio Spectrum Decision

The New EU Framework For

Electronic Communications

Open Source

vs

Proprietary
Software

Korea

Dataveillance

Web Services
and Portals

Browser

Digital
Identity

Geo
-
location

Digital Rights
Management

Logical Layer


Re
-
Mediation

Logical Layer

Assumptions behind New Technologies


Abundance and Loss of Scarcity


Dis
-
intermediation


New Receiver
-
Sender Relationship
(End
-
to
-
End)


Empowerment of the User/Edges
(Personalisation)


Transparent and Open Sphere


Anonymity

Logical Layer

Assumptions behind New Technologies


Abundance and Loss of Scarcity


Dis
-
intermediation


New Receiver
-
Sender Relationship
(End
-
to
-
End)


Empowerment of the User/Edges
(Personalisation)


Transparent and Open Sphere


Anonymity

Re
-
Mediation

Implications

Determination of Access and Frame
of Reference

Mediation is not value neutral

Scarcity determines Power

Loss of Anonymity


Open Source Spaces

Operating Systems


Linux, BSD

Web Browser


Mozilla

Office Suites


OpenOffice, StarOffice

Desktops



Gnome, KDE

Web Server




Apache

Database



MYSQL, PostgreSQL

Public Key Encryption

OpenSource PKI

Programming Languages

GNU C, C++, Perl



Common Benefits of OS


Stability and security



Purchasing cost savings



Maintenance cost savings



No reliance on a single vendor, long term
stability


Better standards


Modifiable code


Faster innovation


Challenges of OS


Lack of user friendliness


Technical set
-
up process


Lack of support




So...


OS Development community should focus on
stability, and security, while third
-
parties focus
on user
-
friendliness and support.


Content and Service Layer


Content control


Copyright


Public Domain


European Copyright Directive


E
-
services (E
-
commerce, E
-
banking,
E
-
government, E
-
health)


Consumer Protection


Diversification of policies

Re
-
defining Boundaries

Sovereignty

Enforcement

Jurisdiction

Global Governance

Commons

Core Values

Co
-
ordination

Global Actors Map

ATU

ASEAN

CoE

(DG
1
, DG II)

EU

(Enterprise/Justice &
Home Affairs/Education &
Culture)

OECD

REGIONAL

ETSI

GBDe

WSIS

UN
-
ICT TASKFORCE

UNESCO

(IITE)

UNCTAD

(DITE)

UNCITRAL

ITU

(ITU
-
R, ITU
-
T,

ITU
-
D)

Internet Society

ICANN


WTO

W3C

WIPO

World Bank

(GICT)

GLOBAL

Logical Layer

Content/Services

UNCTAD

(ECB)

UNESCO

(CI)

EU
(Internal Market)

EU Parliament

EU

(Information
Society)

OECD

Physical Layer

CITEL

APEC

Re
-
balancing rights and values

Information Rights

(free expression,
information access)

Cultural Rights


(Language,
tradition, diversity)

Collective Rights

(basic services,
security, common
resources)


Protection Rights

(Privacy, property,
discrimination)

Re
-
engineering the process

PARTICIPATION

REPRESENTATION ACCOUNTABILITY

TRANSPARENCY

LEGITIMACY

Thank You…

Stefaan Verhulst

sverhulst@markle.org