Interoperation - TWGrid

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INFSO
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RI
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508833


Enabling Grids for E
-
sciencE

www.eu
-
egee.org

Grid Interoperations

Cook Book

Markus Schulz, Laurence Field

EGEE SA3

CERN
-
IT
-
GD

Markus.Schulz@cern.ch

Enabling Grids for E
-
sciencE

INFSO
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RI
-
508833


Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

2

Overview


Interoperability


Speaking the same language (or using a translator)


Middleware problem



Interoperation


Using interoperating infrastructures


Need the above, but needs operational links




Enabling Grids for E
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Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

3

Why


Different production Grids have been established worldwide


Funding based on
regions

and
application

domains



Grid infrastructures are based on different middleware


Often confused with the infrastructures (EGEE, gLite, LCG
-
xx….)


Historical fact




Several user communities depend on these infrastructures


Main computing resource


Cycles and storage


User communities span multiple regions and funding agencies


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Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

4

Why is there diversity?



The infrastructures outpaced standardization


We discovered how to do grid computing on the go


First there where NO standards


Then there where standards that didn’t reflect experience


Then there where active users


Active users drive the infrastructures


Mandate functional and performance evolution


Standardization work is not a directly visible advantage


As is security…..


Then users discovered other infrastructures


And things got complicated


Now usable standards start to emerge….


But infrastructures can only convert slowly


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Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

5

Why is there diversity?




This is not surprising:


Grid computing is about interoperability/interoperation.


Different Batch Systems


Different Storage Systems


Different Administrative domains



Grid Middleware is the implementation of the abstract interface.


Grid Interoperability, abstracting the abstract interfaces


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Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

6

Hourglass Model

Site Specific Systems

VO/Grid Specific Middleware

Monitoring

Service
Discovery

Job
Submission

File Transfer

Security


Popular: But tells only
half
of the story


1/4 of cost


Policies and operational procedures


Support….


Hidden assumptions


Network access from WN nodes


Security & Availability

Policy

Usage

Rules

Certification

Authorities

Audit

Requirements

Incident

Response

User Registration

& VO Management

Application Development

& Network Admin Guide

VO

Security

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Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

7

Why Interoperation?


Simple, because there is a clear need



VOs started to interoperate on their own


“Keyhole” adapters emerged


Minimal interfaces


Problematic


Requirements change


Many adapters need to be maintained


1 per VO/Infrastructure


Grids evolve at different pace


Change, change ,change


Workflow debugging becomes (almost) impossible


Different error messages


Small surface of the keyholes


VOs can’t follow operations easily


Different tools


Many more synchronization work (meetings)

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Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

8

Why Interoperation?


Because it steers the development of standards into the right direction



Linking the infrastructures


Helps to establish practical, usable standards


For the people, by the people


Helps to establish working policies


Sites and users


Reflects different experiences


Keeps the middleware modular


Domain separation


DATA, JOBS, INFORATION…..



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Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

9

Why EGEE?

DEISA

TeraGrid


Related infrastructure projects

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Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

10

How?


Understanding the differences


Compatibility matrix



Domains that have to be linked for interoperability


Security


Information Services


Job Management


Data Management



For interoperation you have to add


Monitoring


Accounting


Operational links and joint policies


Trouble ticket systems


Operational security





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Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

11

GIN


OGF’s Grid Interoperability Now


Six international teams met for the
first time at GGF
-
16 in Feb 2006


Application Use Cases


Authentication/Identity Mgmt


Job Description Language


Data Location/Movement


Information Schemas


Testbeds


G
I
N

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Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

12

Interoperability Matrix


Simple example:



ARC

OSG

EGEE

Job Submission

GridFTP

GRAM

GRAM

Service Discovery

LDAP/GIIS

LDAP/GIIS

LDAP/BDII

Schema

ARC

GLUE

GLUE

Storage Transfer Protocol

GridFTP

GridFTP

GridFTP

Storage Control Protocol

SRM

SRM

SRM

Security

GSI/VOMS

GSI/VOMS

GSI/VOMS

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Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

13

Select Strategy


For each domain select one strategy


Common Interfaces


seems to be the most straightforward


absence of established standards


which interface do you choose


grid infrastructures have heavily invested in one interface


this is the ultimate goal, but will require a long time


We have to provide services NOW


Good standards are hard to get


See SRM and GLUE discussions on semantic details


Adapters and Translators


adapters and translators can be used in the higher level services


Condor approach


Adapters for condor, GRAM, ARC, UNICORE,…..


Changes confined to higher level interfaces


Infrastructure “un
-
touched”


But environments and client libs. have to be adapted


Good indicator for area that should be standardized


Adapters and translators can only work if same functionality is provided

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Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

14

Select Strategy


Grid Gateways


Used when concepts are too different


Different security models are hard to “translate”


No corresponding services


Technically close to adapters and translators


Standalone, trusted service(s)


Scalability is problematic


All jobs go through one/a few gateways (bottleneck)


Robustness can be an issue


Russian doll (layered software)


Only one step ahead of users “keyhole” adapters


Short term solution


Demonstrates potential of interoperability


Gateways are indicators for different domains


Maybe concepts have to be re
-
evaluated



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Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

15

Example GIN
-
INFO


Starting from bi
-
lateral work


EGEE / OSG already interoperating since Autumn 2005


Both are using an LDAP based information system


Both are using the Glue schema

( different boot strapping)


OSG site URLs generated from OSG GOC DB


EGGE site URLs generated from EGEE GOC DB


EGEE /NDGF


Working on interoperability since Summer 2005


Both use an LDAP based information system


But different schema


Trying schema translation approach

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Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

16

Example GIN
-
INFO


Naregi working on interoperability with EGEE since
winter 2006


Naregi information system, “Cell domains”


Different Schema, (vendor extensions to CIM)


CIM providers


OGSA
-
DIA interface


schema translation


Teragrid


MDS4 information system with Glue schema version 1.1


Translator


Pragma


WebSIM


Prototype translator finished

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Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

17

Initial Architecture

GIN

BDII

ARC

BDII

EGEE

Site

OSG

Site

NDGF

Site

Naregi

Grid

Teragrid

Grid

Pragma

Grid

NDGF

BDII

EGEE

BDII

OSG

BDII

Naregi

BDII

Teragrid

BDII

Pragma

BDII

Translator

Translator

Translator

Translator

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Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

18

Current Architecture

Generic Information Provider

Provider EGEE

Provider OSG

Provider NDGF

GIN

BDII

ARC

BDII

Provider Naregi

Provider Teragrid

Provider Pragma

EGEE

Site

OSG

Site

NDGF

Site

Naregi

Grid

Teragrid

Grid

Pragma

Grid


Grids use GIN
-
BDII as the source


See Naregi

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Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

19

Interoperating information systems

DEISA

EGEE

Naregi

Nordugrid


OSG

Pragma

Teragrid


http://gridportal
-
ws01.hep.ph.ic.ac.uk/gin/gin
-
locations.kmz

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Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

20

Performance Indicators

EGEE

OSG

NDGF

Naregi

Teragrid

Pragma

Query

LDAP

LDAP

LDAP

OGSA
-
DAI

WSRF

wget

Sites

195

8

37

1

1

17

Clusters

234

8

36

4

12

18

Real

20.3s

11.0s

16.8s

74.7s

24.4s

21.1s

User

15.1s

1.2s

2.3s

14.3s

21.9s

0.2s

System

4.9s

0.7s

1.5s

0.4s

3.1s

0.2s

Memory

0.9%

0.8%

0.9%

9.0%

7.3%

0.8%

PIII 1GHz, 256Mb

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Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

21

Complexity


Syntax Interoperability Matrix(Naregi)

Grid

Schema

Data

Query
Lang

Client IF

Software

Tera
-
Grid

GLUE

XML

XPath

WSRF RP
Queries

MDS4

OSG

GLUE

LDIF

LDAP

LDAP

BDII

NAREGI

CIM 2.10+ext

Relational

SQL

OGSA
-
DAI

WS
-
I RUS

CIMOM +
OGSA
-
DAI

EGEE/

LCG

GLUE

LDIF

LDAP

LDAP

BDII

Relational

SQL

R
-
GMA i/f

R
-
GMA

Nordu

Grid

ARC

LDIF

LDAP

LDAP

GIIS

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Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

22

Summary Info Systems


Information systems are very similar


Joining information systems is easy


Translating information is tricky


Moving from one model to another is straight forward.


Showstopper if information doesn’t map, ie missing attributes


We can live with different information systems


But we can’t live with different information



How do we ensure good quality information?


Need to develop tests for the information


Based on the use cases


How can we ensure the coordinates are correct for a site?


--------
>
grid operations!


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Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

23

Problematic Area


Monitoring


Foundation of interoperation


Many different tools


For each infrastructure more than one


No well defined schema


Same attribute has different meanings


Security relevant information exposed


Sites hate double monitoring



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Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

24

Interoperability Matrix

Sensors

Local

Transport

Site Cache

External

Transport

Schema

Repository

MDS

Information

Providers

LDAP

Memory

LDAP DB

LDAP

LDAP

LDAP

R
-
GMA

Various

HTTP

Memory

SQL

HTTP

R
-
GMA

MySQL

Apel

Custom

Scripts

MySQL

MySQL

R
-
GMA

HTTP

R
-
GMA

MySQL

GridICE

Information

Providers

Lemon

Lemmon

Server

MDS

LDAP


LDAP

Postgresql

Grid Cat

Various

Cron

SQL Lite

GRAM

GridCat

Postgresql

MonaLisa

Monitoring
Module

???

SQL DBs

???

Java
Objects

SQL DBs

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Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

26

What does it take?


OSG


Very similar middleware


Close link via main users


ARC (NDGF)


NAREGI


UNICORE (DEISA)


OGF
-
GIN






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Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

27

OSG


November and December
2004



Initial meeting with OSG to discuss interoperability


A common information schema was the key


Proposal for version 1.2 of the Glue Schema was discussed


Include new attributes required by OSG, Marco Mambelli


January
2005


Proof of concept was tried
, Leigh Grundhoefer (Indiana)


Installed Generic Information Provider (GIP) on an OSG CE


OSG CE was configured to support the dteam VO


“Hello world” job, submitted through the LCG RB and ran on an
OSG CE


Installed the LCG clients available on OSG from a tarball


Oliver Keeble (CERN)


Submitted test job that did basic data management operations


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Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

28

OSG


Modifications to the OSG and LCG software releases



Updated the GIP to publish version 1.2 of the Glue Schema


The GridFTP server on the OSG CE advertised as an LCG SE


Automatically configure the GIP in the OSG release


Information scavenger script, Shaowen Wang (Iowa)


August 2005 (month of focussed activity)


Included first OSG sites into the LCG operational framework


Set up a BDII that represented these OSG sites


Included this BDII to the LCG information system


All OSG sites found in this BDII were automatically tested



Using the Site Functional Tests (SFT) framework


Created a script to install the LCG clients on OSG CEs


November 2005


First
user jobs

from GEANT4 arrived on OSG


GIP validator for OSG operations. Shaowen Wang (Iowa)


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Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

29

OSG


March 2006, Operations Progress


Information system bootstrapping.


Dynamic web page from OSG GOC DB.


Routing of trouble tickets
.


Joint operations VO


For running tests.


Deployment of client libraries.


OSG joined the Monday WLCG operations meeting to report on
WLCG issues


Summer 2006


CMS successfully taking advantage interoperations


Without being aware of it

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Interoperation CookBook

3/29/07

30

Summary EGEE OSG


How to maintain interoperation?


Grids evolve


Different release cycles


Testbed for interoperation is needed
NOW






Interoperability took 6 month


Technical a simple use case


Interoperation took 6 month