Learning
Objectives for A
P
®
Physics
I.
NEW
T
O
NI
AN
ME
C
H
A
NICS
35%
A.
Kin
e
matics
(
including
vectors,
vector
a
l
gebra,
co
m
ponents
of
v
ectors,
coordinate
systems,
dis
p
lacement,
v
e
lo
city,
and
acceleration)
1.
Motion
in
on
e di
m
ension
a)
Students
sh
o
u
ld
u
nderstand
the
general
relationships
a
m
ong
posit
i
on,
veloci
t
y
,
and
acce
l
eration
for
the
m
o
tion
of
a particle along
a straight
line,
so
t
h
at:
(1)
Given
a graph
of
one
of
the
kinematic
q
u
antities,
pos
i
tion,
ve
l
o
ci
t
y
,
or
acce
l
eration,
as
a function
of
ti
m
e,
they
can
recognize
in
what
ti
m
e
intervals
the
other two
are
positive,
neg
a
tive,
or
zero,
and
can
iden
t
ify
or
sketch
a graph
of
each as a function
of
ti
m
e.
(2)
Given
an
expression
for
one
of
the
kin
e
matic
quantities,
position,
velocit
y
,
or
acce
l
eration
,
as
a function
of
ti
m
e,
they
can
dete
r
m
i
n
e
the
other
two
as
a function
of
time, and
find
when
these
quantities
are
zero
or
achieve
their ma
xi
m
u
m
a
n
d
m
i
ni
m
u
m
v
al
u
es.
b)
Students
should
understand
the
special
case
of
m
o
ti
o
n
with
constant
accele
r
ation,
so
th
e
y can:
(1)
Write
down
expressions
for
velocity
and
position
as
functions
of
time, and
identify
or
sketch
graphs
of
these
quantities.
(2) Use the equations
v = v
0
+ a
t, x = x
0
+ v
0
t +1/2at
2
,
and
v
2
=
v
0
2
+
2
a
(
x

x
0
)
to
solve
p
r
o
b
le
m
s
involvi
n
g
one

di
m
ensional
m
o
tion
with constant
acce
l
eration.
2.
Motion
in
t
w
o
dimensions,
including
p
rojectile
motion
a)
Students
sh
o
u
ld
be
able
to
add,
subtract,
and
resolve
displac
e
ment
and
velocity
vectors,
so
they
can:
(1)
Determine
c
o
m
ponents
of
a vector
along
two
specified,
m
u
tually
perpendicular
axes.
(2)
Dete
r
mine
the
net
displac
e
ment
of
a particle
or
the
location
of
a par
t
icle
relative
to
another.
(3)
Determine
the
change
in
velocity
of
a
particle or
the
velocity
of
one
particle
relative
to
another.
c)
Students
sh
o
u
ld
u
nderstand
the
m
o
tion
of
projectiles
in
a uniform
gravitational
field,
so
th
e
y
can:
(1)
Write
down
expressions
for
the
horizon
t
al
and
vertical co
m
ponents
of
veloci
t
y
and
position
as
functions
of
time,
and
sketch
or
identify
graphs
of
these c
o
m
ponents.
(2)
Use
these
expressions
in
anal
y
zing
the
motion
of
a projectile that is
projected
with an
arbitrary
initial ve
l
o
city.
B.
Ne wton’s
l
a
ws
of
motion
1.
Static
equilibrium
(first
law)
Students
should
be
able
to
anal
y
ze
situations
in
whi
c
h
a particle remains
at rest,
or
m
ov
e
s with
c
onstant
velocity,
under
the
influence
of
several
forces.
2.
Dynamics
of
a
single
part
i
cle
(second
law)
a)
Students
sh
o
u
ld
u
nderstand
the
relation
b
e
tween
the
force
that acts
on
an
object
and
the resulting
change
in
the
object
’
s
velo
c
ity,
so
th
e
y
can:
(1)
Calculate, for
an
object
m
o
ving
i
n one
d
i
mension,
the
velocity
cha
n
ge
that results when
a
constant
force
F
acts over
a specified
time interval.
(2)
Calculate, for
an
object
m
o
ving
i
n one
d
i
mension,
the
velocity
cha
n
ge
that results when
a
force
F
(
t
)
acts over
a specified
t
i
m
e
interval.
(3)
Dete
r
mine,
for
an
object
moving
in
a pl
a
n
e
whose
velocity
vector
u
ndergoes
a specified
ch
a
nge
over
a specified
t
i
m
e
i
nterval,
the
average
force
th
at
acted on
the
object.
b)
Students
sh
o
u
ld
u
nderstand
how
Newton’s
Second
L
aw,
∑
F
=
F
net
=
m
a
, applies to
an
object
subject
to
forces
such
as
gravit
y
,
the
pull
of
strings,
or
conta
c
t
forces,
so
they
can:
(1)
Draw
a
well

l
abeled,
free

b
o
dy
diagram
showing
all real forces
th
a
t
act on
the
object.
(2)
Write
down
t
h
e
vector
eq
u
ation
that results
from
ap
p
l
y
i
ng
Newto
n
’s
Second
Law
to
the
o
b
ject,
and
take
c
o
m
ponents
o
f
this
equati
o
n
along
a
p
pr
o
p
riate
axes.
c)
Students
should
be
able
to
anal
y
ze
situations
in
whi
c
h
an
object
moves
with
specified
a
cc
eleration
under
the
influence
of
one
or
m
or
e
forces
s
o th
e
y can
dete
r
m
ine the
magnitude
and
direction
of
the
net
force,
or
of
one
of
the
forces
that makes
up
th
e net force,
such
as
m
o
tion
up
or
down
with
constant
acceleration.
d)
Students
sh
o
u
ld
u
nderstand
the
signifi
c
ance
of
the
coefficient
of
friction,
so
th
e
y
can:
(1)
Write
down
the
relationship
between
the
nor
m
al
and
f
rictional
forces
on
a
surface.
(2)
Anal
y
ze
situations
in
whi
c
h
an
object
moves
along
a
r
ough
inclined
plane
or
horizontal
surface.
(3)
Anal
y
ze
und
e
r
what
circ
u
mstances
an
object
will start
to
slip,
or
to
c
alculate the
magnitude
of
the
force
of
static friction.
e)
Students
should
understand
the
effect
of
drag
forces
on
the
m
o
tion
of
an
object,
so
they
can:
(1)
Find
the
terminal
veloci
t
y of
an
object
m
oving
vertically
under
the
influence
of
a
retarding
f
o
rce
dependent
on
veloci
t
y
.
3.
Systems
of
t
wo
or
more
objects
(thi
r
d
law)
a)
Students
sh
o
u
ld
u
nderstand
Newton’s
T
h
ird
Law
so
t
h
at,
for
a giv
e
n
s
y
ste
m
,
they
can
identify
the
force
pairs
and
the
o
b
jects
on
which
they
act, and
state the magnitude and
direction
of
each
force.
b)
Students
sh
o
u
ld
be
able
to
app
l
y
Newton’s
T
h
ird
L
a
w
in
anal
y
zi
n
g
the
force
of
contact
between
two
objects
that acce
l
e
r
ate
together
along
a horizontal
or
vertical line,
or
between
two
surfa
c
es
that slide
a
cross
one
another.
c)
Students
should
know
that the
tension
is
constant
in
a
light
string
that
pass
e
s
over
a
massless
pulley
and
shou
l
d
be
able
to
u
s
e
this
fact in
anal
y
zing
the
m
o
tion
of
a s
y
stem
of
t
w
o
objects
joined
by a string.
d)
Students
sh
o
u
ld
be
able
to
solve
probl
e
ms
in
which
application
of
Newton’s
laws
leads
to
two
or
three
s
i
m
u
l
t
aneous
linear
equations
involving
unknown
forces
or acce
l
erations.
C.
Work,
ener
g
y,
power
1.
Work
and
the
work

en
er
gy
theorem
a)
Students
sh
o
u
ld
u
nderstand
the
definit
i
on
of
wo
r
k
,
i
n
cluding
when
it is
posit
iv
e,
negative,
or
zero,
so
th
e
y
c
an:
(1)
Calculate the
work
done
b
y a specif
i
ed
constant
force
on
an
o
b
ject
that
undergoes
a specified
displacement.
(2)
Relate the
w
o
rk
done
b
y
a
f
o
rce
to
the
area
under
a graph
of
force
as
a function
of
position,
a
nd
calculate this
work
in
th
e
case
where
the
force
is
a linear function
of
p
o
sition.
(4)
Use
the
scalar
product
op
e
ration
to
calculate the
work
perfor
m
ed
b
y
a specified
constant
force
F
on
an
o
b
j
ect
that undergoes
a displacement
in
a
p
lane.
b)
Students
sh
o
u
ld
u
nderstand
and
be
able
to
apply
the
work

energy
theor
e
m
,
so
they
can:
(1)
Calculate the
change
in
kinetic energy
or
speed
that results
from
pe
r
for
m
ing
a
specified
a
m
o
unt
of
work
on
an
object.
(2)
Calculate the
work
performed
by the
net
force,
or
by
e
ach
of
the
forces
that
make
up
the
net
force,
on
an
object
that
undergoes
a
specified
change
in
speed
or kinetic ener
g
y
.
(3)
App
l
y
the
th
e
o
rem
to
determine
the
c
h
ange
in
an
ob
j
ect’s
kinetic ener
g
y
and
speed
that re
su
lts
from
the application
of
specified
forces,
or
to
dete
r
m
ine
the
force that is
required
in
o
r
der
to
bri
n
g
an
object
to
r
e
st
in
a specified
distance.
2.
Forces
and
potential
ene
r
gy
b)
Students
sh
o
u
ld
u
nderstand
the
concept
of
potential
e
n
er
g
y
,
so
th
e
y
can:
(4)
Write
an
expression
for
the
force
exert
e
d
by an
ideal spring
and
for
the
potential
energy
of
a stretched
or
co
m
pr
es
s
ed
spring.
(5)
Calculate the
potential
ener
g
y
of
one
or
m
o
re
objects
in
a uniform
gravitational
field.
3.
Conservation
of
energy
a)
Students
sh
o
u
ld
u
nderstand
the
concep
t
s
of
mechani
c
al
energy
and
of
total energy,
so
th
e
y can:
(2)
Describe
and
identi
f
y
situa
t
ions
in
w
h
ich
mechani
c
al
en
ergy
is
converted
to
other
for
m
s
o
f
energy.
(3)
Anal
y
ze
situations
in
whi
c
h
an
objec
t
’
s
mechani
c
al
en
ergy
is
changed
by
friction
or
by
a specified
e
x
ternally
applied
force.
b)
Students
sh
o
u
ld
u
nderstand
conservation
of
ener
g
y
,
so
th
e
y can:
(1)
Identi
f
y
situa
t
ions
in
which
mechani
c
al
ener
g
y
is
or
is
not
conserve
d
.
(2)
App
l
y
conservation
of
ene
rg
y
in
ana
l
y
zing
the
m
o
tion
of
s
y
st
e
m
s
of
connected
objects,
such
as
an
Atwood’s
m
a
chine.
(3)
App
l
y
conservation
of
ene
rg
y
in
ana
l
y
z
i
ng
the
m
o
tion
of
objects
t
h
at
m
ove
under
the
inf
l
uence
of
springs.
4.
Power
Students
sh
o
u
ld
u
nderstand
the
definit
i
on
of
power,
so
th
e
y can:
a)
Calculate the power
required
to
m
aintain
the
m
o
tion
of
an
object
with
constant
acce
l
eration
(e.g.,
to
m
ove
an
object
along
a level surface,
to
raise
an
object
at a
constant
rate,
or
to
o
v
ercome
friction
for
an
object
t
h
at
is
m
oving
at a
constant
speed).
b)
Calculate the
work
performed
by a f
o
rce
that supplies
constant
po
w
er,
or
the
average
power
supplied
b
y
a force
that perfor
m
s
a s
p
ecified
a
m
ount
of
work.
D.
Systems
of
pa
rticles,
lin
ea
r
moment
u
m
2.
Impulse
and
moment
u
m
Students
sh
o
u
ld
u
nderstand
i
m
pulse
a
n
d
linear
m
o
mentu
m
,
so
they
can:
a)
Relate
mass,
velocity,
and
linear
m
o
me
n
tum
for
a
m
o
ving
object,
and
calculate the
total
linear
momentum
of
a
s
y
stem
of
objects.
b)
Relate
i
m
pulse
to
the
change
in
linear
m
o
ment
u
m
and
the
average
force
acting
on
an
object.
d)
Calculate the
area
under
a force
versus
time graph
and
relate it to
t
h
e
change
in
m
o
ment
u
m
o
f
an
object.
e)
Calculate the change
in
m
o
ment
u
m
of
an
object
given
a function
F
(
t
)
for
the
net
force
acting
on
the
object.
3.
Conservation
of
linear
momentum,
c
o
llisions
a)
Students
sh
o
u
ld
u
nderstand
linear
m
o
mentum
conservation,
so
t
h
ey
can:
(2)
Identi
f
y
situa
t
ions
in
which
linear
m
o
m
e
ntu
m
,
or
a co
m
ponent
of
the
linear
m
o
ment
u
m
v
ector,
is
conserved.
(3)
App
l
y
linear
m
o
ment
u
m
conservation
t
o
one

di
m
ensional
elastic and
inelastic
collisions
and
two

di
m
ens
i
onal
co
m
p
le
t
ely
i
n
elastic
collisions.
(5)
Anal
y
ze
situations
in
whi
c
h
two
or
m
o
re
objects
are pushed
apart
by a spring
or
other
agency,
and
calculate
how
m
u
ch
e
nergy
is
released
in
such
a
process.
E.
Circular
motion
and
rotation
1.
Uniform
circular
m
otion
Students
sh
o
u
ld
u
nderstand
the
uni
f
o
rm
circular
m
o
tion
of
a partic
l
e, so
th
e
y can:
a)
Relate the
ra
d
ius
of
the
circle and
the
speed
or
rate of
revoluti
o
n
of
t
h
e
particle to
the
magnitude
of
the
centripetal ac
c
eler
a
tion.
b)
Des
c
ribe
the
direction
of
the
particl
e
’
s
velocity
and
acce
l
eration
a
t any
instant
during
the
motion.
c)
Dete
r
mine
the
c
o
m
ponents
of
the
veloci
t
y and
accele
r
ation
vectors
at any
i
n
stant,
and
sketch
or
identify
graphs
of
these
quantities.
d)
Anal
y
ze
situations
in
whi
c
h
an
object
moves
with
specified
ac
c
ele
r
ation
under
the
influence
of
one
or
m
o
re
f
o
rces
so
they
can
dete
r
m
ine
the
magnitude
and
direction
of the net
force,
or
of
one
of
the
forces
that makes
up
the
net
force,
in
situations
such as
the following:
(1)
Motion
in
a horizontal
circle (e.g.,
mass
on
a rotating
merr
y

go

round,
or
car
round
i
ng
a
b
a
nked curve).
(2)
Motion
in
a vertical
ci
r
cle
(
e.g.,
m
a
ss
sw
inging
on
the
end
of
a string,
cart
rolling
down
a curved
tra
c
k,
rider
on
a Ferris
wheel).
2.
Torque
and
rotational
s
t
atics
a)
Students
should
understand
the
concept
of
torque,
so
they
can:
(1)
Calculate the
magnitude
and
direction
of
the
torque
associated
with
a given
force.
(2)
Calculate the
torque
on
a rigid
object
due
to
gravit
y
.
b)
Students
should
be
able
to
anal
y
ze
probl
e
m
s
in
stati
c
s,
so
th
e
y can:
(1)
State the
conditions
for
translational
a
n
d
rotational
equilibrium
of
a rigid
object.
(2)
App
l
y
these
condit
i
ons
in
a
n
al
y
zing
the
equilibrium
of
a rigid
object
under
the c
o
m
b
ined
influence
of
a nu
m
b
er
of
coplanar
forces
a
p
plied
at different
locations.
F.
Oscillations
and
Gravita
t
ion
1.
Simple
harmonic
m
o
tion
(dynamics
and
energy
relationships)
Students
sh
o
u
ld
u
nderstand
si
m
p
le
har
m
onic
m
o
ti
o
n,
so
th
e
y ca
n
:
a)
Sketch
or
id
e
n
ti
f
y
a graph
of
displace
m
e
nt
as
a function
of
ti
m
e,
and
deter
m
ine
from
such
a graph
the
a
m
plitude,
perio
d
,
and
frequency
of
the
m
o
tion.
b)
Write
down
an
appropriate
expression
for
displac
e
m
e
n
t
of
the
form
A
sin
w
t
or
A
cos
w
t
to
describe
the
m
o
tion.
c)
Find an expr
e
ssion for vel
o
city
as a func
t
ion of ti
m
e.
d)
State the rela
t
ions between acce
l
eration,
velocity, and
displac
e
ment, and identify
points
in the
m
otion where these quantities are zero or achieve their greatest positive and
negative values.
e)
State and apply the relation between fre
q
uency
and p
e
riod.
g)
State how the total energy of an oscillating
s
y
stem
depends on
t
he
a
m
plitude of the
m
otion, sketch or identi
f
y
a graph of k
ine
tic or potent
i
al energy
as a function
of time, and
identi
f
y
points
i
n the
m
otion w
h
ere this energy
is all
po
t
ential or all kinetic.
h)
Calculate the
kinetic and potential
energies
of an oscillating
s
y
stem
as functions of ti
m
e, sketch or
identi
f
y
gr
a
phs of these functions, and
prove that the
sum
of kinetic
and
potential
energy
is c
ons
tant.
2.
Mass
on
a
spring
Students
sh
o
uld be able to
app
l
y
their
k
nowledge of
si
m
ple har
m
o
nic
m
otion to the case of a
ma
s
s
on a spring, so th
e
y
can:
a)
Derive the expression for
t
he period of
oscillation of a mass on a s
p
ring.
b)
App
l
y
the expression for
t
he period of
oscillation of a mass on a s
p
ring.
c)
Anal
y
ze proble
m
s in which a mass
ha
n
gs from
a
spring and
oscillates verticall
y
.
d)
Anal
y
ze proble
m
s in which a mass
att
a
ched to a spring oscillates horizontal
l
y
.
e)
Deter
m
ine the period of o
s
cillation f
o
r s
y
ste
m
s involving series or parallel c
o
m
binations
of identical springs, or sp
r
ings of differ
i
ng leng
t
hs.
3.
Pendulum
and
other
oscillations
Students
sh
o
uld be able to
app
l
y
their
k
nowledge of
si
m
ple har
m
o
nic
m
otion to the case of a
pe
n
dulu
m
, so they can:
b)
App
l
y
the e
x
pression for
t
he period of a
si
m
ple pendulu
m
.
c)
State
what a
p
proxi
m
a
tion
m
u
st be
m
a
de in derivi
n
g
t
he period.
4.
Newton’s
l
a
w
of
gravity
Students
sh
o
uld
k
now Newton’s Law
o
f Universal Gravitation, so
they can:
a)
Dete
r
m
ine the force that one spherically s
y
m
m
etr
i
cal
ma
s
s exerts
o
n another.
b)
Deter
m
ine the strength of
t
he gravitatio
na
l field at a specified point
outside a
spherically
s
ymme
t
rical
m
a
ss.
5.
Orbits
of
planets
and
satellites
Students
sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the
m
otion of an object
i
n orbit
under
the influence of gravitational
forces, so
they can:
a)
For a circular orbit:
(1)
Recognize that the
m
otion
does not dep
e
nd
o
n the
o
b
j
ect’s
ma
ss; describe
qualitative
l
y how the velocit
y
,
period
of r
e
volution,
and centripetal accelerati
o
n depend upon
the radius of
t
he orbit; and
d
e
rive
expressions for the
velocity and period of re
v
oluti
o
n in su
c
h
an orbi
t
.
(2)
Derive Kepler
’
s Third Law for the case
of circular orbits.
II.
FLUID
M
E
CH
A
N
I
CS
AND
T
H
ER
MAL
PHYSICS
15%
A.
Fluid
Mechanics
1.
Hydrostatic
press
u
re
Students
sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the concept
of pressure as it applies to
f
luids, so th
e
y can:
a)
App
l
y
the re
la
tionship be
tw
een pressure, force, and area.
b)
App
l
y
the pr
i
nciple that a fluid exerts p
r
essure in all directions.
c)
Apply
the principle that a fluid at rest
exerts pressure
perpendicular to any
surface
that
it contacts.
d)
Deter
m
ine locations of equal pressure in a fluid.
e)
Determine the values of absolute and g
a
uge pressure for a particular situation.
f)
App
l
y
the re
la
tionship be
tw
een p
r
essure and depth
i
n a liqu
i
d,
2.
Buoyancy
Students
sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the concept
of bu
o
y
a
n
c
y
,
so th
e
y
can:
a)
Dete
r
m
ine the forces on an object imme
r
s
ed partly or
c
o
m
pletely
in a liquid.
b)
App
l
y
Archimedes’ principle to deter
m
i
ne buo
y
a
nt forces and densities of solids
and
liqu
i
ds.
3.
Fluid
flow
continuity
Students
sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the equati
o
n of
c
ont
i
nui
t
y so that th
e
y can app
l
y
it
t
o fluids in
m
otion.
4.
Bernoulli’s
equation
Students
sh
o
uld
u
nderstand Bernoull
i
’s
equation so
t
hat th
e
y
can app
l
y
it
to flu
i
ds in
m
otion.
B.
Te m
p
erature
and
he at
1.
Mechanical
equivalent
of
heat
Students
sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the “
m
echanical equivalent of heat” so th
e
y
can deter
m
ine how
m
uch heat
can be prod
u
ced by the p
e
rformance
of
a specified quantity of mechanical wo
r
k.
2.
Heat
transfer
and
thermal
expansion
Students
sh
o
uld
u
nderstand heat transfer and ther
m
a
l
expansion, so
th
e
y
can:
a)
Calculate how the flow of heat through
a s
l
ab of mat
e
rial is affec
te
d by
changes in
the
thickness
or area of the slab, or the te
m
p
erature di
f
ference betw
e
e
n the two faces of the s
l
ab.
b)
Anal
y
ze what happens to the size and
sh
a
pe of an obj
e
c
t when it is heated.
c)
Anal
y
ze qual
i
tatively
t
he effects of conduction, radiat
i
on, and c
o
nv
e
ction in
the
r
m
a
l proc
e
sses.
C.
Kinetic
the
o
ry
and
thermodynamics
1.
Ideal
gases
a)
Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the kinetic
t
heo
r
y
m
odel of an ideal gas, so th
e
y
can:
(1)
State the ass
u
m
ptions of the
m
odel.
(2)
State the connection between te
m
pe
r
ature and
m
ean translational kinetic
energ
y
, and
a
pply
it to det
e
r
m
ine the
m
e
an speed of gas
m
olecul
e
s
as a function of their
m
ass
and the te
m
p
erature of the gas.
(3)
State the relationship a
m
ong Avogadr
o
’
s
nu
m
ber, Boltz
m
a
nn’s constant, and
the
gas constant
R
, and express the ene
r
gy
of a
m
ole of a
m
onat
o
mic ideal gas as a function
of its te
m
p
erature.
(4)
Explain qualitatively how
t
he
m
odel ex
p
la
i
ns the pressure of a gas in terms of
collisions
with the container walls, and
e
xplain how
t
he
m
odel
predicts that, for fixed vo
l
u
m
e,
pressure
m
ust be pro
p
orti
o
nal to te
m
perature.
b)
Students sh
o
uld
k
now h
o
w to app
l
y
th
e ideal gas law and ther
m
o
d
y
na
m
ic
principles,
so
they can:
(1)
Relate the pressure and vo
l
u
m
e of a gas during
an iso
t
her
m
al expa
n
s
ion or
c
o
m
pression.
(2)
Relate the pressure and te
m
perature of a gas during c
o
nstant

volu
m
e heating or
cooling,
or t
h
e volu
m
e and
te
m
perature
during
constant

pressure heating or cooling.
(3)
Calculate the
work perfor
m
ed on or
b
y
a
gas during an
expansion or c
o
m
pression at
constant pressure.
(4)
Understand the process of adiabatic expansion or c
o
m
pression of a gas.
(5)
Identify
or sketch on a
PV
diagram
the curves that represent each of the above process
e
s.
2.
Laws
of
ther
m
o
dyna
m
ics
a)
Students sh
o
uld
k
now h
o
w to app
l
y
th
e first law of ther
m
odyna
m
ics, so they
c
a
n:
(1)
Relate the h
e
at absorbed by a gas,
the work perfor
m
ed by
the gas,
and the
internal
energy change of
t
he gas for any of the
processes
above.
(2)
Relate the w
o
rk perfor
m
ed
by
a gas in a c
y
clic process to the area
e
nclosed by
a
curve
on a
P
V
diagra
m
.
b)
Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the second
la
w of ther
m
o
d
y
na
m
ics, the concept of
entrop
y
, and
heat engines and the Carnot
c
y
cle, so they
can:
(1)
Determine whether entropy
will increase, decrease, or re
m
a
in the sa
m
e during a
particular
situation.
(2)
C
o
m
pute the max
i
m
u
m
p
o
ssible efficie
n
cy
of a heat engine operating between
two
given t
em
p
eratures.
(3)
C
o
m
pute the actual effic
ie
ncy
of a heat
engine.
(4)
Relate the h
e
ats exchang
e
d at each the
r
mal re
s
e
rvoir in a Carnot c
y
cle to the
te
m
peratures
of the reservoirs.
III.
ELE
C
TR
IC
ITY
A
ND
M
AG
N
ETISM
25%
A.
Electrostati
c
s
1.
Charge
and
Coulomb’s
Law
a)
Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the concept
of electric c
h
arge,
so they
can:
(1)
Describe the types of charge and
the attraction and repulsion
of c
h
arges.
(2)
Describe polarization and
i
nduced char
ge
s.
b)
Students should understand Coulo
m
b’s
L
a
w and the principle of
s
uperposition,
so
they
can:
(1)
Calculate the
magnitude and direction of
the force on
a positive or
negative
charge
due to
other specified point cha
r
ges.
(2)
Anal
y
ze the
m
otion of a particle of specified charge and
m
ass under the
influence
of an electrostatic
force.
2.
Electr
i
c field
and
electric
pot
e
ntial
(i
n
cluding
poi
n
t
charges)
a)
Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the concept
of electric field, so th
e
y
c
a
n:
(1)
Define it in ter
m
s of the force on a test charge.
(2)
Des
c
ribe and calculate the
electric f
i
eld of a single point charge.
(3)
Calculate the
ma
gnitude and direction of
the electric field pro
d
uced
b
y
two or
m
ore point c
h
arges.
(4)
Calculate the
magnitude and direction of
the force on
a positive or
negative
charge
placed
in a specified field.
(5)
Interpret an electric field
diagra
m
.
(6)
Anal
y
ze the
m
otion of a particle of specified charge and
m
a
ss in a uniform
electric
f
i
eld.
b)
Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the concept
of electric potential, so th
e
y can:
(1)
Determine the electr
i
c potential in the vicini
t
y
of
one
or
m
ore
point charges.
(2)
Calculate the
electric
a
l wo
r
k done on a
c
harge or use conservation of energy to
deter
m
ine the speed of a charge that
m
oves through a
s
pecified potential difference.
(3)
Dete
r
m
ine the direction and approxi
m
a
t
e
m
a
gnitude of the
electric
field at
various
posit
i
ons given a
s
ketch of equ
i
potentials.
(4)
Calculate the
potential difference betw
e
e
n two points
in a uni
f
orm
electric field,
and
state which point
is at the higher
p
o
te
ntial.
(5)
Calculate how
m
uch work is required
to
m
ove a test charge from
o
ne location
to
another in
t
he field of fi
xe
d point cha
r
ges.
(6)
Calculate the
electrostat
i
c potential energy of a
s
y
stem
of two or
m
ore point
charges,
and calculate how
m
uch work
is required to
establish the charge s
y
ste
m
.
B.
Conductors,
capacitors,
die lectr
i
cs
1.
Electrostatics
with
conductors
a)
Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the nature
o
f
electric fields in and ar
o
und co
n
duct
o
rs,
so
th
e
y
can:
(1)
Explain the
m
echanics responsible for
the absence of electric field
inside a
conductor,
and know that all excess cha
r
ge
m
ust
r
e
si
d
e on the surface of the conductor.
(2)
Explain w
h
y a conductor
m
u
st be an equipotential,
a
nd app
l
y this
principle in
anal
y
z
ing
what happens when condu
c
t
o
rs are connected
b
y
wires.
b)
Students sh
o
uld be able to
describe and sketch a graph of the electric field and
potential
ins
i
de and outsi
d
e a charged conducti
n
g s
p
here.
c)
Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand in
d
uced charge and electrostatic shielding, so
t
h
e
y
can:
(1)
Describe the process of charging
b
y in
d
uction.
(2)
Explain w
h
y a neutral conductor is attracted to a charged object.
2.
Capacitors
a)
Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the definit
i
on
and function of capacitance, so they can:
(1)
Relate stored
charge and
voltage for a capacitor.
(2)
Relate voltage, charge, and stored energy for a capacitor.
(3)
Recognize situations in w
h
ich energy stored in a capacitor is converted to other
forms.
b)
Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the p
h
y
s
ics
of the parallel

plate
capacitor, so th
e
y
c
a
n:
(1)
Des
c
ribe the electric f
i
eld inside the capacitor, and relate the strength of this
field
to the potential difference between
t
he plates and the plate separation.
(4)
Determine how changes in dimension
w
ill affect the value
of the capacitance.
C.
Electr
i
c ci
rc
uits
1.
Current,
r
es
i
stance,
pow
e
r
a)
Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the definit
i
on of electric current, so t
h
ey
can relate the magnitude and
direction of
the current to
the rate of flow of
positive and negative
charge.
b)
Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand conduct
i
vi
t
y, r
e
sistivi
t
y
,
and resistance, so th
e
y
can:
(1)
Relate cur
r
ent and voltage for a resistor.
(2)
Write the relationship
between electr
i
c
field strength and current d
e
nsity in a
conductor,
a
n
d
describe, in ter
m
s of the drift veloci
t
y of electrons, why
such
a relationship
i
s plausible.
(3)
Describe how the resistance of a r
e
sistor depends u
po
n its length
a
nd cross

sectional
area, and app
l
y t
h
is result in co
m
p
aring current flow in resistors of
different
m
a
terial or different geo
m
etr
y
.
(6)
App
l
y
the re
la
tionships for
the rate of heat producti
o
n
in a resistor.
2.
Steady

state
direct
c
u
rr
e
nt
circ
u
its
w
i
th
batteries
and
resistors
only
a)
Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the behavi
o
r of series a
n
d
parallel co
m
binations of
resistors,
so they
can:
(1)
Identi
f
y
on a circuit diagram
whether resistors are in series or in parallel.
(2)
Determine the ratio of the
voltages across res
i
stors connected in series or the
ratio
of the c
u
rrents throu
g
h
resistors connected in p
a
rallel.
(3)
Calculate the
equivalent resistance of
a network of resistors that can be broken
down
in
t
o series and parallel c
o
m
binations.
(4)
Calculate the
voltage, current, and
power dissipation
f
or a
n
y
resistor in such a
network
of resistors connected to a sing
l
e power supply.
(5)
Design a s
i
mple series

pa
r
allel circuit
that produces a given current
throu
g
h and
potential
dif
f
erence across one specified
co
m
ponent, and draw a diagram
for the circuit using
conventional
s
y
m
bols.
b)
Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the pr
o
perties of ideal and real batteri
e
s
, so th
e
y
can:
(1)
Calculate the
ter
m
inal voltage of a
battery of specified e
m
f and internal
resistance
from
which a known current
i
s flowing.
c)
Students sh
o
uld be able
to
app
l
y
Oh
m
’
s law and Kirchhof
f
’
s rules to direct

current
circuits,
in o
r
der to:
(1)
Deter
m
ine a single u
n
kno
w
n current, vo
l
tage, or resistance.
(2)
Set up and s
o
lve si
m
ultaneous equations
to deter
m
ine
two un
k
nown
currents.
d)
Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the pr
o
perties of volt
m
eters and a
mm
e
ters, so they
c
a
n:
(1)
State whether
the resistan
c
e of each is high or low.
(2)
Identi
f
y
or s
h
ow correct
me
thods of co
nn
ecting
m
e
ters into circuits in order
t
o
me
asure
voltage or current.
3.
Capacitors
in
circuits
a)
Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the
t
=
0
and stead
y

state behavior of capacitors
connected
in
series or in parallel, so they can:
(1)
Calculate the
equivalent capacitance
of a series or parallel c
o
m
bination.
(2)
Describe how stored charge
is divided
between capacitors connected in parallel.
(3)
Determine the ratio of vol
ta
ges for cap
a
c
itors connected in series.
(4)
Calculate the
voltage or stored charge, under stead
y

s
t
ate condition
s
, for a
capacitor
connected to a circuit consisting of
a battery and resistors.
D.
Magnetic
Fields
1.
Forces
on
moving
charg
e
s
in
magnetic
fields
Students
sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the force experie
n
ced by
a charged particle in a
m
a
g
netic
field,
so th
e
y can:
a)
Calculate the
magnitude and direction of the
force in te
r
m
s of
q
,
v
,
and,
B
,
and
explain
w
h
y
t
he
ma
gnetic force can perform
no work.
b)
Deduce the direction of a
ma
gnetic field from
infor
m
ation abo
u
t the
f
orces
experienced
by charged particles
m
oving thro
u
gh that
field.
c)
Describe the paths
of charged pa
r
ticles
m
oving in u
n
iform
ma
gnetic fields.
d)
Derive and app
l
y
t
he for
m
ula for the radius of the ci
rc
ular path of
a charge that
m
oves perpendicular to a
u
niform
ma
gnetic field.
e)
Describe under what conditions particles
will
m
ove w
i
th
constant v
e
loci
t
y
through
crossed
electric and
ma
gnetic fields.
2.
Forces
on
c
u
rrent

carry
i
ng
wires
in
magnetic
fie
l
ds
Students
sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the force exerted on a current

carr
y
ing
wire in a
m
a
g
netic
field,
so th
e
y can:
a)
Calculate the
ma
gnitude and direction of
the force on
a straight seg
m
ent of current

carr
y
ing wire
in a uni
f
orm
ma
gnetic field.
b)
Indicate the direction of
ma
gnetic forces on a current

carr
y
ing
l
oop
of wire in a
ma
gnetic field, and deter
m
ine how the
l
oop
w
ill tend
to
rotate as a consequence of these forces.
3.
Fields
of
long
current

c
a
rrying
wires
Students
sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the
m
a
gnetic field produ
c
ed
b
y
a l
o
ng
s
traight current

carr
y
ing wir
e
, so th
e
y
can:
a)
Calculate the
ma
gnitude and direction of
the field at a point
i
n the
v
icini
t
y
of su
c
h a
wire.
b)
Use superposition to
deter
m
ine the
m
a
g
netic field produced
b
y two lo
n
g wires.
c)
Calculate the
force of attraction or
repu
l
sion between two long cur
r
ent

carr
y
ing
wires.
E.
Electr
o
magnetism
1.
Electr
o
magnetic
induction
(including
Faraday’s
law
and
Le
n
z
’s
law)
a)
Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the concept
of
ma
gnetic flux, so
t
h
e
y
can:
(1)
Calculate the
flux of a
u
ni
f
orm
ma
gnetic field thro
u
gh
a loop
of ar
b
itrary
orientation.
b)
Students
sh
o
uld
u
nderstand Faraday’s law and Lenz
’
s law, so they can:
(1)
Recognize situations in which ch
a
nging
flux th
r
ough
a loop will cause an induced e
m
f
or current in
t
he loop.
(2)
Calculate the
ma
gnitude and direction of
the induced
e
m
f
and current in a l
o
op of wire or a
conducti
n
g bar
under the fo
l
lowing co
n
di
t
ions:
(a)
The
ma
gnitu
d
e of a related quanti
t
y
such
as
m
a
gnetic field or area of the loop is
chan
g
ing at a cons
ta
nt rate.
IV.
WAVES
A
N
D
OPT
I
CS
15%
A.
Wave
motion
(including
sound)
1.
Traveling
waves
Students
sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the description of travel
i
ng waves, so they can:
a)
Sketch or id
e
ntify
graphs that rep
r
esent traveling waves and determine the a
m
plitude,
wavelength, a
n
d frequen
c
y
o
f a wave fr
o
m
such a
graph.
b)
App
l
y
the re
la
tion a
m
ong wavelength,
frequenc
y
,
and veloci
t
y
for
a wave.
c)
Understand qualitatively the Doppler effect
for sound
in order to explain why
th
e
re is a frequency
shift in
bo
t
h the
m
ovin
g

source and
m
oving

observer case.
d)
Describe reflection of a wave fr
o
m
the fixed or free end of a stri
n
g.
e)
Describe qualitatively
what
factors det
e
rmine the speed of waves on a string and
speed of soun
d
.
2.
Wave
prop
a
gation
a)
Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the differ
en
ce between
transverse and
longi
t
udinal
waves,
and be able to exp
l
ain qualitati
v
ely
why transverse waves can exhibit polarization.
b)
Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the inverse

square law, so th
e
y
can calculate the intensi
t
y
of
w
a
ves at a given distance from
a source
of
specified power and
c
o
m
pare the
i
ntensities at different distances fr
o
m
the source.
3.
Standing
waves
Students
sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the p
h
y
s
ics
of standing
w
a
ves, so they can:
a)
Sketch possi
b
le standing wave
m
odes for a stretched string that is f
i
xed
at both
ends,
and de
te
r
m
ine the a
m
plitude, wavel
e
ngth, and
frequency of
such standing waves.
b)
Describe possible standing
sound waves in
a pipe that
has either open or closed
ends,
and de
te
r
m
ine the wavelength and
frequency of
such standing
waves.
4.
Superposition
Students
sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the princip
l
e of superposition, so
t
h
e
y can apply it
t
o traveling waves
m
oving in
opposite dir
e
ct
i
ons, and d
e
scribe how a standing wa
v
e
ma
y
be for
m
ed
b
y
s
u
perpo
s
ition.
B.
Phys ical
optics
1.
Inter
f
ere
n
ce
and
diffraction
Students
sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the interference and diffraction of waves, so they
c
a
n:
a)
App
l
y
the pr
i
nciples of in
te
rferen
c
e to coherent sources in order to:
(1)
Describe the conditions under which
the waves reach
i
ng an observation point
from
two or
m
ore sources
will all interf
e
re constructively, or
under
which the waves fr
o
m
t
w
o sources will interfere destructivel
y
.
(2)
Determine locations of in
te
rference
m
a
xi
m
a or
m
ini
m
a for two sources or
deter
m
ine the frequencies
or
wavelengths that
can lead to constructive or destructive
interference at
a certain point.
(3)
Relate the amplitude p
r
od
u
ced by two or
m
ore sources that interfere constructively to
the a
m
plitude and int
e
nsity pr
o
duced
b
y
a si
n
gle source.
b)
App
l
y
the pr
i
nciples of in
te
rference and diffraction to
waves that pass through a single or
double slit or th
r
ough a diffraction grating,
so th
e
y
can:
(1)
Sketch or id
e
nti
f
y
the
i
ntensity pattern
t
hat results when
m
onochro
m
atic waves pass through
a
single slit and fall on a d
i
stant screen, and describe how this
pattern
will change if the slit
width or
th
e wavelength of the waves is changed.
(2)
Calculate, for a single

slit pattern, the ang
l
es or the positions on a distant screen
where
the intensity
is zero.
(3)
Sketch
or id
e
nti
f
y
the
i
ntensity pattern
t
hat results when
m
onochro
m
atic waves
pass
through
a double slit,
and identi
f
y which features of the pattern result from single

slit
diffraction and
which from
t
w
o

slit interference.
(4)
Calculate, for a two

slit
interference
pattern, the angles or the posit
i
ons on a
distant
screen
at which inten
s
ity
m
a
xi
m
a
or
m
ini
m
a occur.
(5)
Describe or identi
f
y
the interference pattern for
m
ed by a diffraction grating,
calculate
the
l
ocation of in
te
nsity
m
a
x
i
ma, and explain q
ualitative
l
y why
a
m
ultiple

slit
grating is bet
t
er than
a two

slit grating for making accurate deter
m
inations of wavelength.
c)
App
l
y
the pr
i
nciples of in
te
rference to l
i
ght reflected by
th
i
n fil
m
s,
so th
e
y
can:
(1)
State under what conditions a
phase rever
s
al occurs when light
is reflected fr
o
m
the
interface
between two media of
different indices of refraction.
(2)
Deter
m
ine whether ra
y
s of
m
onochr
o
ma
tic light reflected perpendicularly
from
two
such interfaces will interfere const
r
u
c
tively or
destructively, and thereby account for
Newton’s rings
and si
m
ilar pheno
m
ena, a
n
d explain
ho
w
glass
ma
y be coated to
m
ini
m
ize
reflection of vis
i
ble light.
2.
Dispe
r
sion
of
light
and
the
elec
t
romagnetic
sp
e
ctr
u
m
Students
sh
o
uld
u
nderstand dispersion
a
nd
the electro
ma
gnetic spectr
u
m
, so they can:
a)
Relate a variation of
i
ndex
of refraction
w
ith frequency to a variati
o
n in refraction.
b)
Know the names
assoc
i
at
e
d with electr
oma
gnetic radiation and be
a
ble to arrange
in
order of
in
creasing wa
v
e
length
the f
o
llowing: vis
ib
le light of
various colors, ultraviolet
light, infrared l
i
ght, rad
i
o
waves, x

ra
y
s
,
a
nd ga
mm
a ra
y
s
.
C.
Geometric
o
ptics
1.
Refle
c
tion
and
refracti
o
n
Students
sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the princip
l
es of reflecti
o
n and refraction, so th
e
y
can:
a)
Deter
m
ine how the speed and wavelength
of li
g
ht ch
a
nge when li
g
ht passes from
one
m
e
di
u
m
into ano
t
her.
b)
Show on a diagram
the directions of reflected and ref
r
acted ra
y
s
.
c)
Use Snell’s Law to relate
t
he directions of the incident ray
and
the refrac
t
ed ra
y
,
and
the indi
c
e
s of refracti
o
n of the
m
e
dia.
d)
Identi
f
y
conditions under which t
o
tal internal reflect
i
on will occur.
2.
Mirrors
Students
sh
o
uld
u
nderstand i
m
age formation
b
y pla
n
e or spherical
m
irrors, so they can:
a)
Locate by
r
a
y tracing the image of an
object formed by
a plane
m
i
rror, and
deter
m
ine w
h
ether
the i
m
age is real or virtual, upri
g
ht
or inverted,
e
nlarged or reduced in size.
b)
Relate the foc
a
l point
of a spherical
m
ir
r
or to its center of curvature.
c)
Locate by
r
a
y tracing the image of a real object, giv
e
n a diagram
o
f a
m
irror wi
t
h
the
focal poi
n
t shown, and
deter
m
ine w
h
ether the i
m
age is real or virtual, upri
g
ht
or inverted,
enlarged or redu
c
ed in size.
d)
Use the
m
irr
o
r equation to
relate the object distance,
i
m
age distanc
e
, and focal
length
for a l
e
ns, and deter
m
ine the i
m
age size in ter
m
s of the ob
j
ect size.
3.
Lenses
Students
sh
o
uld
u
nderstand i
m
age formation
b
y
c
o
n
v
erging or
di
ve
rging lenses, so they can:
a)
Dete
r
m
ine
whether the focal length of a
lens is increased or decreased as a result of
a
change in the curvature of its surfaces,
or
in the ind
e
x of refraction of the
m
a
te
r
ial of which the
le
ns is
m
a
de,
or the
m
e
di
u
m
in which it is
i
mmersed.
b)
Dete
r
m
ine by ray
tracing
the location of the image of a
real object located inside or
outside
the f
o
cal point of
th
e lens, and state whether the resulting
im
age is upright or inverted,
r
eal or virtual.
c)
Use the thin lens equation
t
o relate t
h
e object distanc
e
, image
distance, and focal length for a
l
e
ns, and deter
m
ine the i
m
age size in ter
m
s of the ob
j
ect size.
d)
Anal
y
ze si
m
p
le situations in which the
image fo
r
m
ed by
one lens serves as the object for
an
o
ther lens.
V.
ATO
M
IC
A
ND
N
U
CL
E
AR
PHYSI
C
S
10%
A.
Atomic
physics
and
qua
n
tum
effects
1.
Photons,
the
photoelectric
effect,
C
o
mpton
scatter
i
ng,
x

rays
a)
Students sh
o
uld
k
now the
properties of
phot
o
ns, so
t
hey
can:
(1)
Relate the e
n
ergy of a p
h
o
t
on in
j
oules
o
r electron

volts to its wavelength or
frequenc
y
.
(2)
Relate the linear
m
o
me
ntum
of a photon
to its ener
g
y or wavelength, and ap
pl
y
linear
m
o
m
e
n
tum
conser
va
tion to
si
m
ple processes i
n
volvi
n
g the
e
m
ission, absorption,
or
reflection of phot
o
ns.
(3)
Calculate the
nu
m
ber of photons per second e
m
itted by a
m
onochro
m
atic source of
specific wavelength and
power.
b)
Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the p
h
otoe
l
ectric effect,
so th
e
y
can:
(1)
Describe a typical photoe
l
ectric

effect experi
me
nt, and explain w
h
at experi
m
e
ntal
observations
provide ev
i
dence
for the p
h
oton
nature
o
f light.
(2)
Describe qualitatively how
the nu
m
ber
of pho
t
oelectrons and their
ma
xi
m
u
m kinetic energy
depend
on
t
he wavelength
a
nd intensi
t
y of the l
i
ght
striking the
surface,
and account for this dependence
in terms of a photon
m
odel of light.
(3)
Deter
m
ine the
m
a
xi
m
u
m
k
inetic energy of ph
o
toelectrons ejected by p
h
otons of
one
ener
g
y
or
wavelength, when given
t
he
ma
xi
m
u
m
kinetic energy of photoelectro
n
s
for a different p
h
oton en
e
r
g
y
or wavelength.
(4)
Sketch or id
e
nti
f
y
a
graph
of stopp
i
ng
p
otential versus frequency
f
or a
photoelectric

effect
experi
me
nt, deter
m
ine from
such
a graph the t
h
reshold frequency
a
n
d
work f
u
nction, and calcu
la
te an appro
x
i
m
ate value
o
f
h
/
e
.
c)
Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand Co
m
pton scattering, so t
h
ey
can:
(1)
Describe Co
m
pton’s experi
m
e
nt, and state what results were observed and
b
y
what
sort of anal
y
s
is these results
m
a
y
be explained.
(2)
Account qualitatively
f
or
t
he increase of pho
t
on wavelength that is
observed,
and
explain
t
he significance
of the Co
m
pton wavelength.
d)
Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the nature and pr
o
ducti
o
n
of x

r
a
y
s
, so
they can
calculate
the
shortest
wavelength of
x

ra
y
s
t
hat
ma
y
b
e produced
b
y electrons acce
l
erated t
h
rough a specified voltage.
2.
Ato
m
ic
energy
levels
Students
sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the concept
of energy
levels for at
o
m
s,
so th
e
y
can:
a)
Calculate the
energy or wavelength of
th
e phot
o
n e
m
itted or absor
b
ed in a
transition
be
tw
een specif
i
ed levels, or t
h
e energy or wavelength required to i
o
nize an ato
m
.
b)
Explain qualitatively
t
he o
r
igin of e
m
iss
i
on or abso
r
pt
i
on spectra of gases.
c)
Calculate the
wavelength or energy for
a
single

step transition between levels,
given
the wavelengths or
energies of pho
t
ons e
m
itted or absorbed in a two

step
transition
be
tw
een the same levels.
d)
Draw a diagram
to depict the energy le
ve
ls of an atom
when given an expression
for
these levels,
and expla
i
n how this
d
i
a
g
ram
accounts for the various lines in
t
he at
o
m
ic spect
r
u
m
.
3.
Wave

particle
duality
Students
sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the concept
of de Broglie
wavelength, so th
e
y
can:
a)
Calculate the
wavelength of a pa
r
ticle as a function
of its
m
o
me
ntu
m
.
b)
Describe the Davisson

Ger
m
er experi
me
nt, and e
x
plain how it
pro
v
ides evidence
for
the wave nature
of electrons.
B.
Nucle ar
Phys ics
1.
Nuclear
r
ea
c
tions
(including
conservation
of
mass
number
and
charge)
a)
Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the signifi
c
a
nce of the
ma
ss n
u
m
ber and charge of
nuclei,
so th
e
y can:
(1)
Interpret s
y
mbols for nuclei
that
indicate these quantities.
(2)
Use conservation of
m
a
ss
nu
m
ber and c
h
arge to complete nuclear reactions.
(3)
Deter
m
ine the
m
a
ss n
u
m
ber and cha
r
ge of a nucleus
after it has undergone
specified
de
c
a
y
processes.
b)
Students sh
o
uld
k
now the
nature of
the
nuclear force,
so th
e
y
can co
m
pa
r
e its
strength
and
ra
nge with th
os
e of the electro
ma
gnetic force.
c)
Students sh
o
uld
u
nderstand nuclear fission, so
t
h
e
y
can describe a
typical neutr
o
n

induced
fissi
o
n and explain
why a chain
reaction is possible.
2.
Mass

energy
equivalence
Students
sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the relatio
ns
hip between ma
s
s and energy
(
m
a
ss

e
n
ergy equivalence),
so th
e
y
can:
a)
Qualitatively relate the energy
released in
nuclear processes to the change in
m
a
ss.
b)
App
l
y
the re
la
tionship
in
anal
y
z
ing nu
c
lear proces
s
e
s
.
LA
B
OR
AT
ORY
AND
EX
PERIME
N
TAL
SI
T
U
A
TIONS
These
objectives overlay
the content objective
s
, and are a
s
se
s
s
ed
i
n the context
of those objectives.
1.
Design
expe
r
iments
Students
sh
o
uld
u
nderstand the process
of designi
n
g
experi
m
e
nts,
so th
e
y
can:
a)
Describe the purpose of an
experi
me
nt or a problem
to be investig
a
ted.
b)
Identi
f
y
equ
i
p
m
ent needed and describe how it is to
b
e used.
c)
Draw a diagram
or provi
d
e a description of an exper
ime
ntal setup.
d)
Describe procedures to be
us
ed, includi
n
g
controls a
n
d
m
e
asure
m
ents to be tak
e
n.
2.
Observe
and
measure
re
a
l
phenomena
Students
sh
o
uld be able to
ma
ke relev
a
nt observati
o
ns, and be ab
l
e to take
me
asure
m
ents with a
variety of instru
me
nts (cannot be assessed
v
ia paper

and

pencil exa
m
inations).
3.
Analy
z
e
data
Students
sh
o
uld
u
nderstand how to
anal
y
ze data, so
t
hey
can:
a)
Display
data
i
n graphical or
tabular for
m
.
b)
Fit lines and
curves to data points
i
n gr
a
phs.
c)
Perform
ca
l
culations with
data.
d)
Make extrapolations and
i
n
terpolations
f
rom
data.
4.
Analy
z
e
err
o
rs
Students
sh
o
uld
u
nderstand
m
e
asure
m
ent
a
nd exper
ime
ntal error,
so th
e
y
can:
a)
Identi
f
y
sour
c
e
s of error and how th
e
y p
r
opagate.
b)
Esti
m
a
te
ma
g
nitude and
di
r
ection of err
o
rs.
c)
Determine s
i
gnificant dig
i
ts.
d)
Identi
f
y
wa
y
s
to reduce error.
5.
Commun
i
cate
resul
t
s
Students
sh
o
uld
u
nderstand how to
su
mma
r
i
ze and communicate
r
e
sults, so they can:
a)
Draw infere
n
ces and concl
u
sions from
experi
me
ntal
data.
b)
Suggest wa
y
s
to i
m
prove experi
me
nt.
c)
Propose questions for fur
the
r study.
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