T 3, P 3.2

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26 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

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T
HEME

3, P
ROJECT

3.2

T
HO

L
E
-
N
GOC

( M
C
G
I LL

U
NI VERSI TY
)

Q
UANG
-
D
UNG

H
O

( R
ESEARCH

A
SSOCI ATE
)

G
OWDEMY

R
AJALI NGHAM

( ME
NG

S
TUDENT
)

C
HON
-
W
ANG

C
HAO

( ME
NG

S
TUDENT
)

Y
UE

G
AO

( ME
NG

S
TUDENT
)


2

AGM 2013, Vancouver

S
UMMARY

NSMG
-
Net Project 3.2: Gowdemy Rajalingham


Performed an evaluation of promising wired and wireless technologies


Conducted a comparative study of potential radio access technology
interconnections


Proposed the integration of Wi
-
Fi Mesh and LTE for the network architecture

Technology Integration and Network Architecture Design


Determined promising routing protocols (GPSR, RPL) for the NAN


Evaluated performance of
GPSR in wireless mesh NAN

Feasibility of wireless mesh for the
NAN


Estimated data rate requirements
with IEC 61850
based messaging in ADA scenarios


Examined
impact
of channel
contention at MAC layer on achievable PLC throughput

Applicability of PLC for Advanced Distribution Automation


Proposing
a new aggregator based
EV charging
control scheme with priority indices


Proposing joint
simulation platform to study the effects of communication
on FR

Frequency Regulation Using EV Charging
Control over Wireless Communications

3

AGM 2013, Vancouver

P
ROPOSED

S
YSTEM

A
RCHITECTURE

& E
VALUATION

NSMG
-
Net Project 3.2: Gowdemy Rajalingham

Fig. 1


Neighbor Area Network

Fig. 2


Simulation Scenario, sweep of cluster size

T
ABLE

1


S
IMULATION

P
ARAMETERS

Channel Model

Simple pathloss


pathloss exponent

Lognormal

shadowing


variance

MAC layer

IEEE 802.11

Routing Protocol

Greedy

Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR)

Performance Metrics

Packet Transmission Delay,

Packet Deliver
y Ratio

Traffic

Per
-
node data rate
-


Topology

Clusters of size
-


System Parameters

Sweeps of p
er
-
node data rate &
clusters of size for

[dB]

Objective


Determine
capabilities
and limitations of NAN
with GPSR


Investigate NAN clusters performance
with various
system
parameters

4

AGM 2013, Vancouver

F
EASIBILITY

OF

C
ANDIDATE

R
OUTING

FOR

N
AN

Performance Versus Cluster Size and Data Rate

Current Estimates


Base Rate
: NIST Data Rate of 0.00195 pps (based on simple meter readings)


Typical AMI deployment NAN size
: A few 1000s of smart meters


Results


Can maintain
latency < 100 ms
for up to
6000 nodes
for data rates up to
10x base data rate


Can maintain
PDR > 95%
for up to
6000 nodes
for data rates up to
10x base data rate


At
100x base data rate
, to maintain
latency < 100 ms

and
PDR > 95%
, cannot exceed a cluster size of roughly
1500

NSMG
-
Net Project 3.2: Gowdemy Rajalingham

Fig. 4


𝝈
=
𝟒
, Packet Delivery ratio vs.
Cluster size

Fig. 3


𝝈
=
𝟒
,
95% Percentile of
delay vs.
Cluster size

5

AGM 2013, Vancouver

P
UBLICATIONS

[1] Quang
-
Dung
Ho, Gao Yue and Tho Le
-
Ngoc, “Challenges and Research Opportunities in Wireless Communication Networks for Smart
Grid”,

IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine
, June 2013.

[2] Chon
-
Wang
Chao, Quang
-
Dung Ho and Tho Le
-
Ngoc,

”Challenges
of Power Line Communications for

Advanced Distribution
Automation in Smart
Grid”,
2013 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting,
Vancouver
-
Canada
,
July 21
-
25 2013.

[3] Gowdemy
Rajalingham, Quang
-
Dung Ho and Tho Le
-
Ngoc, “Attainable Throughput, Delay and Scalability for Geographic Routing on
Smart Grid Neighbor Area Networks”,

2013 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC 2013)
, Shanghai
-
China, 7
-
10 April 2013.

[4]
Gowdemy Rajalingham and Quang
-
Dung Ho, “LTE
HetNets
: Challenges and Opportunities for Integration of Smart Grid Networks”,
Technical Report
, McGill, April 2013.

[
5]
Chon
-
Wang
Chao and Quang
-
Dung Ho, “Communication Standard and Network Infrastructure Considerations for Smart
Grid”,

Technical Report
, McGill, 2012.

[
6]Yue
Gao and Quang
-
Dung Ho, “OMNET Implementation of RPL for Smart Grid Neighbor Area Networks”,

Technical Report
, McGill,
December 2012
.


NSMG
-
Net Project 3.2: Gowdemy Rajalingham

6

7

AGM 2013, Vancouver

I
NTRODUCTION

Objective

Project
3.2 aims to study and to develop relevant transmission, information processing, and networking techniques
for an efficient and reliable IMG Communication Network (IMGCN
)

Issues

The
successful implementation of the Intelligent MicroGrids (IMGs) requires an
efficient communications
infrastructure

that
is
cost
-
effective
,
scalable
,
fault
-
tolerant
,
secure

& satisfies the
QoS

requirements (data rate,
delay, reliability)




NSMG
-
Net Project 3.2: Gowdemy Rajalingham

Fig. x


Full Abstract System Architecture Model

8

9

AGM 2013, Vancouver

A
PPLICABILITY

OF

P
OWER
-
L
INE

C
OMMUNICATIONS

Key Contributions


Calculated the expected data rate requirements with IEC 61850 message architecture and power network
parameters


Examined the impacts of channel competition with Carrier Sense Multi
-
Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA)
algorithm on saturation throughput (T) and bandwidth
requirement


Further details in poster “Throughput Analysis of Narrowband PLC in Advanced Distribution Automation”

NSMG
-
Net Project 3.2: Gowdemy Rajalingham

Fig. x


Communication PLC Network

10

AGM 2013, Vancouver

A
PPLICABILITY

OF

P
OWER
-
L
INE

C
OMMUNICATIONS

Summary of Results


Expected data rate with
only PLC supporting
advanced distribution automation is 310.69 kbps


Throughput and bandwidth requirement variation


T decreases as the number of nodes increases (higher probability of collision)


The optional Request to Send/Clear to Send mechanism can increase the T with same number of nodes and reduce to
growth rate of bandwidth requirement


Existing field tested PLC technology may not be able to provide enough data rate


Further details in poster “Throughput Analysis of Narrowband PLC in Advanced Distribution Automation”

NSMG
-
Net Project 3.2: Gowdemy Rajalingham

Fig. x


Communication PLC Network

11

12

AGM 2013, Vancouver

F
REQUENCY

R
EGULATION

U
SING

EV C
HARGING

C
ONTROL

Key
Contributions


Proposed
a new aggregator based electric vehicle charging control scheme with priority
indices


Proposed to use the joint simulation platform to study the effects of communication delays and
packet
loss


Further details in poster
“Cost
-
Effective Frequency Regulation by Aggregator
-
based EV Charging
Control via Wireless Communications”


NSMG
-
Net Project 3.2: Gowdemy Rajalingham

Fig. x


Proposed Control Structure and Neighborhood Mapping

13

AGM 2013, Vancouver

F
REQUENCY

R
EGULATION

U
SING

EV C
HARGING

C
ONTROL

Control System Model


Further
details in poster
“Cost
-
Effective Frequency Regulation by Aggregator
-
based EV Charging Control via
Wireless Communications”


NSMG
-
Net Project 3.2: Gowdemy Rajalingham

Fig. x


Proposed Control Block Diagram and Joint Simulation Setup

14

AGM 2013, Vancouver

F
REQUENCY

R
EGULATION

U
SING

EV C
HARGING

C
ONTROL

Communications Model


Further
details in poster
“Cost
-
Effective Frequency Regulation by Aggregator
-
based EV Charging Control via
Wireless Communications”


NSMG
-
Net Project 3.2: Gowdemy Rajalingham

Fig. x


EV Selection Algorithm






15

AGM 2013, Vancouver

F
REQUENCY

R
EGULATION

U
SING

EV C
HARGING

C
ONTROL

Illustrative Example


Further
details in poster
“Cost
-
Effective Frequency Regulation by Aggregator
-
based EV Charging Control via
Wireless Communications”


NSMG
-
Net Project 3.2: Gowdemy Rajalingham

Fig. x


Illustrative Example






Number of EV = 120

I
threshold

= 98

16

17

AGM 2013, Vancouver

S
URVEY

OF

T
ECHNOLOGIES

Wired Technologies


Economically feasible when network cables and related facilities are pre
-
existing and readily available at
acceptable low costs


More suitable for back
-
haul links for large volume of traffic


Example:
Digital subscriber line (DSL), leased line, power line communications (PLC), fiber optics …

NSMG
-
Net Project 3.2: Gowdemy Rajalingham

Fig. x


Potential Technologies

Wireless Technologies


Home Area Network


10
-
100 kbps


Coverage area of up to 100
m
2


Example: ZigBee, WirelessHART,
6LowPan, Bluetooth, …


Neighbor Area Network


10
-
100 kbps


Coverage area of up to several km
2


Example: Wi
-
Fi, Wi
-
Fi Mesh, …


Wide Area Network


10
-
100
Mbps


Coverage area of up to
several 100
km
2


Example
:
WiMax
, LTE, …



18

AGM 2013, Vancouver

C
ANDIDATE

W
IRELESS

A
RCHITECTURES

NSMG
-
Net Project 3.2: Gowdemy Rajalingham

T
ABLE

X



LTE P
ERFORMANCE

C
HARACTERISTICS

[1]

Latency


Best case latency


6
ms

for short packets (<40 bytes)


11
ms

for longer packets (>40 bytes)

Max
Users


Max users is less than the number of LTE
Resource Blocks available


LTE Control Channels are bottlenecks


Data aggregation is necessary

Fig. X


Potential NAN/WAN Interconnections

LEGEND:
Excellent
,
Adequate
,
Deficient

T
ABLE

X

I
NTERFERENCE

L
ATENCY

T
HROUGHPUT

S
CHEDULING

S
ELF
-
O
RGANIZING

N
ETWORKS

D
IRECT

T
RANSMISSION

Interference

LTE uplink
latency


No data aggregation


Wasted capacity

High complexity

No need for SONs

M
ULTI
-
H
OP

WITH

W
I
-
F
I

CLUSTERS


Out of band w.r.t.
LTE


Interference

Extra
tier
-
ing

delay


Data aggregation

at GW &
in mesh network


Potential

for network coding

Lower
complexity
(aggregation)

SONs are Wi
-
Fi
mesh networks

M
ULTI
-
H
OP

WITH

LTE S
MALL

C
ELLS


Interference


Coverage

gaps


Power control
needed

Extra
tier
-
ing

delay

Data aggregation

at small cell
BS

Lower
complexity
(aggregation)

Need for SONs

for
LTE femto
-
cells


19

AGM 2013, Vancouver

P
ROPOSED

S
YSTEM

A
RCHITECTURE

NSMG
-
Net Project 3.2: Gowdemy Rajalingham

T
ABLE

X



LTE P
ERFORMANCE

C
HARACTERISTICS

[1]

Latency


Best case latency


6
ms

for short packets (<40 bytes)


11
ms

for longer packets (>40 bytes)

Max
Users


Max users is less than the number of LTE
Resource Blocks available


LTE Control Channels are bottlenecks


Data aggregation is necessary

Fig. X


Potential NAN/WAN Interconnections

Fig. X


Proposed NAN/WAN Interconnections

Fig. x


Neighbor Area Network

20

21

AGM 2013, Vancouver

N
EIGHBOR

A
REA

N
ETWORK

NSMG
-
Net Project 3.2: Gowdemy Rajalingham

Fig. x


Potential Technologies

Fig. x


Full Abstract System Architecture Model

Fig. x


Neighbor Area Network

Network Characteristics


Network
of smart meters,
repeaters, collectors


Static, line powered,
heterogeneous multi
-
tiered
network


Communications protocols
must be robust, scalable,
self
-
configurable and self
-
healing

Traffic Characteristics


Multiple
-
Point
-
to
-
Point


Point
-
to
-
Multiple
-
Point


Point
-
to
-
Point


Large volume of
devices


Short
bursty packets


Quality of Service (
QoS
)
differentiation


Mix of real
-
time ( < 10
ms
) and non
-
real
-
time
traffic (seconds
-

min)

22

AGM 2013, Vancouver

N
EIGHBOR

A
REA

N
ETWORK

NSMG
-
Net Project 3.2: Gowdemy Rajalingham

Fig. x


Neighbor Area Network

Network Characteristics


Network
of smart meters, repeaters, collectors


Static, line powered, heterogeneous multi
-
tiered network


Communications protocols must be robust, scalable, self
-
configurable
and self
-
healing

Traffic Characteristics


Multi
-
point
-
to
-
point, point
-
to
-
multi
-
point, point
-
to
-
point


Large volume of
devices with short
bursty packets


Quality of Service (
QoS
) differentiation


R
eal
-
time (<10ms
)
& non
-
real
-
time
traffic
(sec/min
)

23

AGM 2013, Vancouver

F
EASIBILITY

OF

C
ANDIDATE

R
OUTING

FOR

N
AN

Objective


Determine
the capabilities and limitations of
NAN


With respect to
ability
to host
MicroGrid
applications


With GPSR routing protocol


Thus, performance of NAN clusters with various
system parameters is
investigated


Expected Results


As
channel conditions worsen, performance
degrades due to more likely packet corruption and
retransmissions


As
data rate increases, higher chance for channel
contention, back
-
offs and packet retransmissions
lead to increased delay and reduced
reliability


As
cluster size increases,


Increase in network load and average hop
count


Significant increase in network delay with
decreasing PDR

NSMG
-
Net Project 3.2: Gowdemy Rajalingham

T
ABLE

X



S
IMULATION

P
ARAMETERS

Channel Model

Simple pathloss


pathloss exponent

Lognormal

shadowing


variance

Radio Access Technology

IEEE 802.11

Network Routing Protocol

Greedy

Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR)

Performance Metrics

Packet Transmission Delay

Packet Deliver
y Ratio

Traffic

Per
-
node data rate
-


Topology

Clusters of size
-


System Parameters
Investigated

Sweeps of
variance
, p
er
-
node data rate
and
clusters of size

Default

values:

,

,

[dB]

Fig. x


Simulation Scenario, sweep of cluster size