Review of Cellular Data Communication Technologies

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12 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

103 εμφανίσεις

Gordon Sulc

L04 James/Koblasz

Antitheft GPS Tracking

Review of
Cellular Data
Communication Technologies

Introduction

Cellular

communications have long been in place
. Consumer demand
fo
r

mobile internet
and high
bandwidth media streaming
requi
res
newer

tech
nology.

There are many mobile phone communication
standards
. Second generation (2G) technologies are still currently used for voi
ce and SMS communication
because current infrastructure provides wide coverage.
3G

is the current high speed mobile
communicati
on technology

set
which has significantly less infrastructure than 2G
. []
Telecom providers
have

recently been

slowly

rolling out

4G service
. However, these are all evolved 3G technologies
that

do
not

meet the 100 Mbps requirements

for 4G
laid out by the R
adiocommunication Sector of the
International Telecommunication Union
.

Notwithstanding,
ITU
-
R

has allowed telecomm companies to
market the
se evolved 3G technologies a 4G

[
1
]
.

It will take about 10

years for 4G to fully roll out which
will leave 3G at the t
op of the market for
high speed mobile communication

[2]
.

This paper

focuses on

c
omparing

various

standards on the market.


Overview of Current and Emerging Standards


The 2G technology space contends two major standards
:

GSM and IS
-
95 (sometimes called
CD
MA).
GSM uses Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) while IS
-
95 uses Code Division Multiple
Access (CDMA) to multiplex multiple users on the same signal.
GSM has a technical limitation
of . The
use of a Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) which allows users to

easily change handsets and providers
leaves GSM the only standard outside of North America. IS
-
95 uses locked hardware and software to
authenticate users.
2G supports bandwidth up to 20 Kbps [3].

This standard division continued on into the 3G technology
space with UMTS
following GSM
and CDMA2000

following IS
-
95.
Combining 2G and 3G technologies, GSM captures 84% of the world
market, leaving CDMA to a mere 13% appearing only in North America [
4
]
.

3G supports bandwidth up
to 3 Mbps with CDMA2000 and 2 Mbps
with UMTS [3].

Competitors in the 4G space are

3GGP Long Term Evolution

(
LTE
)

and

IEE 802.16e

(
WiMAX
)
.

LTE has a peak load of 100 Mbps while WiMAX has a peak load of 128 Mbps.
Carriers have favored the
LTE standard

to phase into 4G, leaving WiMAX in the du
st.

T
-
Mobile currently offers peak speeds of 20
Mbps technology

[4].

It will be some time before the maximum bandwidth specifications are met.


Building Blocks of Implementing Wireless Communications


Mobile service requires vast amounts of infrastructure.

Mobile communication towers are
expensive to build which makes adopting new technologies a slow and expensive process. The
GSM
standard

conveniently
allows for the use of repeaters, making coverage more cost
-
effective.

The addition
of competing technologi
es

which interfere with each other [6]

has left carriers reluctant to invest as they
preferred to wait and see which technology succeeds.




References

[
1
]

ITU World Radiocommunication Seminar highlights future communication technologies

December 6, 2010
[Online]
.

Available:
www.
itu
.int/net/pressoffice/press_releases/2010/48.aspx

[
2
]

LOVE J. New Tacks Are Taken To Roll Out 4G Infrastructure. Microwaves & RF [serial on the
Internet]. (2011, Oct); 50(10): 16. Available from: Academic Search Complete.

[3]

2G

and 3G cellular networks:
Their impact on today’
s enterprise
mobility solutions…
and
future
mobility strategies

[Online]. Available:
http://www.bm
-
tricon.com/images/doku/motorola_2g
-
and
-
3g
-
cellular
-
networks.pdf

[
4
]

2Q 2011 Subscriber Statistics [Online].
A
vailable:
http://www.cdg.org/worldwide/report/112Q_cdma_subscriber_report.pdf

[
5
]

T
-
Moblie Network Technology [Online] Available:
http://t
-
mobile
-
coverage.t
-
mobile.com/4g
-
wireless
-
technology


[6]

PCS
FAQ [Onine]. Available:
http://www.arcx.com/sites/faq.htm