7.2.3 USSD This section requires more descriptive information. I will update this section next.

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7.2.3 USSD

This section requires more descriptive information. I will update this section

Cell Broadcast

Cell Broadcast (CB) is a mobile technology that allows messages to be broadcast
to all mobile handsets within a designated

CB me
ssaging can be supported by
most mobile network operators as it is defined by the ETSI’s GSM committee and
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based subscriber services, such as region

local weather

traffic conditions
. CB
can also be used for managing
and communicating
with remote teams

such as

services or volunteers. The emergency services could send an encrypted
message out to all officers or other staff in a certain area to respond to an incident.
Cell Broadcast is ideal for delivering local or regional information which is suited
to all the
people in that area, rather than just one or a few people. Examples include
hazard warnings, cinema programs, local

health concerns flight or bus
delays, tourist information, parking and traffic information.

The main use of this technology in de
veloping nations is for deploying Early
Warning System (EWS) for citizen
s. CB
can be used
warning system


to contact citizens on their
obile phones to warn them of incidents
in a particular area

Some countries
have already adopted this tec

forms of communication like sire
, or radio and TV.


The advantage of this system is that it allows sending messages without
having to know the phone numbers of the users in the region. Instead of
sending a messa
ge to a specific known mobile phone you can send a text to all
mobile phones in a specific zone. Mass communication, very fast, in case it
really matters.

Regardless of network state (congested or not) CB is always available. As
opposed to SMS, CB is part
of the so
called 'low
level' signaling between
handset and network. E.g. in the case of network congestion it will be
impossible to use regular voice and SMS services while CB will remain fully
It is not as affected by traffic load; therefore,

it may be usable
during a disaster when loa
d spikes tend to crash networks.

The CB is a mature systems that has been around for over a decade and robust
to support national public warning systems, examples of national
implementations exist in Japan, Net
herlands and USA
CB is specified in
GSM and in UMTS and will be specified in LTE, the successor of UMTS,
making it future proof.

Every handset including when roaming (example: foreign and national
roaming MVNOs) which is connected to the network receive
s the message.
When someone has the warning service enabled and this person visits another
country, this person will also receive warning messages, provided that this
network also offers the warning service.


Cell Broadcast is a feature of the

network, and some
do not
have the
Cell Broadcast messaging function activated in their network yet,

Yes; every
operator needs to have a Cell Broadcast Centre and CB functionality enabled
in its network to you the service

There are numerous

that do
not have the capability to support cell

Another problem is that the user can switch the receiving of Cell Broadcast
messages option on or off. This means that the operator has no means of
knowing who is receiving the message

There is

a cost to setting up a CB center used to compose and deliver the
messages onto the
network for delivery to the handsets.

Enabling the CB functionality in a handset will lead to increased battery
consumption. In a thesis from the University of Nor
rköping, "Support for Cell
Broadcast as a Global Warning System", the additional battery consumption is
calculated to be very small, especially compared to today's features such as
Bluetooth, Wi
Fi, UMTS, full color displays, and built
in MP3 players, whic
consume far more battery power