Unit 03 Hardware Issues

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2 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Unit 03


Hardware Issues

Presented by:

Marjorie Ruschau, Allison Yantz,

and Benjamin Shum

Overview

The
motherboard

should
be thought of as the
computer’s central
nervous system, and the
microprocessor chip
as
the brain.

The Central Processing Unit

So how do you choose the
right motherboard?


Size, or form factor

The most popular motherboard form
factor today is ATX. Almost all
computers use this type.



A chipset controls the flow of
information in the motherboard.


It cannot be upgraded without
upgrading the whole board.



NVidia

and Via make chipsets for both
AMD and Intel processors.


AMD and Intel only make chipsets
compatible with their own processors.

What are Microprocessors?


Microprocessors

consist of a system of
transistors, which act as on/off switches (or 1/0 in
binary language) to represent different kinds of
data.



The size of your processor is measured in 0s or 1s,
called
bits
.



8 bits = 1 byte


1,000 bytes = 1 kilobyte (KB)


1,000,000 bytes = 1 megabyte (MB)




…and so on.

PC Vs. Macintosh


Microsoft Windows are designed
to run on Intel processors, Apple
computers use Motorola
-
type
chips.



The PowerPC chip, by Apple,
IBM, and Motorola, allowed for
Macintosh computers to run PC
software as well.



In 2005, Apple decided to
convert solely to Intel processor
chips by June 2007.


These means more compatibility
options.

Moore’s Law


In 1965,
Gordon E.
Moore
published a
paper that
proposes:


The number
of transistors
packed onto a
chip doubles
every 18
months, while
the price
remains the
same.

Moore's law. (2008, September 22). In
Wikipedia, The Free
Encyclopedia
. Retrieved 00:22, September 25, 2008, from
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Moore%27s_law&oldid=24
0240004


Processor Speed

1981

The original
IBM computer’s
clock speed
was at 4.7
MHz.


2002

Intel
Pentium 4

up to 3 GHz.

Today

Up to tetra
hertz, or
trillions of
cycles per
second.

Processor speed is measured by a system
clock. The clock rate is measured in
hertz
.

Thermal Design Power (TDP)



Because of these high speeds,
systems often become overheated.


Fans and modes of heat transfer
have helped.


But much of today’s software
require a high number of processes
to occur rapidly, such as in large
networks or in games.


Multi
-
Core Processors


Divides the processing load over two or more processors to
prevent sluggishness and overheating. This means
improved multi
-
tasking performance.

“Understanding Processor Performance” (2008). Alienware Corporation. Retrieved 23 September
2008 at
http://www.alienware.com/intro_pages/processors_101.aspx


Short
-
Term Memory


What is it and why is it important to
consider when buying a computer?


What amount of RAM is
recommended for a new system?






Holds the data before and after processing


Critical for a system to run smoothly and its
software to work well


RAM size is usually measured in megabytes
or gigabytes

B.K. Williams & S.C. Sawyer,
(2007).
Using information
Technology



128 megabytes for students


At least 256 megabytes or
possibly 512 megabytes if you
want to handle graphics files


As memory size required for
additional software continues
to grow, the library might want
to buy for future


DDR
-
SDRAM is a more recent development
and most often found in personal computers
so the staff would probably want to make
sure they bought a system with this type of
memory

Michael J. Miller, (Nov. 11,
2004) “Your Next PC.”
PC
Magazine


Recommends 512 MB of RAM as an inexpensive
item that will do more to improve how a
computer works than a more powerful
processor


For games, 1 gigabyte of RAM


Kristopher
Kubicki
, . (March 19,
2006) “Vista and the Quest for
More Memory.”
Daily Tech.



Noticed a drop in price for more RAM every time
a new Windows operating system is launched


Expects to see 2 gigabytes as the norm for new
computer systems

Jason Cross, (Sept. 13, 2006)
“The Best PC for the Money.”
PC Magazine
.


Recommends 2 gigabytes of memory with newer
operating systems, especially Vista


You could get by with 1 but price makes this too
good a bargain to pass up, especially with
whatever technology comes next


Russell Hitchcock.


(July
17, 2007) "Memory and
Storage: Part 2.“
WindowsNetworking.com


Discuss newer type of chip called Magneto
-
resistive Random Access Memory , or MRAM,
which uses magnetic storage


Expensive and not readily available

Schenone
, Ron. (March 29,
2007) “Vista


How Much Ram
Is Really Enough
?”
The Blade
by Ron
Schenone
, MVP
.


Microsoft always low
-
balls the amount of RAM
needed


Found Microsoft XP ran fine with 1 gigabyte of
RAM


Vista ran faster and smoother with 2 gigabytes.
No noticeable difference with 4 gigabytes

Jeff Tyson and Dave Coustan,
(2008). “How RAM Works,”
How
Stuff Works.



RAM needs depend on system you are running


Microsoft recommends 128 megabytes with
Windows XP, 256 megabytes for optimal
performance

Joel Santo Domingo, Cisco
Cheng, Laarni Almendrala
Ragaza. (September 2008)
“Best PCs on Campus”

PC Magazine


Some colleges require
computers with 2
gigabytes of RAM


Best new computers
have 2 gigabytes, some
3 or 4.

Summary


While books may provide a good
introduction to what you might need for
purchasing, technology changing so
rapidly that information quickly obsolete


Online articles and blogs and even print
magazines seem a better source for the
latest recommendations


Standard now seems to be at least 1or 2
gigabytes, but probably won’t be long
before 3 or 4 is the norm

Long
-
term memory is traditionally
known as Secondary Storage.

Long
-
Term Memory

Two Things to Consider

1.
Raw Capacity


the amount of data that can
be stored.

2.
Density


the amount of data that can be
stored per unit of size.

Secondary Storage Methods


Hard Disk Drive (HDD)


Floppy Disk


Zip Disk


Optical Disk


Compact Disk (CD)


Digital Versatile Disc (DVD)


Blu
-
Ray Disc


Flash Memory

Hard Disk Drive (HDD)


Floppy Disk


Optical Disk


Flash Memory


Future Technology


One example is holographic memory storage:

In magazines or online, you will find
the latest information about different
technologies. The books may give you
an overview but change comes rapidly.

Conclusion

Questions and

Possible Answers?