The University of Akron

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The University of Akron

Summit College

Business Technology Department

Computer Information Systems

2440: 105

Introduction to Computers & Application
Software

Instructor: Enoch E. Damson

Introduction to Computers

2

Computer


A machine that performs four basic
operations known as the
information
processing cycle

(
input
,
processing
,
output
, and
storage
)


Input



computer gathers data from users


Process



data

is converted into
information



Storage



data or information is stored for
future use


Output



data or information is retrieved from
the computer

Introduction to Computers

3

Types of Computers


The four basic types of computers
are:


Supercomputers


Mainframes


Minicomputers


Microcomputers

Introduction to Computers

4

Types of Computers…


Supercomputers



fastest, most expensive, large and
powerful computers for very large organizations designed
for specialized tasks such as mathematical calculations,
weather tracking, satellite monitoring, etc



IBM’s Blue Gene is one of the fastest computers in the world


Mainframes



large computers that occupy specially
wired, air
-
conditioned rooms and are designed to handle
huge processing jobs in large corporations such as
insurance companies and government agencies


Minicomputers



refrigerator
-
sized machines that
handle specific needs such as assembly
-
line operations for
medium
-
sized to smaller companies


Microcomputers



designed to meet individual needs


Some of the most common types of microcomputers are:
desktops
,
laptop/notebook/netbook
,
tablet personal
computers (PCs),
and

handheld computers
such as
personal digital assistants

(
PDAs
) and
smartphones

Introduction to Computers

5

Types of Microcomputers

Introduction to Computers

6

Specialty Computers


Servers



provide resources to other computers
connected in a network



Embedded computers



specially designed
computer chips that reside inside other devices such
as cars electronic thermostats, etc

Introduction to Computers

7

Computer Information System (IS)


A collection of components that work
together to process data into
information


Components include:


People


Data


Procedures


Hardware


Software


Network

Introduction to Computers

8

Computer Information System…

Introduction to Computers

9

People


Making people more productive is
what computers are all about


Examples include:


Analysts


Designers


Developers


Users


Introduction to Computers

10

Data


Raw facts entered into the
computer system for processing


Processed to produce
information

Introduction to Computers

11

Procedures


Rules or guidelines for people to
follow when using software,
hardware, and data


E.g.
Software Manuals

Introduction to Computers

12

Hardware


The physical components of the
computer controlled by the software


Types of hardware devices
(
peripherals
) include:


Input Devices


Systems Unit


Storage Devices


Output Devices

Introduction to Computers

13

Types of Hardware Devices

Introduction to Computers

14

Input Devices


Used to enter data into the
computer for processing


Examples include:


Keyboard


Mouse


Scanner


Digital camera


Video camera

Introduction to Computers

15

System Unit


Holds the processing hardware, electrical
power supply, disk drives, circuit cards,
ports for connecting other hardware and
the motherboard (system board)


Motherboard



ties everything in the system
unit together


The motherboard holds two very important
parts of the computer:


Processor

(
central processing unit

(
CPU
)
or
microprocessor
)


Memory (RAM)

Introduction to Computers

16

Motherboard

Introduction to Computers

17

Processor


The brain of the computer that controls all the
commands and tasks of the computer


Also known as the
microprocessor

or
central
processing unit (CPU)


Has two main parts:


Control Unit



obtains instructions from the computer’s
memory and interprets and executes them


Arithmetic
-
Logic Unit (ALU)



performs all the
arithmetic

(math operations) and
logical

(comparisons)
operations for the computer


Measured by the
speed

at which they are capable of
processing data and
size

of data


Processing speed is measured in
kilohertz

(
KHz
)


in
thousands;
megahertz

(
MHz
)


in millions;
gigahertz

(
GHz
)


in billions; and
terahertz

(
MHz
)


in trillions


Two leading processor manufacturers include:
Intel
Corporation
and

Advanced Micro Devices (AMD)

Introduction to Computers

18

Memory


Holds:


Data



raw facts for processing


Instructions



rules for processing data


Information



processed data


Two basic types of memory include:


Random Access Memory (RAM)



the volatile part of
memory that stores information temporarily


Read
-
Only Memory (ROM)



the nonvolatile part of
memory on which instructions have been prerecorded to
help start the computer and perform other tasks


Memory is measured by its
size

in
bytes
,
kilobytes

(thousands),
megabytes

(millions),
gigabytes

(billions), and
terabytes

(trillions)


Byte



represents a single character and consists of
8 bits


Bit

(
bi
nary dig
it
)


the smallest unit of information in computers
that is made up of
0
s and
1
s

Introduction to Computers

19

How Much is a Byte?

Name

Abbreviation

Number of Bytes

Byte

B

1 byte

Kilobyte

KB

1,024 bytes

Megabyte

MB

1,048,576 bytes

Gigabyte

GB

1,073,741,824 bytes

Terabyte

TB

1,099,511,627,776 bytes

Introduction to Computers

20

Ports


Where all the peripheral devices
connect to the computer to enable
data exchange


Because input and output devices
can exchange data with the
computer using different methods,
they might require different ports

Introduction to Computers

21

Types of Ports


Serial and parallel ports are two of the
oldest types of ports found on a
computer


Serial

ports


can only send data one bit at a
time


Devices that use serial ports include the mouse,
modem


Parallel

ports


send data in groups of bits, at
transfer rates of up to 500 Kbps


Printers often use parallel ports

Introduction to Computers

22

Faster Types of Ports


Universal serial bus (USB)

ports


able to interface
with several different peripheral devices


FireWire

ports
-

usually used to connect digital
cameras or digital video recorders to a computer


Connectivity

ports


used to connect to a local
network or to the Internet


Examples include:


Modem

ports


resemble phone jacks and are used to
connect the modem to a phone system and enable dial
-
up
Internet access


Ethernet

port
-

a bit larger than the standard phone jack
and used for network access and can also be used to
connect a cable modem or router


Introduction to Computers

23

Types of Ports

Introduction to Computers

24

Storage Devices


Used to store data and information permanently


Data is generally stored using one of the following
forms:


Magnetic

storage


uses
sectors

that divide
tracks

to store data


E.g. hard disks, tapes, floppy disks, zip disks


Optical

storage


also uses tracks and sectors but
data is saved using a
laser beam


E.g. Compact discs (CDs), digital video discs (DVDs)


Flash memory



uses solid
-
state technology which is
completely electronic and has no moving mechanical
parts


E.g. Flash drives (memory sticks), cards used in digital cameras,
MP3 players, etc


Storage devices are measured in
bytes
,
kilobytes
,
megabytes
,
gigabytes
, and
terabytes

Introduction to Computers

25

Examples of Storage Devices

Introduction to Computers

26

Output Devices


The devices used to display and print data and
information


E.g. monitor, printer, speakers, etc


Monitors

output
soft copy

and their
resolution

identifies the number
pixels

(picture elements) per
square inch that appear on a screen


The two main categories of monitors are:


Cathode ray tubes

(
CRT
)


can be curved or flat and relatively
inexpensive


Flat
-
panel

monitors


use
liquid crystal display

(
LCD
) or
light
-
emitting diode (LED)
technology and are much slimmer
and expensive


Printers

output
hard copy

and their resolution is
measured in
dots per inch

(
dpi
)


The two main categories of printers are:


Impact

printers


like
dot matrix

printers that use small keys to
strike an ink ribbon against a paper


Non
-
impact
printers


like
ink
-
jet

printers and
laser

printers
that do not touch the paper when printing

Introduction to Computers

27

Examples of Output Devices




Monitors





Printers

Introduction to Computers

28

Software


Software

(
program
)
-

a set of
instructions that direct the
computer to accomplish certain
tasks


The two major categories of
software are:


System software



Application software

Introduction to Computers

29

System Software


Provides the instructions needed for the computer
to run


The ”background software” that manages the
fundamental operations of a computer system
including:


Starting up (booting) the computer


Executing programs


There are 4 types of system software:


Operating systems



E.g. Windows, Mac OS,
Linux


Utilities programs



Norton Antivirus


Device drivers



printer software


Programming languages



Java, C++

Introduction to Computers

30

Application Software



”End
-
user” software that performs useful
tasks such as word processing, desktop
publishing, etc


Kinds of application software include:


Word processing

software


e.g. Microsoft
Word


Spreadsheet
software


e.g. Microsoft Excel


Database

software


e.g. Microsoft Access


Presentation

software


e.g. Microsoft
PowerPoint


Communication & Organization

software


e.g. Microsoft Outlook

Introduction to Computers

31

Networks


Two or more computers connected in
some way to share hardware,
software programs, data and other
resources


Node



each object (computer, printer,
etc) connected to a network

Types of Networks


The two main types of networks are:


Local area network

(
LAN
)


uses
direct cables, radio, or other signals to
link computers within a small geographic
area like a building or group of buildings


Wide area network

(
WAN
)


uses
long
-
distance transmission media to link
computers separated by a few miles or
even thousands of miles


Internet



the largest WAN


Cloud computing


uses the Internet to
shift many computer activities from a user’s
computers to the Internet

Introduction to Computers

32

Introduction to Computers

33

Network Configurations


The two main categories of network
configurations are:


Peer
-
to
-
peer (P2P) networks



most commonly found in homes and
small
-
businesses with each node
capable of communicating with every
other node


Client/server networks

-

consist of a
server

(
host

computer) and
clients

(
workstations
)

Introduction to Computers

34

Networks Topology (Topography)


The different types of
network architecture



how
computers and other devices are arranged and
connected


The most common topographic layouts include:


Bus network



no server but each node connects to a
central high
-
speed line (
bus
)


Ring network



all nodes connect to a circular line
around which data travels in only one direction


Star network



each node connects to a centrally
located
switch

to communicate with other nodes


The most frequently used networking style for businesses


Has a
server

to which all
clients

and other devices are
connected


Wireless network



devices connect to other computers
and network resources using radio signals, microwaves,
satellite signals, and other wireless media

Introduction to Computers

35

Network Topologies

Network Cables


Computers can be connected to a network using
devices like:


Coaxial cables


typically used by most cable TV systems


The ends are usually made with
RF (radio frequency)
connectors


Twister pair cables (shielded and unshielded)


two
conductors are twisted together for the purposes of
canceling out electromagnetic interference (EMI) from
external sources


The ends are usually made with
RJ (registered jack) 45
to plug
into computer network interfaces


Two main types include:


Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) cables




Unshielded Twisted pair (UTP)

/
Ethernet cables


primarily used for telephones
and commonly for computer networking


Fiber
-
optic cables


a glass or plastic fiber that carries
light along its length


Used by most high
-
speed Internet cable connections


Wireless


transfers information without using wires

Introduction to Computers

36

Coaxial Cable

Introduction to Computers

37

Twisted Pair Cable

Introduction to Computers

38

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

Fiber
-
Optic Cable

Introduction to Computers

39

Introduction to Computers

40

History of Early Computers


The

Pascalene Calculator



created by Blaise Pascal (a
French mathematician) in 1642


Used gears to count (add, subtract, multiply and divide) tens


similar to odometers in cars


Jacquard Loom



created by Joseph Jacquard in the 1800s


Automated the weaving of complex patterns in the fabric industry


The process gave birth to punch cards


Babbage’s Engines



designed by Charles Babbage (known
as the “
father of computing
”) in 1834


Difference Engine



a huge steam
-
powered calculator


Analytical Engine



the first automatic calculator


The

Hollerith Tabulating Machine



developed by Herman
Hollerith in 1890


Used Jacquard’s punch card concept to tabulate census data for
the U.S. Census Bureau


Hollerith later started the Tabulating Machine Company which
later became International Business Machines (IBM)

Introduction to Computers

41

History of Early Computers…


The

Z1
Computer


created by Konrad Zuse (a German
inventor) in 1936


A mechanical calculator


Thought to be the
first computer to include a control unit,
and separate memory functions

which are important for
today’s computers


The

Atanasoff
-
Berry Computer (ABC)



built by John
Atanasoff (a professor at Iowa State University) in 1939


The
first computer to use vacuum tubes to store data
instead of mechanical switches
used in old computers


The
first computer to use the binary system


The
first computer to have memory that repowered

itself
when booting

Introduction to Computers

42

History of Early Computers…


The

Harvard Mark I



designed by Howard Aiken (an
electronic engineer and physicist) and Grace Hopper at
Harvard University in 1944


Could
perform all four arithmetic operations (add,
subtract, multiply and divide
)


The Mark series of computers designed from the early
1930s to the late 1950s


Used by the U.S. Navy for ballistic and gunnery
calculations


Grace Hopper
invented the
compiler
, a computer
program that translated English language instructions into
computer language


She was also the
first to “debug” a computer by removing
a moth from the Harvard Mark I


She coined the term “bugs” for computer errors

Introduction to Computers

43

History of Early Computers…


The

Turing Machine



created by Alan Turing (a British
mathematician) in 1936


An abstract computer model that could
perform logical operations


A hypothetical model that
mathematically defined a mechanical procedure
(algorithm)


Turing’s concept by which machines could
read, write, erase symbols
written on squares of an infinite paper tape was the precursor to today’s
RAM


The

ENIAC (Electronic Integrator and Computer)



a U.S.
government
-
sponsored machine developed created by John W.
Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert in 1944 at the University of
Pennsylvania


Calculated the settings used for weapons


Thought of as the
first successful high
-
speed electronic digital computer


Was big and clumsy


Used nearly 18,000 vacuum tubes


Filled approximately 1,800 sq. ft. of floor space


Remained in use until 1955

Introduction to Computers

44

History of Early Computers…


The

UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer)



developed in 1951 by the Remington Rand company


The
first commercially successful electronic digital computer


Operated on a magnetic tag (instead of punch cards used by
competitors)


Used to predict only 5% of the popular vote to correctly identify
Dwight D. Eisenhower as the victor over Stevenson during the
U.S. presidential race


Together with other similar computers, were considered
first
-
generation computers

and were the
last to use vacuum tubes
to store data


Transistors


developed around 1956 by scientists at the
Bell Telephone Laboratories in NJ


Smaller and more powerful


Replaced the bulky vacuum tubes as a means to store data


Used in almost everything from radios to phones


Computers that used transistors were known as
second
-
generation computers

Introduction to Computers

45

History of Early Computers…


Integrated Circuits



invented by Jack Kilby of Texas
Instruments in 1958


A small chip capable of containing 1000s of transistors


Enabled computers to become smaller and lighter


Computer in this generation were considered
third
-
generation computers


Microprocessor chips


introduced by Intel
Corporation in 1971


A small chip containing millions of transistors


Functions as the central processing unit (CPU), or brains,
of the computer


Intel and Motorola became the leading manufacturers of
microprocessors over time


Computers that used transistors were known as
fourth
-
generation computers

Introduction to Computers

46

History of Early Computers…

Year

Computer

Creator

1642

Pascalene Calculator

Blaise Pascal

1800s

Jacquard Loom

Joseph Jacquard

1834

Babbage Engines

Charles Babbage

1890

Hollerith Tabulating Machine

Herman Hollerith

1936

Z1

Konrad Zuse

1936

Turing Machine

Alan Turing

1939

Atanasoff
-
Berry Computer (ABC)

John Atanasoff

1944

Harvard Mark I

Howard Aiken/Grace Hopper

1944

ENIAC

John W. Mauchly/J. Presper
Eckert

1951

UNIVAC (1 GC)

Remington Rand Company

1956

Transistors (2 GC)

Bell Telephone Labs

1958

Integrated Circuits (3 GC)

Texas Instruments

1971

Microcomputer Chips (4 GC)

Intel Corporation

Introduction to Computers

47

History of Personal Computers


Altair 8800



developed by Micro Instrumentation and
Telemetry Systems (MITS) in 1975


Very primitive with no keyboard, monitor, or printer


Only 256 bytes of memory


Switches were used to enter machine code (0s and 1s)


Apple I


built by Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs in 1976


One of the first personal computers to have a keyboard


Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs later founded their company
called the Apple Computer Company


Apple II


designed by the Apple Computer Company in
1977


Included a color monitor, sound, and game paddles


Included 4KB of RAM and an optional floppy disk drive for users
to run additional programs (most of the programs were games)


Eventually included spreadsheet program, word processing, and
desktop publishing software

Introduction to Computers

48

History of Personal Computers…


Commodore PET 2001


developed by the
Commodore company in 1977


Very primitive with no keyboard, monitor, or printer


Only 256 bytes of memory


Switches were used to enter machine code (0s and 1s)


TRS
-
80 Model I


developed by Tandy
RadioShack in 1977


Included a monochrome display and 4 KB of memory


Apple III


designed by the Apple Computer
Company in 1980


Included a color monitor, sound, and game paddles

Introduction to Computers

49

History of Personal Computers…


Osborne


designed by the Osborne company in 1981


A portable machine that weighed 24.5 lbs with a 5 inches
monitor


Included 64 KB of memory, two floppy disk drives, and
preinstalled software programs


It’s successor, the
Executive
, reduced Osborne’s sales
and the company closed


Compaq bought the Osborne design and produced its first
portable computer in 1983


IBM PC


developed by IBM (International Business
Machines) in 1981


Included 64 KB of memory, expandable to 256 KB


The term PC soon became a description of personal
computers


Time magazine named the computer “1982 machine of the
year” in its January 1983 issue

Introduction to Computers

50

History of Personal Computers…


Lisa


developed by Apple Computer Company
in 1983


The first successful PC on the market to use a GUI
(Graphical User Interface)


Xerox had already designed the
Alto

and
Star
Office System

to have GUI in 1972 but never sold
them commercially


Macintosh


designed by the Apple in 1984


Had everything in the Lisa but cheaper


The first personal computer to introduce 3.5
-
inch
floppy disks with a hard cover, which were smaller
and sturdier than the previous 5.25
-
inch floppies

Introduction to Computers

51

History of Personal Computers…

Year

Apple

IBM

Others

1975

Altair 8800 (by MITS)

1976

Apple I

1977

Apple II

TRS
-
80 (by Tandy RadioShack),
Commodore PET 2001 (by
Commodore )

1980

Apple III

1981

IBM PC

Osborne

1983

Lisa

1984

Macintosh

286
-
AT