History of computing

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2 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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History of computing



Early programming



Augusta Ada King (Byron), Countess of Lovelace (1815
-
1852)



She is known as the "
first programmer
".



The computer language Ada, created by the U.S. Defense Department, was named after Ada
Lovelace.



Known for having w
ritten a description of Charles Babbage's early mechanical general
-
purpose
computer, the analytical engine.

First Generation


Vacuum Tubes




1930’s


Vacuum tubes were used as
electronic circuits

or
electronic switches
.



First electronic digital computer
built by
Konrad Zuse
, who developed his first machine, the Z1,
in his parents' living room in Berlin in 1938.



Another early digital computer was built by
Dr. John Atanasoff

and his assistant
Clifford Berry
,
known as the ABC (Atanasoff Berry Computer) buil
t at Iowa State University during 1937
-
42.

1946


ENIAC



First large
-
scale electronic digital computer was
ENIAC

(Electronic Numerical Integrator and
Calculator)



30 feet long, 8 feet wide, and 8 feet high



3

additions every second
, (incredibly slow by today
’s standards).

1951
-

UNIVAC 1



1951 the first commercially available computer was developed, the UNIVAC I (UNIVersal
Automatic Computer) using vacuum tubes



3,000 additions every second
.



In 5 years we were going a
thousand

times faster.

1952 Univac



Tele
vision makes its first prediction of a presidential election based on computer analysis of
early returns.

Second Generation


Transistors




1947
-

Walter Brittain and Willaim Shockley invented the transistor at Bell Laboratories



Replaced the vacuum tube a
s an

electronic switch


1954
-

TRADIC



TRADIC (TRAnsistorized Airborne DIgital Computer)



800 transistors.



First computer system to completely use transistors



First computer to be successfully operated in an aircraft, an environment which was hostile to

previous computer systems.

Transistors were:



Smaller



Faster



More reliable



Less expensive