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2 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

72 εμφανίσεις

A
PPENDIX

A H
ARDWARE

A
PPENDIX

B S
OFTWARE

S
TUFF

FOR

CLASS


3

SIX

MAJOR

ROLES

AND

GOALS

OF

IT


1.

Increase employee productivity by reducing time,
errors and costs using


2.

Enhance decision making


3.

Improve team collaboration


4.

Create business partnerships and alliances


5.

Enable global reach all over the world taking into
consideration the culture of each nation or society.


6.

Facilitate organizational transformation as the
organization evolves and responds to the ever
-
changing
marketplace.

A
-
4

C
OMPUTER

H
ARDWARE

Output Device

Monitor

Input Device


Keyboard

Processing Device


The System Unit

A
-
5

I
NPUT

D
EVICES



T
EXT

AND

P
OINTING

A
-
6

I
NPUT

N
EEDS

AND

D
EVICES

A
-
7


P
ROCESSING

Processing

The role of
___________ in
a computer system is to translate inputs into outputs.
This is done through a combination of language and system components

Language

Computers speak a language called
___________ or
“machine language”
which consists of 0s & 1s


System Unit

The physical box that houses all of the
working electronic
___________ of
the
computer


A
-
8

P
ROCESSING



L
ANGUAGE

Binary or Machine Language


The language that all computers use


IT is expressed in 0s or 1s only (see below)


Binary utilizes Base
-
2 math to convert from

normal
characters to binary code (e.g.
A = 0100 0001 in binary)

A

= 0100 0001

Bit

A single

0 or 1

Byte

(8 bits)

Makes up

one

character

Binary Example

How a Computer Uses it

A
-
9

P
ROCESSING



T
HE

S
YSTEM

U
NIT

The System Unit

The physical box that houses all of the working electronic components of the
computer

Components


Support



electronic equipment to run the machine


Central Processing Unit (CPU)



the primary processor in a computer


Primary Storage



temporary and permanent storage used by the computer to
operate


___________
Storage



longer
-
term storage for data


Ports and Slots



mechanisms to connect devices and specialty processors

A
-
10

P
ROCESSING



M
OTHER

B
OARD

Motherboard



Central Processing Unit (CPU)



RAM and ROM



___________
Storage Devices (e.g. hard drive)



Slots
-

connecting specialty
___________



Ports
-

connecting input/output devices

A
-
11

P
ROCESSING



C
ENTRAL

P
ROCESSING

U
NIT

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

Called the “brains of the computer”, its role is to perform the
operations of the computer using two components:


Control Unit



this device interprets instructions and
transmits direction to the computer’s components


___________ ___________ ___________


this
device performs math as well as logical operations by
interpreting and executing instructions

A
-
12

P
ROCESSING



C
ENTRAL

P
ROCESSING

U
NIT

Moore’s Law (1970s)

___________ ___________ from
Intel
hypothesized that processing performance
would double every 18 months

CPU Processing

Intel Pentium IV CPU
packs 55 million transistors

A
-
13

P
ROCESSING



P
RIMARY

S
TORAGE

Primary Storage

This storage is used for temporary storage to support computer processing and comes
in
___________ and ___________ types

___________
Access
Memory (RAM
)


Read
-
Only Memory (ROM)


Electrically Erasable Programmable Read
-
Only Memory (EEPROM or also
called
___________ ___________
)




A
-
14

P
ROCESSING



S
ECONDARY

S
TORAGE

Hard
Drives


Diskettes



___________

Tape


Optical Disk


Magneto
-
Optical (MO)


Compact Disk

(CD)


Digital Video Disk

(DVD




Secondary Storage

This
___________ ___________ is
used to
permanently store

information

and is
not

part of the
CPU

but is connected through the
system bus
. It comes in many types:

A
-
15

P
ROCESSING



P
ORTS

AND

S
LOTS

These are devices used to provide hardware
___________


plugs and sockets
-

to
___________ devices
to computers and
___________ to
provide a fully
functional computer

A
-
16

O
UTPUT

D
EVICES


Video


A visual display of data that supports motion using a
___________ (
monochrome or
colour
)

coming in two types:


Cathode Ray Tube (CRT
)


Liquid Crystal Display (
LCD


___________



A device that projects a picture onto a screen

CRT

LCD

A
-
17

O
UTPUT

D
EVICES


Printers and Plotters

A visual display that is presented on hard copy (e.g. paper)


Dot Matrix





Ink
-
jet





___________

Audio

A
-
18

T
YPES

OF

C
OMPUTERS

___________ ___________

___________ Computers

___________ Workstations

Microcomputers

Midrange

Computers

A
-
19

T
YPES

OF

C
OMPUTERS



M
ICROCOMPUTERS

Personal

Computers

Network

___________

___________


Tablet PC


http://pergatory.mit.edu/robotworld/multimedia/index.html


___________
Computer


http://www.microsoft.com/uk/windowsmobile/business/videocasestudies.mspx


1 laptop per child

B
-
20

C
LASSES

OF

S
OFTWARE

___________ ___________

The
collection of programs that control the basic functions of computer hardware

___________
Software

Programs that let the user perform a specific task or operation by interacting with
the system software

___________
Languages
and Environments

Automated software tools used by system developers to design and implement
information systems

B
-
21

S
YSTEM

S
OFTWARE



A
.
K
.
A
. O
PERATING

S
YSTEMS

Common Functions


___________
or (starting) the
computer


Reading programs into memory and
managing memory allocation


Managing where programs and files
are located in secondary storage


Maintaining the structure of
directories and subdirectories


___________
disks


Controlling the computer monitor


___________
documents to the
printer

B
-
22

O
PERATING

S
YSTEM



I
NTERFACES


___________ After
boot up, the computer provides an interface for the user or
programmer to interact with it. Different
___________ systems
use different types

Common Interface Type


Command
-
based interface




Menu interface





Graphical user interface
(
___________ )

B
-
23

C
OMMON

O
PERATING

S
YSTEMS

B
-
24

O
PERATING

S
YSTEMS

-

U
TILITIES


Utilities:

Programs that
manage
computer
resources

and
files
and

may be
included in the
operating system

or purchased
separately
as
needed


B
-
25

A
PPLICATION

S
OFTWARE


___________
Software

This software performs specific user functions (e.g. e
-
mail)

___________

Application Software

Software that is developed to meet the specification of an organization. This can be
developed

___________


by IS staff or by an
___________
vendor
. Advantages
include:


Customizability



tailored to meet specific needs


Problem specificity



pay for only those functions that are
developed for and used by the organization

___________ ___________
Software

Packaged software

developed by a
vendor

for a particular problem or industry but is
not specific to an organization
. This is a
lower cost

approach that may be
combined

with
custom development

to tailor it

B
-
26

T
YPES

OF

A
PPLICATION

S
OFTWARE

Types of Application Software

Application software come in two types for use by organizations: 1) large
business
systems

and office automation; 2)
___________
productivity
tools

___________ ___________

These
large systems support enterprise
-
wide operations such as:


___________

-
A/P, A/R,
general ledger, payroll


___________

-

inventory
management, order
processing, shipping, etc.


___________ ___________

Used
by individuals or groups to support
a variety of common tasks such as:


Communication



e
-
mail,
word processing


___________



group
calendars


Analysis

-

spreadsheets


B
-
27

O
PEN

S
OURCE

S
OFTWARE

___________ ___________

A
special class of software that includes operating systems, application software, and
programming languages in which the
source code

(the actual program code) is
freely
available

to the general public
for use and/or modification


Popular Open Source Applications

A number of mainstream open source applications can be found across many
organizations. Here are just a few:


Operating systems



Linux


___________


Mozilla


Web servers



Apache


E
-
mail processing



Sendmail


Internet domain naming service



BIND


Secure connection standard

-

OpenSSL

B
-
28

C
OMPILERS
, L
ANGUAGES
,
AND

E
NVIRONMENTS

___________ ___________

Software
designed to translate programming languages into machine code or binary in
order to allow the computer to execute the program instructions

___________ ___________

Languages
used to write program instructions that have evolved from early
“machine language” to higher
-
level languages that are easier to write and
understand

___________ ___________ ___________

Automated
software tools used by systems developers to design and
implement information systems and increase quality and productivity

B
-
29

C
OMPILERS

AND

I
NTERPRETERS

___________

These
highly
-
specialized software applications are used to convert program instructions
(source code) into the machine code (object code) prior to being loaded into a computer’s
secondary
storage
( entire program )

Compiler Example

B
-
30

C
OMPILERS

AND

I
NTERPRETERS

___________

These
specialized software applications are similar to compilers but instead of translating
the source code to machine language prior to loading, it reads, translates, and executes
one line of source code at a time during
operation
( one line at a time )

Interpreter Example

B
-
31

P
ROGRAMMING

L
ANGUAGES

-

G
ENERATIONS

Programming Languages

These languages are used to write program instructions and have evolved over time
making them more powerful, easier to read and write, and more natural language
-
focused

1
st



Machine

Binary

2
nd


Symbolic

Use of
symbols


1940s

3
rd


High
-
Level

Use English
like words for
procedures

4
th

Outcome

Oriented

Use outcome
focused words

1950s

mid

1950s

1970s

5
th

Artificial

Intelligence

Natural
language

(spoken
English)

Generations of Programming Languages

1990s

B
-
32

P
OPULAR

P
ROGRAMMING

L
ANGUAGES

B
-
33

P
ROGRAMMING

L
ANGUAGES



M
ORE

R
ECENT

H
IGH
-
L
EVEL

Object
-
Oriented Programming (OOP)

These languages allow programmers to
group data

and
program instructions

together into
modules

(
e.g

Java
or C++).

Visual Languages

These languages take advantage of
graphical user
interfaces

(GUIs) allowing additions of
visual objects

(e.g. buttons) with a
few clicks

versus
coding the
object

pixel by pixel


B
-
34

P
ROGRAMMING

L
ANGUAGES



W
EB

D
EVELOPMENT

Web Development Languages

These languages are used to develop Web pages and operations using both static and
dynamic content

___________
Markup
Language (HTML
)

___________
Markup
Language (XML
)

___________
Content

Markup languages

are used for laying out or
formatting

content, while
dynamic
languages

are needed to provide
animation

or
dynamic

(changing) content

Dynamic Languages

Several languages are available for creating dynamic content such as:


___________




___________
X





Scripting Languages

(JavaScript)