ECED4601: Digital Control Systems ECED4601: Digital Control Systems ECED4601: Digital Control Systems ECED4601: Digital Control Systems Part I Part I-- --Introduction Introduction

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ECED4601:DigitalControlSystemsECED4601:DigitalControlSystems
ECED4601:

Digital

Control

SystemsECED4601:

Digital

Control

Systems
Part IPart I----IntroductionIntroduction
JJG
JJG
J
ason
J
.
G
u
J
ason
J
.
G
u
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Dalhousie UniversityDalhousie University
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Dalhousie University Dalhousie University
OutlineOutline
i.
i.
Introduction
Introduction
ii.
ii.
Di
g
ital control histor
y
Di
g
ital control histor
y
gy
gy
iii.
iii.
Digital control systems
Digital control systems
iv.
iv.
Q
uantizin
g
and
q
uantization erro
rQ
uantizin
g
and
q
uantization erro
r
Qgq
Qgq
v.
v.
Data acquisition and distribution
Data acquisition and distribution
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Dalhousie University Dalhousie University
I. Introduction I. Introduction
i.
i.
Digitalcontroladvantages:
Digitalcontroladvantages:
i.
i.
Digital

control

advantages:Digital

control

advantages:
i.
i.
Maximum productivity, profit, minimum
Maximum productivity, profit, minimum
cost, energy.cost, energy.
ii.
ii.
Optimization in fuel economy
Optimization in fuel economy
iii.
iii.
Decision making capability
Decision making capability
Flibilit
Flibilit
iv.
iv.
Fl
ex
ibilit
y
Fl
ex
ibilit
y
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Dalhousie University Dalhousie University
I. Introduction I. Introduction
i.
i.
Type of signals
Type of signals
ii
Continuous
Continuous
vs
vs
discretetime
discretetime
i
.
i
.
Continuous

Continuous

vs
vs
discrete

timediscrete

time
ii.
ii.
Analog
Analog vsvsdigital digital
i.
i.
Typeofsystem
Typeofsystem
i.
i.
Type

of

systemType

of

system
i.
i.
Continuous time control system
Continuous time control system vsvs
discrete time control systemdiscrete time control system
ii.
ii.
LTI
LTI vsvsnon linear systemnon linear system
i.
i.
T
yp
e of re
p
resentationT
yp
e of re
p
resentation
ypp
ypp
i.
i.
Differential equation
Differential equation vsvsdifference difference
equationequation
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Dalhousie University Dalhousie University
I. Introduction I. Introduction
a) Continue time analog signal
a) Continue time analog signal
c) Samplec) Sample--data signaldata signal
b) Continues time quantized signal
b) Continues time quantized signal
d) Digital signald) Digital signal
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Dalhousie University Dalhousie University
II. Digital control historyII. Digital control history
i.
i.
Computer started
Computer started1940s and early 1950s (the Colossus 1940s and early 1950s (the Colossus
computer, made by Alan Turing). 5000 and 58,000 vacuum tubes computer, made by Alan Turing). 5000 and 58,000 vacuum tubes
t
t
per compu
t
er.per compu
t
er.
ii.
ii.
The first example of an electronic supervisory control system was
The first example of an electronic supervisory control system was
made by the Hughes Aircraft Company called the made by the Hughes Aircraft Company called the DigitrackDigitrackin in
1954.1954.
iii.
iii.
In 1959, the Texaco Company used the first digital computer
In 1959, the Texaco Company used the first digital computer
based control based control
iv.
iv.
RW
RW--300, from 1962300, from 1962
PDP
PDP
1in1959$$$$PDP
1in1959$$$$PDP
8offeredin1965$
8offeredin1965$
v.
v.
PDP
PDP
-
-
1

in

1959
,
$$$$
,
PDP1

in

1959
,
$$$$
,
PDP
-
-
8

offered

in

1965
.
$8

offered

in

1965
.
$
vi.
vi.
Honeywell 16 Series, a digital controls computer from 1968Honeywell 16 Series, a digital controls computer from 1968
vii.
vii.
Micro
Micro--electronics advanced in the years beyond 1970, (Z80)electronics advanced in the years beyond 1970, (Z80)
viii.
viii.
8086
,
80286..Pentium ..8086
,
80286..Pentium ..
,
,
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Dalhousie University Dalhousie University
III. Digital control systemsIII. Digital control systems
Digital control systems block diagram
Digital control systems block diagram
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Dalhousie University Dalhousie University
III. Digital control systemsIII. Digital control systems
i.
i.
Definitions
Definitions
S(S/)
S(S/)
i.
i.
S
ample and hold
(S/
H
)S
ample and hold
(S/
H
)
ii.
ii.
Analog to digital converter (A/D)
Analog to digital converter (A/D)
Digitaltoanalogconverter(D/A)
Digitaltoanalogconverter(D/A)
iii.
iii.
Digital

to

analog

converter

(D/A)Digital

to

analog

converter

(D/A)
iv.
iv.
Plant or process
Plant or process
v
v
Transducer
Transducer
v
.
v
.
Transducer
Transducer
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Dalhousie University Dalhousie University
III. Digital control systemsIII. Digital control systems
i.
i.
Sam
p
lin
g
o
p
erationsSam
p
lin
g
o
p
erations
pgp
pgp
i.
i.
Periodic sampling
Periodic sampling
ii.
ii.
Multiple order sampling
Multiple order sampling
iii.
iii.
Multiple rate sampling
Multiple rate sampling
iv.
iv.
Random sampling
Random sampling
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Dalhousie University Dalhousie University
IV. Quantizing and quantization errorIV. Quantizing and quantization error
i.
i.
Quantizing
Quantizing
i.
i.
Q is the quantization level, FSR is
Q is the quantization level, FSR is
full scale region full scale region
MSBLSB
MSBLSB
n
FSR
Q
2

ii.ii.
MSB
,
LSB
,
MSB
,
LSB
,
ii.
ii.
Quantization error
Quantization error
Finitebitsresultfiniteresolution
Finitebitsresultfiniteresolution
Qerror
2
1

i.i.
Finite

bits

result

finite

resolutionFinite

bits

result

finite

resolution
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Dalhousie University Dalhousie University
IV. Quantizing and quantization errorIV. Quantizing and quantization error
i.
i.
Quantizing figures
Quantizing figures
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Dalhousie University Dalhousie University
V. Data acquisition and distributionV. Data acquisition and distribution
Block diagram of data acquisition
Block diagram of data acquisition
Block diagram of and distribution
Block diagram of and distribution
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Dalhousie University Dalhousie University
V. Data acquisition and distributionV. Data acquisition and distribution


Why use Data converters
Why use Data converters


A to D:
A to D:
Digital display, easy to read
Digitalfilter
Digital

filter
Digital communication
Save into computer, etc.
D to A:
D to A:
Output such as audio and video
Control signal etc
Electrical and Computer Engineering Electrical and Computer Engineering
Dalhousie University Dalhousie University
V. Data acquisition and distributionV. Data acquisition and distribution


Signal conversion
Signal conversion


Multiplexing and
Multiplexing and demultiplexingdemultiplexing


Sample and hold
Sample and hold
Analogtodigitalconversion(quantizingand
Analogtodigitalconversion(quantizingand


Analog

to

digital

conversion

(quantizing

and

Analog

to

digital

conversion

(quantizing

and

encoding)encoding)


Di
g
ital to analo
g
conversion
(
decodin
g)
Di
g
ital to analo
g
conversion
(
decodin
g)
gg(g)
gg(g)
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Dalhousie University Dalhousie University
V. Data acquisition and distributionV. Data acquisition and distribution


Signal conversion figures
Signal conversion figures
Sample and Hold
Analog Multiplexer
Tracking and Hold
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Dalhousie University Dalhousie University
V. Data acquisition and distributionV. Data acquisition and distribution


Four types common A/D circuits
Four types common A/D circuits


Successive approximation type
Successive approximation type


Integration type
Integration type
Countertype
Countertype


Counter

typeCounter

type


Parallel type
Parallel type


䵡楮晡捴潲fofA⽄捩牣畩瑳
䵡楮晡捴潲fofA⽄捩牣畩瑳


䵡楮

晡捴潲f



䄯A

捩牣畩瑳䵡楮

晡捴潲f



䄯A

捩牣畩瑳


Speed
Speed


䅣捵牡捹
䅣捵牡捹


䅣捵牡捹

䅣捵牡捹



Size
Size


Cost
Cost
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Dalhousie University Dalhousie University
V. Data acquisition and distributionV. Data acquisition and distribution
D/A circuits
D/A circuits
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Dalhousie University Dalhousie University