AUSTRALIAN DIGITAL TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEM

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15 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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AUSTRALIAN DIGITAL TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEM
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CONTENTS
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Executive Summary
Efficient land transport
is
vital to the productivity
of
the Australian economy. Rail
is
a key element of
enhancing the transport efficiency in both the urban and interstate
networks, but has been hindered by its Federated history and a legacy
of
under
investment. This has led to major infrastructure bottlenecks in the rail system which
are restricting the expansion
of rail capacity and productivity to address rapidly
increasing demand.
There
are
many investment proposals for
rail
across
Australia
that
stand on their merit. This proposal
to
Infrastructure Australia
(lA)
is
for an "Australian Digital
Train Control System" (ADTCS)
that
will
provide a
nation-wide approach to
rail
traffic control management
thereby enabling the rail
industry to rapidly advance to
a
new digital communications era and
in
doing so unleash
a surge
in
productivity and capacity whilst significantly
improving its safety and reliability. This proposal also
recommends Governments address significant policy
shortfalls
that
are hampering
the
expansion of
rail
capacity
to
move people and goods
in
Australia.
Background
History has
not
been kind
to
rail
in
Australia and
much has been written
about
the
differing gauges.
and operating environments across
the
nation.
There
are different signal systems and philosophies
in
each
state
and
we
currently have 22 radio networks
that
are controlled through
diffe
r
ent mediums.The need
to
move beyond this
to a national solution
is
evident.
Harmonising standards and
the
cooperation within
industry
to
improve productivity, and
the
investment
by
State and Commonwealth Governments are doing
much
to
overcome rail's legacy
of old and disparate
infrastructure.
However there are extreme pressures to improve
rail
's
capacity.
The
impact of
climate change, petrol price rises,
congestion
in
the
urban environment and
the doubling
of
the
logistic market over
the
next
15-20 years
all
demand urgent action now.
Page I
The railway industry
is
keen
to
meet
this challengO
and has a vision
that by
2020
will
see
rai
l achieve
95%
of
bulk commodities
by
GTK,
90%
of general freight
east west, 50
%
of
general freight from Melbourne to
Sydney
to
Brisbane
by
land
GTK and doubling
of
urban
passenger network patronage.
The achievement
of
this vision
will
require investment
in
urban networks including
metro
and light
rail
systems.
a double track between Melbourne and Sydney. a
dedicated freight
corridor
through Sydney
north, new
terminals and upgrading of
the kinematic envelope to
allow investment in
modern rolling stock.
All of
the
above
are
high
priority projects
that
are
worthy
of immediate investment. However, underpinning this
project
is
the requirement to
move to
a new generation
of
signalling systems and digital train control.
It
could bD
left
to each
state
in
its own time frame
to address thi'
issue but history would clearly indicate this would lead
once again
to
another break of gauge
outcome.
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The
ADTCS
Proposal
The
ADTCS
will both modernise and standardise
the nation
's
multiple signalling systems and ensure
interoperable communications, and train
protection
and
control
systems Australia-wide.
It
would
lead
to
increased
productivity
, a quantum leap in capacity
performance
of
at least
20%
which
would
have
consequential massive
savings
in
greenhouse
gas
)
emissions.The reliability
of
the systems would improve
and
there would be
reduced costs whilst
gaining further
improvement in the level
of
safety.
Increased rail
use
leads
to
lower
road congestion,
lower
freight costs,
reduced road crash trauma, increased international
competitiveness, increased social cohesion and many
other benefits.
It
is
proposed to
implementADTCS
to
provide common
management systems
for
Australi
an
rail
traffic.ADTCS
will comprise
an
interoperable train radio system, in­
cab
signalling, automatic train location information,
dynamic train monitoring,
and
external train control.
This
is
consistent
with
the European ETCS level 2
standard, which
has
the
benefit
of removing
the
need
for trackside signalling.
Implementation
of
the
ADTCS
will require the
)
establishment
of
an
oversight regulatory
authority
to
manage
the
communications bandwidth
as
well
as
establishing the interoperable open standards required
for
the system
to
operate. The Australasian Railway
Association (ARA)
would
establish this agency called
the Australia
Rail
Network
Authority (ARNA).
It
is
also proposed that
the
project would move through
a number
of
stages
. Firstly a $20M scoping project
to
underpin the funding of
the agency
to
ensure the
project
feasibility, establishment of
the open standard technical
specifications and
the
implementation framework.
Once
that
is
completed
an
implementation
Phase
would
be
undertaken
over
10
-1
5 years which
is
envisaged
to
cost multi-billions of
dollars.
This project
is
fundamental
to
the advancement
of
the
metropo
litan, regional
and
inter-capital freight
networks. In
practical terms
it will ensure every train
is
continually
monitored
and
controlled through a
modern digital communication
network.
By
using open
standards and interoperable principles
it
will
ensure
no one manufacturer
is
favoured, and ensures
the
six
current
manufacturers are brought into
competition.
It uses
a known platform
of
ETCS
which
is
compatible
with
the ARTC's Advanced Train Management System
(ATMS) Project,
and
the planned adoption
of
automated
train
protection
systems in
each
metro network.
While visionary in concept
it is
truly a nation-building
project
with
commendable economic, environmental
and
social benefit. ATCS will provide substantial
improvements in rail
safety,
efficiency
and
reliability.
Monetised benefits would exceed costs, though
support would
be
needed in the development phase.
Support would
be
justified
by
substantial additional
non-monetised benefits. This in
turn
would
lead
to
benefits in
the
industries
and
sectors served by rail
-local, interstate and
export,
increasing
productivity,
incomes, consumption
and
employment.
Th
e need
to move
b
eyon
d
old
and
inneficient
signalling systems
to
a national
solution
is
evi
dent.
Page 1
What is. the infrastructure being
addressed?
Physical
Infrastructure
This submission addresses the capacity inadequacies
of
the Australian inter-capital, metropolitan
and
regional
rail networks. Specifically this comprises
the
signalling
installations
and
associated communications systems
that underpin
the safe
and
efficient management of
rail
traffic on
all
rail networks in Australia, in metropolitan,
interstate and regional networks.
Whilst
some aspects
of
the Australian
network
h
ave
been upgrad
ed
to more
modern technology, the great
majority
of
the
network
is
based
on old signalling
technology comprising hard
wire
cabling, limited radio
communications,
traffic
signals
(lights)
and
even in
some places staff and picket equipment used in the
19th
Century.
This infrastructure
is
essentially the same technology
which had its origins in the mid 19th
Century
.
It
comprises systems
of
signals
(coloured lights) which
indicate
to
the train driver
whether or not
the train
is
approved
to move
into the
next
section
or
"block"
of
track when the previous train
is
clear
of that
section
track. This old technology whilst relatively
safe,
has
significant limitations compared
to
current technology
in
use
internationally,
and
to
a limited
extent
in
Australia.
This old signalling technology does
not
prevent train
driver
human
error
as
demonstrated in
both
recent
major Australian train crash events -
Glenbrook (1999
-7 dead
and
51
injured)
and
Waterfall (2003 -7 dead
and
42 injured).
Additionally, this technology imposes significant
limitat.ions on the train system capacity
as
trains are
se
parated by the s
ignal
system "blocks
".This means
that
on
a given section
of
track
there is
a significant a
mount
of
"empty" track which in
more
modern systems could
be
occupied
with
another train thus enabling incre
ased
capacity
and
effiCiency.
Page 3
The infrastru
cture
is
owned
by
State
and
Territory
Governments
for
urban
and
regional passenger
networks,
an
d by
the
Commonwea
lth for the Australian
Rail
Track
Corporation
(ARTC) national inter-capital
network,
formerly
known
as
the Defined Interstate
Rail
Network
(DIRN)
. It
would include the Adelaide
to
Darwin rail link, and exclude "private"
rail lines owned
by mining companies.
Digital Communications
)
Technology
The submission proposes the adoption
of
current
proven digital train
control
technology (involving
digital radio and
other
communications which will
process data, voice and internet services)
to
underpin
modern rail
traffic management system
for
the
e
ntire
national rail
network. This system
is
already adopted
as
the standard in Europe
and
is
being implemented in a
number of
European countries.
Collaborative
J
The complete rejuvenation
I
overhaul
of
Australia
's
rail
traffic
control
network
will bring significant benefits
to
all
passenger and freight services across
the
nation
in urban
and
regional communities by significantly
increasing capacity and safety
of
rail operations.
The proposal
has
the potential
to
incorporate
the
establishment
of
digital repeater stations along
intersta
te
and regional rail lines where
the
existing
mobile telephone
networks
(such
as
those
owned
by
Telstra)
do not
exist or do not
have
sufficient coverage
to support the rail traffic control
communications.
I
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.
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Why is
it important?
Despite currenttransport planning and investment, virtually all indicators
of
Australian
transport performance are expected to deteriorate over the foreseeable future. Our
continued reliance on road building to solve our transport challenges will not meet
the Nation's needs. Rail
is
undergoing a significant renaissance which
is
positioning
it to more than adequately meet the nation's current and future transport challenges.
The following figures for growth shown during
200617
exemplify how passenger
and freight rail impact Australia both socially and economically.
(Australian Rail
) Industry Report 2007).
)
Passenger
Transport Task
»
Passenger numbers increased
by
33
.7 million
journeys
(or
5.2%)
to 677.1 million journeys·
»
»
all
bulk traffics growing by
5.1
%
or
3 1.6 million
tonnes to 647.1 million
tonnes.
Non-bulk traffics now
constitute
2.B%
of
total
domestic rail tonnes
»
The
national
rail
freight task (measured
by
tonne­
kilometres) rose
by
5.1
c%
(to
198.7 billion
tonnes)
The
national passenger task grew
by
B.4%
to
12
.3
billion passenger-kilometres Light rail passenger-
»
kilometres grew
by
3.1 %
to
0.6 billion during
2006/07. LIGHT
RAIL
passenger journeys across
Australia grew
by
4.1 million
or
3.1 %
to
136.B
million during
2006/07.
Economic
Impact of
Rail
»
Urban heavy
rail
passenger task increased
by
O.B
billion passenger-kilometres
or B.7%
to 9.9 billion
»
Despite a 9.6% reduction
in
average distance
travelled.
the
national nonurban passenger task
grew
by
B.S
I7.
to
1.9 billion passenger-kilometres.
Freight Transport Task
Australian rail freight demands are growing inexorably
based on growth
in
the
economy and population
increases
.
»
»
Tonnes carried
by
the
rail
sector
rose
by
3.B%
to
665.6 mill
ion
tonnes
Total tonnage carried comprised the following
bulk traffics:
»
coal and
ore
trades
(measured
by
tonnes)
increased
by
5.
0%
and 6.2%
:. respectively.
with
There
is
continual pressure for Australian producers
to
reduce costs
to
enhance Australia's standard
of
living
directly. or to retain
or improve the international
competitiveness of Australia's
export
industries.
"World
-class infrastructure
is
vital
to
the
Australian
economy. It
underpins
the delivery
of
essential services.
drives economic growth. supports
social needs and
is
closely linked
to the high
quality
of life
that
Australians
enjoy today."
Peter Taylor. Chief Executive. Engineers
Australia.
The
rail system has been allowed
to
run down
to
levels which are unacceptable
to
users and hence
business.
producers
and
the
community. The
current
rail deficit includes inadequate capacity. reliability and
travel speeds resulting
in
high
operational costs (for
trains and maintenance) and
an
infrastructure backlog.
Consequently significant investment is
required to
bring
railways up
to
the standard required
to
meet
owners
and
operators
challenges and
user
needs.
Page 4
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Why
is
it important?
In
its 2005 Infrastructure
Report
Card, Engineers
Australia rated the
rail
network as
Cl'
) .
The individual
State
reports
ranged from C+
in
WA and Qld
to
D
in
NSW. It
further noted that
"widespread delays remain
and
there
are uncertainties with new investments",
"There
is
emerging congestion
in
many metropolitan
rail
networks", and "an integrated
transport
network
is
needed
to
meet
regional activity centres, and
to
encourage
the
transfer of
commuters
from road
to
rail".
The outcomes of infrastructure improvements are
that trains become more operationally efficient which
flows
on
to
lower costs. Reduced costs allow greater
investment
in
railways, lower costs
to
transport
users
and improvements. to
service efficiency. This
in
turn
reduces costs
to
producers and decreases prices for
consumers
or
makes the producers
more
internationally
competitive. Higher public
transport use reduces travel
times for commercial and freight vehicles resulting
in
the
same benefits
to
commercial businesses and
producers.
Traffic congestion costs
in
Australia amount
to
over
$10 billion annually. Heavy vehicle congestion costs rose
about
50%
in
the
15
years
to
2005 and are forecast to
increase
an
additional
120%
in
the
following
15
years,
making a total increase of 230% over 30 years.
Freight
transport
derives from economic activity which
is
steadily rising and has recently been strongly surging.
However
transport
increases
at
about
24%
greater
than
the
rate that
the
economy
is
rising. So
for every
4%
increase
in
the
economy
there
is
a
5%
increase
in
freight
transport. This increased rate puts ever greater
pressure
on
the
transport
system as the economy
grows.
I The Report
~ard
ratings
are:
C -
Adequate. Major
changes
required
in
one
or
more of the
above
areas
to enable infrastructure to be fit for its
current
and
ant
icipated purpose,
and
0 -
Poor.
Critical
changes
required
in
one
or more of the above
areas
to
be fit for its
current and
anticipated
purpose.
Page 5
Rail and the
Environment
While environmental issues have been evident
in
the
Australian policy scene for many years, it
is
only
recently that it
has
risen
to the top of the agenda with
the
significance of climate change.
Rail
transport
is
more
than 4 times
as
fuel
efficient
as
trucks
on
average, but can be
10
times
more efficient
at
high
demands. Fuel
efficiencies translate directly
to
)
greenhouse
gas efficiencies.
Improving freight and passenger
rail
use and efficiency
has
three
primary benefits:
»
reducing greenhouse gases,
}}
reducing other noxious emissions,
and
»
reducing fossil
fuel
use.
For example,
one
train travelling between Melbourne
and Sydney can:
replace
150
semi trailers thereby saving:
»
45,000 litres of
fuel,
and saving
»
130
tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions.
Investing
in
rail
systems
effiCiency
is
essential
objectives.
to
improve environmental )
to
meet environmenta,
Environmental issues have been peripheral
to
most
transport
planning and decision making processes.
There
has been insufficient quantitative information and
argument about the accuracy of
data so environmental
issues
are
largely excluded from
transport
poliCY, such
as
pricing and infrastructure investment.
More holistic analysis was expected with the
introduction of National Guidelines for Transport
System Management
in
Australia as required
by
the
Australian Transport Council, but
these
have never been
rigorously put into practice. Individual
ju
risdictions
produce 'State of
the
Environment Reports',
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'Sustainability Strategies', and 'Integrated Transport
Strategies', partially implemented
at best.
Western cities have a heavy reliance on car transport
in
particular.Australian cities are amongst
the
largest in
the
world, with
the highest car ownership, highest car use
and largest
transport
networks. These characteristics
result in
the highest fuel
use and emissions
in
total and
per
capita.
Transport
emissions are
14%
of
Australia's national
emiSSions, but
is
the
second fastest growing
sector
.
About 90%
of transport emissions
are attributable
to
road transport even though
rail
transport
carries
more
of
the
freight task than road
transport
. The fastest
growing
transport emissions
are
by
articulated trucks,
light commercial vehicles and rigid trucks. Road freight
transport
emissions are expected
to
rise from
33%
in
1990
to 42% in
2020
as
a
proportion
of total road
transport
emissions.
Rail
freight
transport
is
about
four times
more
fuel
efficient than road freight
transport
on average. This
efficiency can rise
to
ten times for
high
demand
transport
tasks where rail's efficiencies can
be
explOited.
These fuel efficiency advantages translate directly into
greenhouse gas emission reductions.
Virtually every developed country around
the
world
recognises
the
inherent advantages
or
rail
transport
and it seeking
to
ma
ximise its use
by
investment and
other policies.
Australia needs much greater use of
rail
and
other
sustainable
transport modes
to achieve its greenhouse
gas targets. Without
fundamental structural reform of
the
transport
system,
the
transport
sector
alone
will
exceed
66%
of
the
total national emissions.
The
recently released Garnaut
Final
Report
(2)
has
indicated a number of
key
findings
in
relation
to
the
benefits
of
rail
transport:
»
The
transformation of
transport
emissions
will
partly result from a shift to lower-emissions modes,
such as
rail
and public
transport
»
In
inter-regional freight
there
is
greater
potential
for
mode shift
»
Rail
and shipping also have opportunities for
fuel
switching, over road transport, for interregional
freight
»
»
»
There
are
immediate and growing opportunities
for
mode shift, particularly from road
to
rail
In
the
longer term,
the
development
of
a
more
substantial
rail
freight
network
, along with
intermodal terminals
that allow
the
rapid transfer
of goods between trucks and trains, could permit
an even
greater
share
of
freight
to
be transferred
from road
to
rail
There
are
prospects for improving
the
emissions
efficiency of shipping and aviation
2 The Garnaut Climate Change Review
Final
Report.
Page 6
Why
is
it important?
»
The
demand for international freight transport will
grow
more
slowly
if
shipping and aviation prices
increase. Higher international
transport
costs
would increase
the advantage
of producing goods
closer to their site
of
consumption
»
The longevity
of
rail
equipment will
delay
the take
up
of
lower emissions fuel and technology (This
hints
at a solution
of
accelerated depreciation for
rollingstock?
Community Impact
Transport is
vital
to modern
communities. It is
essential
for accessing services. connecting people and providing
goods. Fundamentally
transport
occurs
as a result
of
connecting people and goods and services.Accessibility
and efficient
transport
systems make a significant
contribution to
Australian cities being rated as amongst
the
most
liveable in
the
world. Some of
the more
serious
impacts
on
communities from
transport include:
»
»
»
»
the
death
of more
than I 600 people and serious
injury
to
more
than 30.000
per
annum
in
road
crashes. resulting
in
a quantifiable
cost
of
over
$20billion
per annum;
the
deaths
of over 1500 people a year. and over
4.500 cases
of
asthma and
other
sickness from
transport emissions;
enormous
unquantified travel time and
transport
costs; and
personal
transport
times and
costs
are
increasing
as a
proportion
of
available time and disposable
income to the extent
that
transport is
contributing
to family pressure.
Page 7
As for environmental impacts. many social impacts are
not included
in
transport planning and decision making.
Rail
public
transport
offers many benefits
to individuals
and
to
cities as a whole. For
the
majority
of
users it
is
cheaper, safer (rail
is
more
than I 0 times safer than
road
transport).
and
more
consistent
with persona' )
values
of
sustainability.
All
Australian city
rail
transport
systems
are
under
stress due to increases
in
demand caused
by
increases
in
population. fuel price and congestion. Australian
communities
are
being
pressured
by
high
mortgage
costs
and
high
fuel prices which
will
continue into the
future. Improved public t
ransport
efficiency reduces
community travel costs. providing economic respite for
consumers. This.
in
turn
allows people
to
afford
more
advantageous and efficient benefits such as education.
clothes and health.
Rail
public
transport urgently needs investment to keep
pace with increasing demand and
to
maintain quality
of
service. A large
number
of
major cities around
the
world
value
the
benefits
of rail
transport
and
are
currently developing
their systems through investment
and
other policies
to enhance
their cities.
Integrating pubic
transport
with
urban development
enhances the quality
of
human activity and
is
seen
in
most modern cities
as
essential for vibrant cities.
Unfortunately
transport
and urban development are
still typically planned
and
provided independently.
Enhancing
the
efficiency
of
public
transport
through
modern digital
transport
control
systems increases
safety, reliability, speed
and
capacity, while at
the
same
time
reducing costs.
In
doing, so
all
the desirable
outcomes
for cities are improved.
Future Challenges and
the
Opportunity for Rail
Australia
faces
significant challenges in meeting a range
of
transport needs:
»
»
»
»
) »
»
transport capacity;
greenhouse
gases
and
other pollution;
operation and infrastructure cost escalation;
congestion and slowing urban travel speeds;
vulnerability
to liquid fuel availability
and
price;
road crashes and health impacts
of
transport
emissions; and
»
deterioration
of urban amenity increasing funding
demands on Treasuries.
Rail
has
the
potential
to
address many
of
these
significant problems
for
the
nation. Specifically,
the
benefits
of
enhanced passenger
and
freight rail include
the following benefits
to
the Australian
community,
bu
siness
and
the environment:
»
supporting regional communities
»
reducing
community
health effects
»
»
»
»
»
»
»
»
minimising environmental consequences
reducing the road
toll by reducing crashes
limiting local government road maintenance
limiting road investment demands on Treasuries
improving international
agriculture
competitiveness
for
reducing road infrastructure costs
for
state
government road authorities
maintaining
robust
transport
systems
to
suit a
variety
of
futures, including reduced oil availability
greater
use
of
both
passenger
and
freight rail
will benefit business, the environment
and
the
Australian community in general.
Page 8
What are the problems?
Legacy of
Under-investment
The Australian
rail
network suffers from a legacy
of
neglect over many decades. This stems primarily from
the major shift
in
movement of freight from rail
to
trucks, particularly
in
the
post second world war era.As
trucking became a significant factor
in
the
movement
of
freight, so the use
of
rail
for freight reduced.
This trend over time has
led
successive governments to
significantly
und~r-invest
in
rail
over many decades.This
results
in
the
transit time for trains being significantly
less competitive
so that
we now find
that the rail share
of
inter-capital land freight movement
is
as
follows:
»
Perth -Sydney -80%
»
Perth -Melbourne -
80%
»
Melbourne -Sydney -
7%
»
Melbourne -Brisbane -28 %
»
Sydney -Brisbane -
5%
»
Adelaide -Darwin -85%
national policy and performance goals
to
underpin
the
improvement
of rail
transport across
the country,
thereby ensuring
transport benefits are realised across
the nation.
Other
Structural Issues
The Garnaut Report(»
identifies relevant aspects of
this
issue
as
follows:
»
»
The natural monopoly characteristics
of hard ra
il
)
infrastructure
the positive externalities associated with new
transport
infrastructure and
services-
new
infrastructure, such
as
rail
lines, can increase
the
value
of
local properties but the party providing
the train line does
not capture this benefit
»
are
current
arrangements suitable for managing
the changing needs for
transport
infrastructure
into
the future?
»
Importantly this
is
most significant for
the two
major
corridors
where
the
bulk of freight
is
moved, namely
»
Melbourne
to
Sydney and Melbourne
to
Brisbane.
Significant
recent
investment
by
the
Commonwealth
and State and Territory Governments
in
both freight
and urban passenger networks
is
starting
to
redress
this issue, but much investment is
still needed to lift
the
national
rail
passenger and freight
network to the
level
whereby
rail
transport
and travel becomes genuinely
competitive with road transport.
the
current
arrangements for
transport
funding
may
create
biases
in
infrastructure spending
in
favour
of roads relative
to other modes
less funding has been directed
to
rail. While
this could be understood
if
the
intent
were
to
)
distribute
the fuel
excise that
is
levied
to
pay
fOI
road development and
to concentrate
on
roads or
rail
lines of significance for
the
national economy,
it runs
the risk of creating incentives for
state and
territory
governments
to
give
priority
to
road
(where they can achieve matched funding) over
rail
projects (which they must fully
fund)
Jurisdictional Approach to a
National Transport Issue
The
current
approach
to
government infrastructure
investment suffers due
to a jurisdiction
by
jurisdiction
approach which does
not
allow capitalisation on
the
economies of scale
of national projects. Infrastructure
Australia now has
the
potential
to
establish broad
Page 9
»
the Review considers
that
federal funding for
transport
infrastructure should be broadened
to
include contributions
to
all
modes of
transport
.
The establishment
of
the
BUilding
Australia Fund
and
recent
commitments
to
contribute
to
road
and
rail
projects
to
alleviate urban congestion
in
Melbourne
are
steps in
this direction.
3 The Garnaut Climate Change Review
Final
Report Chapter
21
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
)
»
state governments should investigate congestion
»
charging
in
major cities
Governments should plan
transport
infrastructure
and land-use
change
with a horizon
of
40 years
or
more
»
»
»
»
then pricing structures would take account
of
such factors
as
distance travelled,
mass
of cargo
(especially
for trucks)
the Productivity Commission's recommendation
that
incremental pricing
form
a precursor
to
mass-distance-Iocation pricing for freight
is
worth
another look.
there is
much
ad
hoc decision making in
transport
planning. The lack of
explicit principles in
transport
planning results in the implicit
use
of less
desirable
principles, which
can
create a
bias
towards some
modes
in
contemporary
Australia, this
has
favoured
road infrastructure
over
rail, cycling
and
walking.
infrastructure
»
the Review suggests
that a single body in each state
and
territory should
be
responsible
for
transport
policy
and
coordination across the
transport
portfolio
Garnaut summarised this structural issue in the
following way:
"Delivering
an
effective national
transport
system
requires balancing a wide range
of
objectives on a
local and regional
scale
. As a result, although many
jurisdictions
have
set
out
principles
to guide
transport
planning, there
is
much
ad
hoc decision making. The
lack
of
explicit principles in
transport planning results
in the implicit
use
of
less
desirable principles, which
can
create a
bias
towards some modes. The absence
of principles
can
lead
to
systematic discrimination in
favour
of
continuation
of
established trends,
and
in
favour
of
expansion
of
modes at the time experiencing
congestion.
In
contemporary Australia, this has favoured
road infrastructure over rail, cycling
and
walking
infrastructure.
Transport
infrastructure and land-use change needs
to
be
planned
with
a horizon
of
40 years
or
more.
Transparent long-term planning will undoubtedly create
controversy,
as
both higher urban densities
and
some
new
areas
of development will
be
required. However,
failing
to
make long-term plans will create a burden
of
poorly functioning cities
that is
difficult to unwind
and
will last
for
many decades. Given the clear need
for
strategic policy
to
be coordinated across modes
to
make
the
whole
system
more efficient, the
Review suggests
that a single body
in
each
state and
territory
should
be
responsible
for
transport
policy
and
coordination
across the transport portfolio. The institution could
be
supported
by
a number
of
service delivery agencies,
each responsible
for a single mode."
Page
10
·
.
What are the impacts of these
problems?
Almost
all
indicators of
transport
performance
in
Australia are deteriorating
or
are
not
improving,
including:
»
infrastructure operating and users costs
»
crashes
»
travel times
»
emissions, noise and
other environmental impacts.
and
»
health effects
Economic Costs
If
Australian railways are
not
economically efficient,
infrastructure costs and maintenance are high, as
well as operational costs. This results
in
high
costs
to
transport
users and subsequently to
the community and
producers. Lower
transport
costs increases the
capacity
for Australian businesses
to
be
more productive.
The
economic effects of suboptimal
transport systems
are widespread, including:
»
passenger transport is
more expensive
»
road and rail traffic congestion increases
»
road and rail travel times are longer than
necessary
»
road and
rail
travel time reliability decreases
»
road maintenance costs will
increase
»
rail
maintenance
will
increase requiring additional
time, cost
and staff
The
commercial consequences
of
these effects are
that
»
Australian
export
industries become less
competitive reducing
export earnings,
»
business costs increase resulting in
higher
consumer
and business costs depressing the economy, and
Page' ,
»
households
pay
more
for goods and services
resulting
in
l
ower quality of
life
.
Greater
use of passenger and freight
rail
reduces the
need for investment
in
expensive road construction
projects and reduces road maintenance costs, for which
heavy freight
is
a major contributor. It also improves
road
transport efficiency,
by
reducing congestion.
A
robust
transport
system which makes best use of
all
modes
of
transport
is
not
only efficient, but alsc
resilient
to
external changes which are evident
in
future. The
global financial challenges, environmental
challenges, liquid fuel
avai
l
abi
lity,
the
rise of China and
potentially India as economic
powers
and consumers
are
all
changes which Australia needs
to
be prepared
to
respond to with systems which can adapt to
change.
Relying on fewer modes of
transport
wi
ll
restrict
Australia
's
adaptabi
lity
to
meet future shocks.
Some quantified examples of
these effects include:
»
»
Traffic congestion costs
in
Australia
amount
to
over $10 billion annually.
Heavy vehicle congestion costs
rose
about 50%
in
the
15
years
to 2005 and are forecast to increase
an additional
120%
in
the
following
15
years, making
a total increase of 230% over 30 years.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
»
If
Australian railwa
ys
are not
economically efficient.
»
infrastructure costs and maintenance are
high.
as well as operational costs. This results
in
high
»
costs
to
transport
users and subsequently
to
the
»
»

community and pr
oducers.
Higher road maintenance costs
Reduced transport
efficiency
due
to
higher
congestion.
Reduced ability
to
respond
to
transport
system
"shocks" such
as
global financial challenges.
environmental challenges. liquid fuel
avai
lability. the
rise
of
China and potentially India
as
economic
powers and consumers.
Social
Costs
Transport
results
in
numerous community benefits
and impacts. Poor transport
systems adversely impacts
regions. communities and cities because
transport
is
vital.
The
costs
of poor
transport
systems affect
the
whole community
in
numerous ways. including:
»
increased travel times which reduce accessibility
to
employment, schools. recreation
family
and
friends;
increased
transport
costs
put pressure on families
reducing disposable income for
more
productive
purchases. and generally reducing quality of life;
»
»
»
»
»
»
long
commuter
times also increase pressure on
families' recreational.
family
and personal time
in
regional communities
poor transport increases
road damage and hence vehicle
wear and damage.
and road
comfort;
poor
roads increase crashes and their costs.
whereas public
transport use has much lower rash
effects;
around 40% of the community
cannot drive due to
age. infirmity
or economic limitations. Improving
public
transport
provides access for
these people.
which
is
particularly
important
in
our
aging
community;
Strong exponential growth
in
urban passenger
demand
is
creating major pressure on urban
networks;
Accessible and efficient transport
system options
are not available
to meet this demand;
Higher than necessary road accident and emissions
related deaths and injuries which currently costs
over $,20 billion
per annum;
personal
transport times and costs are increasing
as a
proportion
of available time and disposable
income to
the
extent
that
transport
is
contributing
to family pressure;
Page
12
------
-------
--
-----
--
----------------------
--
What are the impacts
of
these
problems?
»
Australian cities cannot
continue
to
build a
nd
widen freeways due
to the amount of land required,
whereas
rail
transport takes a much lower amount
of land for
the same level of transport provided.
Environment
Costs
»
Australian cities are amongst
the
worst
havi
ng a
heavy reliance on car transport in
the world, with
the highest car ownership, highe
st
car use and
large
st
transport
networks. These characteristics
result in
the highest fuel
use and emissions
in
total
and
per capita.
»
Transport emissions are
14%
of
Australia
's
national
emissions, but is
the second fastest growing sector.
About
90%
of transport emissions are attributable
to
road
transport
even though
rail
transport
carries
more
of the freight task than road
transport.
»
The fastest growing
transport
emissions are
by
articulated trucks, light commercial vehicles and
rigid trucks. Road freight
transport
emissions are
expected
to
rise from
33
%
in
1990 to 42%
in
2020
as a proportion
of
total road
transport emissions
»
»
Without
fundamental structural reform of
the
transport system,
the
transport sector alone
will
exceed 66%
of
total national emissions.
By
2050
transport
emission
will
comprise
more
than
66%
of
the
nation's entire greenhouse gas
emissions target.
Productivity
Costs
The Australian
rail
industry faces
the challenge of being
able to meet
the increase in
interstate freight task which
is
estimated to double by
2020, as well
as
the continuing
rap
id
increases
in
urban passenger demand arising from
increased
fuel
charges
as
well
as
the
likely
impacts of
carbon on use of motor vehicles. This
will
require new
railway infrastructure,
as
existing networks do
not
provide sufficient capacity
to absorb this demand.
Page
13
Whilst a scoping study
is
underway
to
examine the
benefits
of
a new inland
rail
route from Melbourne
to
Brisbane,
if
this
is
approved, it is
not
be
likely
to
be achieved
in
the
next
10
to
I 5 years
at
least, given
other
priorities, such
as
resolving
the
highest priority
infrastructure need of
the
Sydney freight
network
-
North
.
In
the
meantime,
the
lac
k of infrastructure
is
likely to
create
severe freight and passenger bottlenecks
which
will
limit productivity very significantly.
Additionally, whilst this new route
is
likely
to
greatly
assist
the movement of freight on the Eastern Seaboard,
the
remainder of
the Australian passenger and freight
network
will
still need considerable upgrading
to
be
able
to
effectively deal with the expectec increase
in
passenger and freight demand.
The lack
of
effective passenger
transport
options
is
leading
to
major
traffic
congestion
in
cities, which
is
estimated
to
cost
more
th
an
$1
OB
annually. Traffic
congestion
in
cities
will
cost $20-30 billion annually
by
2020.
In
the
15
years
to 2005 he
avy
vehicle congestion
costs increased
about
50
%, whilst in
the 15
years to
2020
it
is
estimated they will
increase
by
an
additional
120
%
making a total increase
of
230% over 1990 levels.
Observations from Transport Data suggest personal
transport
times and costs are increasi
ng as a proportion
of
available time and disposable income
to
the
extent
)
that
transport
is
increasing
to
family
pressure.Transport
congestion costs are increasing
at
a faster rate than
traffic
is
increasing.
The
current
access pncmg regime (consisting of
fl
ag
-fall
and variable
rate
components)
supports
the
operation
of
long heavy trains
more
so, than
shorter
lighter trains.This makes it diffi
cu
lt for smaller trains
to
compete commercially with long heavy trains.Whereas,
the
current
pricing regime was created
to
support
the
efficiency
of the
network
-long, heavy trains
to
maximise
the
use of
network capacity, it
is
now seen
as
a potential impediment
to
new
entrants and/or
the
operation of a mix of trains (long, heavy
trains,
shorter
lighter trains, passenger trains, shuttle trains etc).
,
.
---
---
---
-
---
-
----
---
-------
-------------------------------
How did these problems come about?
Specifically Australia
is
lacking:
»
a strategic plan describing
the intended future for
integrated and multi modal trans
port
intentions
and solutions;
»
a comprehensive policy agenda describing
the
directions
to meet
future requirements; and
»
adequate data and information from which
to
base
. strategic and specific activities.
)
Without
this clear
context
there
is
a significant risk
that
individual projects, while appearing beneficial
at
the
micro level, are
counterproductive
to
the
desired
objectives of
the
land
transport
system
as
a whole.
Furthermore, there
is
a risk
that
key
elements which
might provide integrated benefits for the
various modes
may
be overlooked.
Governments appear
to
have no substantial principles
grounding their
support
of
any
mode, resulting
in
haphazard policy focussed on narrow,
short term
and
incremental objectives. Rather,
the
clear strengths
of each
mode
(and categories within modes) should
be identified
so
that
policy and tangible
support
are
directed co-operatively
to
enhance strengths and
discourage inefficient operations.
Page
14
How might these problems be
addressed?
Options
The
significant lack
of
rail capacity
and
thereby lack
of
significant potential improvement in national
productivity.
is
a crucial national
issue
which
can
be
resolved. Three possible options are:
»
review the policy
framework
and
settings
to
optimise the environment within which rail
can
increase its capacity
and
productiVity
for
the
movement of
people
and
goods.
Review Policy Framework and
Settings
It
is
essential
that the desired system
for land
transport
be
clearly defined
and
described
as
the
goal towards
which all
transport
policy decisions are aimed. This
can
be
achieved through:
»
better planning systems
and
methodologies;
»
using
better data
and
information;
r:)
»
major infrastructure works to increase rail capacity
)}
by duplicating existing tracks.
with the consequent
related infrastructure changes including
other
major engineering
works
such
as
tunnels.
broadening the perspective (some decisions are
currently based on
narrow views. eg
from a road
system perspective
based
on the infrastructure.
not
taking other factors into account); and
»
installation
of a national digital rail traffic
control
system
in
urban. regional
and
inter
-capital
networks
to optimise existing tracks
Page
15
»
conducting analysis on a holistic
basis.
One important element
of
strategy
is
to
take account
of
a variety of
futures to
develop robust plans.
Plans
for
the future need to
consider reasonable possibilities such
as
dramatically increasing fuel prices. emissions trading.
constraints caused by public demands. skills availability
and
so on. Optimising use
of existing infrastructure
should
be
pursued
as
the
first
and
preferable
option
before embarking on
other major system changes.
The Australian
Rail
Industry recommends
that
)
transport
policy be
further developed.The policy should
consider at least the following elements relevant to rail
infrastructure:
»
Federal funding
for
infrastructure should include
contributions
to all
modes
of
infrastructure
»
Congestion charging
to encourage public transport
usage
»
Incremental pricing
as
a forerunner
to
mass
distance charging
»
Planning
transport
infrastructure
and
land change
with a horizon
of
40 years
or
more
.
»
Strategic policy to be
coordinated across all
modes
,
.
with a single body
in
each
state
and territoriy to be
responsible for
transport policy and coordination
across
the
transport portfolio.
»
National service delivery agencies should be
established
so
that each
is
responsible for a single
mode
.
»
Pricing
structures
should
take account
of
such
factors as distance travelled, mass
of
cargo
) (especially for trucks)
Major Infrastructure
Works
It
is
recognised
that
a
number
of
major projects
(tunnel,
extra track
etc) are being
proposed by
different
ju
risdictions as a means
of
increasing rail
system capacity,
and this
is
supported
.
However
,
in
addition
to
hard
infrastructure, there
are
other
projects
that also need
to be focused
on
to produce infras
tructure benefits.
Installation
of
Digital
Rail Traffic
Control
Systems
At an international level, rail traffic
control
technology
has evolved
to
the
stage
whereby
excellent control
over
train movements
is
feasible providing
the
ability
to continuously monitor train location, and
to override
train
operation
ie
stop
a train
if
necessary, when
that
train has
exceeded
safety margins. Further,
the
technology can reduce
the gaps
between
trains,
safely,
thereby
increasing capacity and productivity significantly,
without
the
need for very expensive building works
such as additional
rail
tracks.
Digital
rai
l traffic
control
systems can be utilised
in
all
rail
environments namely, urban/metro, regional
and inter-capital. The
technology
is
well proven being
already in
operation in
Europe, recently been mandated
in
the
US,
and
is
being
adopted
in
India and South East
Asia.
The Rail
Industry strong
ly
recommends this option as a
very effective small
footprint
capacity-multiplier which
will
transform the Australian rail
network
into a
high
capacity, technologically
current
and safer
network.
It
will
not
require
the
level
of
major engineering works
that
is required
to
duplicate tracks although
in
same
cases this duplication may still be warranted
.
Page
16
·
.
What should be done first?
Industry strongly supports the continuing development of
national transport
policy and strategic frameworks for transport. This should be developed as
a matter of
urgency to facilitate optimised transport mode usage.
Industry strongly urges
the
establishment of
the
"Australian Digital Train Control System" (ADTCS).
in
all
States and Territories as a critical
rail
infrastructure
Initiative
to
achieve increased capacity and
productivity for both urban passenger and freight
rail
infrastructure.
The
Australian Digital Train
Control
System (ADTCS)
Australia's outdated and low capacity signalling train
control systems (which differ
in
each jurisdiction)
need
to
be replaced
by
a modern integrated national
digital train control system
that will
deliver significant
productivity and capacity benefits whilst also adding
significant layers of safety
to
the
entire Australian
rail
network.
The
ADTCS
will
be interoperable across different
networks and also be constructed
to
a level
of
complexity
appropriate
to
the
level
of
traffic operating
in
the
network. This
will
mean
there are
three
interoperable
elements of
the
single national train control system.
servicing
all
Australian
rail
networks:
»
the
Defined Interstate
Rail
Network
(or
Inter­
capital network), managed
by
ARTC, operating
the GSM-R
communications based Advanced Train
Management System
(ATMS)
which
is
currently
in
the
process of proof of
concept
»
the
capital city Urban networks managed
by
each
urban passenger
rail
operator
utilising a system
similar
to
the
Automatic Train Protection
(ATP)
being planned
in
Sydney
by
RailCorp, and being
examined also
in
varying forms
in
Victoria and
Queensland
Page
/7
»
the
regional networks managed
by
relevant
state
jurisdictions, potentially serviced
by
a less
sophisticated version of
ATMS
technology.
Each of
these would have different levels
of
sophistication )
but would be allow trains
to
freely
operate
across
systems
in
a seamless manner. The
three
interlinked
systems would be interoperable and resourced
by
a
number of national suppliers (currently
6)
all
operating
to open standards.
This proposal overcomes
the
lack of integration
between bespoke jurisdiction-based train traffic control
systems
to
establish
the
digital equivalent of standard
gauge railways across the entire country, in
both heavily
congested urban
as
well
as
dispersed interstate and
regional railways.
This world class technology, which
is
already
the
European standard and
is
operational
in
a number of
European countries
will
apply
to
all
railways across
the
country
-interstate, regional and urban systems )
and
will
significantly enhance national productivity and
safety across all
these networks.
I
·
.
.
~
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--
-
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--
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--
--
How does it work?
The proposed Australian Digital Train
Control
System
(ADTCS)
is
a highly effective signalling/traffic
control
system which also controls train speeds.
It
will build on
theAdvancedTrain Management System (ATMS)
that
is
subject to
"proof
of concept" evaluation
by
the ARTC,
and the
Automatic
Train Protection (ATP) system being
trialled by RailCorp in
New
South Wales,
and
it will
)
be
configured utilising
the
standards adopted in
the
European ETCS level I
and
2, with
potential
to move
to the future standard
ETCS
level 3.
The system incorporates a
monitoring
system
that
exchanges information between the ground
and
the
train
to locate the precise position
of the train,
and
a
movement
control
system which allows speed limits
to
be
transmitted
to the train
driver whilst monitoring
the driver's response
and
if
necessary, applying the train
brakes in
an
unsafe situation.
The
ADTCS
is
a digital train
control system that forms
an
overlay over
current
signalling systems (eventually
replacing these systems),
monitors
the position
of
trains in
the
network
, provides train speed guidance
to
drivers,
and
delivers
control
of
train movement
authorities.
Positioning Systems (GPS)
,digital radio communications
(such
as
GSM-R), transponders and wayside devices
that
provide
track detection capacity.
This technology
is
already being implemented in
Europe under the
title
of
ERTMS
or
European
Rail
Traffic Management System. This
is
further
explained
at Appendix 2.
What
are
its benefits?
The
following benefits apply
to the proposed ADTCS.
Operational
»
significantly increased capacity in all
networks
in
the order
of
20%
or
more without needing to
build
new tracks in parallel
and
associated infrastructure
works
»
reduced transit times, improved reliability, reduced
maintenance
and
train crew costs
»
»
improved service availability, enhanced competition',
and significantly improved operational flexibility
and reliability
resolve incompatibility
of
current
signalling systems
across borders
) The technology provides real
time
monitoring
of
»
train positions
and
speed etc using differential Global
»
fuel
savings
of
between 5
and
I 0 percent,
reduced Rollingstock maintenance costs,
Sodo-economic
»
increased urban passenger
use
with
savings
on
hidden costs
of
urban travel
»
improved image
of
rail
and
its attraction
to
the
resource market
»
larger skill
base
through
use
of national common
standard
»
improved rail industry employment profile
via new
digital technology competencies
Page
/S
What should be done first?
Safety
»
prevent train collisions/crashes
like
Glenbrook,
Waterfall
by
automated intervention
»
increased track worker protection
»
level crossing safety -system communication
to
motor vehicles a possibility
»
emergency communications systems across
network especially
at platforms
Security
»
enhanced security
via
CCTV which
is
supplied
by
digital communications system
Business
benefits:
»
net reduction
in
cost of ownership
»
improved asset / resources utilisation
»
improved
customer satisfaction
»
client -
customer
attraction through improved
travel experience
»
reduced infrastructure costs
»
lower cost of
ownership
»
negates replacing
outmoded
train
control
technologies with similar technologies
Page
19
Note -Train
operators will
face some increased costs
associated with
the
installation of on-train equipment
to
create
the
operational interface with
the
ATMS
system.
Governance
Industry proposes
that
governance would be provided
by
the
new organisation known
as
the
Australian
Rail
Network
Authority (ARNA) which would be
established
under
the
auspices of
the
ARA (much )
like
the
successful
Rail
Industry Safety and Standards
Board which
is
established, receiving co-funding from
Government
and Industry).
The ARNA would be an
incorporated body established
by
the
ARA and its brief would be:
»
oversee
the
project management
of the
Scoping
Study
»
ensure engagement of appropriate stakeholders
»
ensure timely reporting of progress and
outcomes
»
recommend to Government the way forward after
the
Scoping Study
Its membership would comprise senior Industry )
representatives
of
both
rail
operators, infrastructure
managers from all
jurisdictions, with representation from
Government
and Industry.
It
would also incorporate
technical
expertise
from Industry.
This organisation would
report
to
both
the
ARA
Executive
as
well as Senior Commonwealth and State /
Territory
Government representatives.
Project
management
ARA proposes that
the first stage in
this Project would
comprise a scoping project
to
be completed
by
end
2009,
to examine:
»
the
technical elements of
the proposed ADTCS,
..
'.
»
»
»
its potential application
to
networks
around
Australia,
the
budget for such a roll-out over I 0
to
I 5 years,
and
the
costs and benefits of
the project.
The scoping would
be
informed
by
experience of
ARTC,
RailCorp, Victorian
Government and Queensland
Rail
all
of whom are undertaking ADTCS type evaluations
in
one form
or another, as well as
the
initiation
of
the
ERTMS
project in
Europe.
The
Project
is
anticipated
to
cost
in
the
order
of
$20M.
Outputs
Outputs of
the Scoping Project would include:
»
estimated
costs
and benefits
to
provide effective
cost benefit analysis
»
technology options
»
development
of
detailed plan using ARTC and
RailCorp trials
I
pilots and experience
in
Europe
ERTMS
as starting point
»
application
of
an
"open
standards" approach
to
ensure effective competition for
the
supply of
components
and systems (6 suppliers already
operating
in
Australia)
»
research into interoperability between GSM-R and
Next G data and
other technology
options
»
requirements
for
radio spectrum allocation
»
governance
structure
based on
the
idea of a
proposed Australian
Rail
Network
Authority
(ARNA) which would be established
under
the
auspices
of
the
ARA (much
like
the
successful
Rail
Industry Safety and Standards Board which
is
established, receiving co-funding from
Government
and Industry)
»
expansion
of
freight terminals
to
cope
with
increased rail system capacity.
Page
10
·
.'
What should be done first?
Constraints
A number
of
constraint
issues
need consideration
»
Resources -this project
is
very much about
modifications
to
trackside
and
on-board train
digital technology.
It
will not
require very significant
hard infrastructure assets
.
»
»
»
»
Bandwidth -allocation
of
new communications
bandwidth will
be
required.
Governance
-this
is
proposed
via the
establishment
of
the
joint
Industry and
Government see
ARNA
proposal (see above)
Implications
of
increased capacity -improvements
the
capacity
of the Australian networks will
have
ramifications
for
freight operations
in
terms
of
whether
the existing Freight Terminals are
adequate. Furthermore. improved passenger train
capacity
is
likely
to
have
implications on
current
passenger station throughput
with
potential
impacts on station
and
train design
to
upgrade
passenger embarkation / disembarkation
Interoperability between GSM-R and
Next
G data­
new mobile phone and
other telecommunications
technologies are likely
to impact
on
the selection
of
technologies
for the ADTCS.
»
Suppliers -Australia
is
well served
with
technology companies
that would
be
involved.
Si
x
companies are already operating in Australia which
provides
opportunity
to function in a competitive
environment.
»
Standards -open standards already exist in
Europe
and these are likely
to be
useable in the Australian
context.
»
How long to
make a difference -
it
is
expected that
the
ADTCS
wou
ld
be
in
full operation by 2020.
Implementation will provide
an
immediate impact
on productivity capacity.
Page 21
Implementation
Implementation of
theADTCS.The scope and
costing
of
this
project would
be
determined
in
the Scoping study.
It is
expected
to require multi billion dollar funding.
This project would
be
implemented
in
stages
following
on
from
ARTCs
ATMS
and
the RailCorp ATP projects:
»
Implementation
in
the
Sydney
and
Melbourne
networks
as
a
priority.
with
other
metropolitan )
networks to follow
»
Application
to
regional networks would follow.
Implications
Implications
for
existing infrastructure are positive in
that the technology would initially provide
an
overlay
of
existing technology.
that
is
equipment
would
be
fitted
to trains
and
track and
be
used
by appropriately
upgraded Rollingstock. without interfering with
current
technology.
When
all
Rollingstock
has
been
retro­
fitted. the
old infrastructure (signalling infrastructure)
would
be
removed. This provides the added benefit
of
significantly reducing
the on-going maintenance burden
for
what in many
cases
is outdated infrastructure.
."....
.
....
)
)
List of Appendixes
Appendix I
Appendix 2
AClL Tasman assessme
nt of
economic impact.
ETCS
Diagram and brief overview.
Page
22
c