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almondpitterpatterΤεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

23 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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1

Pertemuan
20



Sistem informasi di dalam
Organisasi/Perusahaan


Matakuliah

: T0604
-
Pengantar Teknologi Informasi

Tahun


: 200
8

Versi


:
2
.0/0.0


Williams, B.K, Stacy C. Sawyer (200
7
).
Using Information Technology:
A
Practical Introduction to Computers &
Communications
.
Seventh

Edition,
McGraw
-
Hill,
New York
.
ISBN
-
13: 978
-
0
-
07
-
110768
-
6

Sumber:


Chapter 8. Databases &
Information Systems: Digital
engines for today’s economy, p.407

2

Learning Outcomes

Pada akhir pertemuan ini, diharapkan mahasiswa

akan mampu :


m
enjelaskan
: pengertian dari sistem
informasi, sistem informasi yg umum
digunakan di dalam organisasi, serta jenis
-
jenis sistem informasi; pengertian artificial
intelligence dan area penerapannya
(C2)

3

Outline Materi


Using Databases to Help Make Decisions


Artificial Intelligence

8
-
4

Using Databases to Help
Make Decisions


6 computer
-
based information systems


Office information systems


Transaction processing systems


Management information systems


Decision support systems


Executive support systems


Expert systems

8
-
5

Using Databases to Help
Make Decisions


Transaction Processing System (TPS)


Transactions are recorded events of routine
business activities such as bills, orders, and
inventory


TPS systems keep track of the transactions
needed to conduct a business


TPS systems are used by operational
managers to track business activities


Transactions database provides the basis for
management information systems and
decision support systems



Has anyone seen the movie “Office Space”? In that movie, the hero’s boss is
nagging him about formatting the TPS report correctly. Now you know what
TPS means!

8
-
6

Using Databases to Help
Make Decisions


Management Information Systems (MIS)


Computer
-
based information system that uses
data recorded by a TPS as input to programs
that produce routine reports as output


Features


Inputs are processed transaction data. Outputs are
summarized structured reports


Designed for tactical managers


Draws from all departments


Produces several kinds or reports: summary,
exception, periodic, and demand

8
-
7

Using Databases to Help
Make Decisions


Decision Support Systems (DSS)


Computer information system that provides a flexible
tool for analysis and helps management focus on the
future


Features


Inputs are external data and internal data such as
summarized reports and processed transaction data. Outputs
are demand reports


Mainly for tactical managers


Produces analytic models


Developed to support the types of decisions faced by
managers in specific industries

8
-
8

Using Databases to Help
Make Decisions


Executive Support Systems


An easy
-
to
-
use DSS made especially for
strategic managers to support strategic
decision
-
making


Might allow executives to call up predefined
reports


Includes capability to browse through
summarized information on all aspects of the
organization and drill down for detailed data


Allows executives to perform “what
-
if”
scenarios

8
-
9

Artificial Intelligence


Expert System


One of the most useful applications of Artificial
Intelligence (AI)


AI is a group of related technologies used to develop
software and machines that emulate human qualities
such as learning, reasoning, communicating, seeing,
and hearing


Areas include


Expert systems


Natural language processing


Intelligent agents


Virtual reality and simulation devices


Pattern recognition


Fuzzy logic


Robotics

8
-
10

Artificial Intelligence


Three components of an expert system


Knowledge base


An expert system’s database of knowledge about a
particular subject


Inference engine


The software that controls the search of the expert
system’s knowledge base and produces
conclusions


User interface


The display screen the user used to interact with
the expert system

8
-
11

Artificial Intelligence


Natural language processing


Allows users to interact with a system using normal
English


The study of ways for computers to recognize and
understand human language


Intelligent agents


A form of software with built
-
in intelligence that monitors
work patterns, asks questions, and performs work tasks
on your behalf


Pattern recognition


Involves a camera and software that identify recurring
patterns in its vision and maps the pattern against
patterns stored in a database

8
-
12

Artificial Intelligence


Fuzzy logic


A method of dealing with imprecise data and
uncertainty, with problems that have many answers
rather than one


Has been applied in running elevators to determine
optimum times for elevators to wait


Virtual reality


A computer
-
generated artificial reality that projects a
person into a sensation of 3
-
D space


Often used with simulators to represent the behavior
of physical or abstract systems

8
-
13

Artificial Intelligence


Robotics


The development and study of machines that
can perform work that is normally done by
people


Commonly found in manufacturing plants and
also in situations where people would be in
danger


Nuclear plants


Assembly lines, especially paint lines


Checking for land mines


Fighting oil
-
well fires

8
-
14

Artificial Intelligence


Weak vs. Strong A.I.


Weak A.I. claims computers can be programmed to
simulate human cognition


Strong A.I. claims that computers can think on a level
that is equal to or better than humans, and can also
achieve consciousness


Cyc approach to strong A.I.


A database in Austin, TX that holds 1.4 million basic truths


Plan is that Cyc will automatically make human
-
like
assumptions


Hope is that Cyc will learn on its own


Cog approach to strong A.I.


MIT project that is a humanoid robot


Tries to identify and search for patterns instead of following
rules and facts

8
-
15

Artificial Intelligence


Test for Human Intelligence


In 1950, Allen Turing predicted computers would be able to
mimic human thinking


The Turing test determines whether the machine is human


Judge is in another location and doesn’t see the computer


If the computer can fool the judge, it is said to be intelligent


Ethics in A.I.


Prof. William Wallace from R.P.I. says that computer
software is subtly shaped by the ethical judgments of its
creators


For example, H.M.O. software used by health insurers steers
doctors to cheaper procedures


but are they better?

16

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