Computational Self: From

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The Cognitive and
Computational Self: From
Cognitive Psychology to AI

Information Processing Model


Adpated from Wickens (1984 and 1992)

Norbert Wiener (1894
-
1964)

Cybernetics or Control and Communication

in the Animal and the Machine

(1948)

CYBERNETICS
-

Science of
Control and Communication


From Greek root meaning Steersman


System with goal
-
directed action (e.g.
missile getting to a target), a
movement controlled by negative
feedback (correct the flight path of
missile).


Model that holds for both animal and
machine; the mechanical and organic.

JANUARY

1950

Harvard

s Mark III

Electromechanical

Computer


“electric brain”

Hixon Symposium on the Cerebral

Mechanisms of Behavior (1948)

Hixon Symposium Presentations

Rat Mazes



… we assert that the central office itself is far
more like a map control room than it is like an
old
-
fashioned telephone exchange. The stimuli,
which are allowed in, are not connected by just
simple one
-
to
-
one switches to the outgoing
responses. Rather, the incoming impulses are
usually worked over and elaborated in the
central control room into a tentative, cognitive
-
like map of the environment.


Edward

Tolman

䍯C湩瑩n攠䵡灳M楮⁒慴猠☠䵥M


1948 Taught at UC Berkeley


Both rats and humans should develop a broad map, with


“moderate motivation and an absence of unnecessary

frustrations, whenever we put them and ourselves before


that great God
-
given maze which is our human world”


(Tolman, 1948)

1956 Symposium on Information
Theory, MIT


Miller

s


Magical Number 7


Chunking
phenomenon of short
-
term memory (7
units +/
-

2)


Chomsky

s

generative grammar:
language as series of transformations


Newell & Simon

General Problem
Solver: Logic Theory Machine to prove
theorems (early contribution to Artificial
Intelligence)


Jerome Bruner

concept formation


Noam Chomsky (1928
-

Syntactic Structures


(1957)

Review of Skinner

s

1957 Verbal Behavior

(1959)

Chomsky’s Universal Grammar


Transformational Rules

Newell and Simon's


"Logic Theory
Machine: A Complex

Information

Processing

System"

Center for Cognitive Studies

Harvard (founded 1960)


Jerome Bruner

The Study of Thinking

(1956)

George A. Miller

J.R. Bruner, J.J. Goodnow & G.A. Austin (1956)

A Study of Thinking


The Center for Cognitive Studies
is concerned with how information
is stored, processed, and
communicated

both by human
beings and by the devices human
beings invent in order to cope
with information.



(Bruner and Miller, 1960)




I now believe that mind is
something more than a four letter,
Anglo
-
Saxon word

human
minds exist, and it is our job as
psychologists to study them.




George Miller (1962)

TOTE unit (
Test
-
Operate
-
Test
-
Exit)

Miller,
Galanter
,
Pribram

(1960)

FEEDBACK LOOPS

GREGORY BATESON (1904
-
1980)


DOUBLE BIND

HYPOTHESIS


Schizophrenia as a


product of disordered


communication in
family


Jerry Fodor (1935
-

(1983)

Parallel Distributed Processing

Connectionism
-

Neural Network theories

David
Rumelhart

and James McClelland

Parallel Distributed Processing

(1986)

Rumelhart and McClleland,

Network for Recognition of letters and Words

Stanley Kubrick

s 1968 film

2001


Philip K. Dick

Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?

(1968)

BLADE RUNNER

(1982)


Deckard tests Rachel: Clip from Bladerunner

@ MIT MEDIA LAB

ROSALIND PICARD, Director



computing that relates to, arises

from, or deliberately influences

emotion or other affective

phenomena

Hiroshi Ishiguro builds his android
twin: Geminoid HI
-
1


Hiroshi Ishiguro
-

Presence



Human or Robot?

by Robert Sternberg,Third Edition (2003)