An Introduction to Cognitive Psychology

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Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin

Chapter 1

Cognition

An Introduction to Cognitive
Psychology

Chapter 1

Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin

Chapter 1

Introduction

Important Terms

cognition

cognitive psychology

cognitive approach


Study of mental processes
--

memory, perception,
language, learning, problem solving, …


Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin

Chapter 1

Introduction

Why learn about cognition?


Cognition occupies a major portion of human
psychology


Cognitive psychology will help you appreciate many
other areas of psychology, as well as disciplines
outside psychology


Cognitive psychology provides an "owner's manual"
for your mind


Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin

Chapter 1

A Brief History of
Cognitive Psychology

The Origins of Cognitive Psychology


Aristotle

empirical evidence

Wilhelm Wundt

Introspection


objective reports of experiences

Early Memory Researchers

Ebbinghaus


memory abilities

Mary Whiton Calkins
-

recency effect



first woman president of APA

Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin

Chapter 1

A Brief History of
Cognitive Psychology

The Origins of Cognitive Psychology


William James

Principles of Psychology
-

function

tip
-
of
-
the
-
tongue phenomenon

Behaviorism

behaviorist approach


objective, observable

Watson

Skinner

operational definition

Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin

Chapter 1

A Brief History of
Cognitive Psychology

The Origins of Cognitive Psychology


The Gestalt Approach

Gestalt psychology
-

organization

Frederic C. Bartlett

memory as active, constructive process

Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin

Chapter 1

A Brief History of
Cognitive Psychology

The Emergence of Modern Cognitive
Psychology

1956 & the MIT symposium

Ulric Neisser's
Cognitive Psychology

Factors Contributing to the Rise of Cognitive
Psychology


Disappointment with Behaviorism


Linguistics; Noam Chomsky


Memory research


Developmental psychology; Jean Piaget


object permanence

Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin

Chapter 1

A Brief History of
Cognitive Psychology

The Emergence of Modern Cognitive
Psychology

The Information
-
Processing Approach

a)
a mental process can be compared with the
operations of a computer

b)
a mental process can be interpreted as
information progressing through the system in a
series of stages, one step at a time

Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin

Chapter 1

A Brief History of
Cognitive Psychology

The Emergence of Modern Cognitive
Psychology

The Information
-
Processing Approach

Atkinson
-
Shiffrin model

Sensory Memory

Short
-
term Memory (Working Memory)

Long
-
term Memory

Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin

Chapter 1

Atkinson
-
Shiffrin Model

Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin

Chapter 1

Current Issues in
Cognitive Psychology

ecological validity

Cognitive Neuroscience

social cognitive neuroscience

Brain Lesions

Positron Emission Tomography (PET scan)


several
seconds

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)


1
second

Event
-
Related Potential Technique (ERP)


fraction of
a second

Single
-
Cell Recording Technique

Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin

Chapter 1

Current Issues in
Cognitive Psychology

Artificial Intelligence

The Computer Metaphor

structures and processes

Pure AI

Efficiency, maybe different

Computer Simulation/Computer Modeling

take human limitations into account

Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin

Chapter 1

Current Issues in
Cognitive Psychology

Artificial Intelligence

The Parallel Distributed Processing Approach

parallel distributed processing (PDP)
-

-

connectionism

cerebral cortex
-

-

neural networks

serial processing

parallel processing


Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin

Chapter 1

Current Issues in
Cognitive Psychology

Cognitive Science

Interdisciplinary

cognitive psychology,
neuroscience, and artificial intelligence PLUS
philosophy, linguistics, anthropology, sociology, and
economics

Focus on internal representations

Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin

Chapter 1

An Overview of Your
Textbook

Preview of the Chapters

Five Themes in the Book

Theme 1
:

Cognitive processes are active, rather
than passive.

Theme 2
:


Cognitive processes are remarkably
efficient and accurate.

Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin

Chapter 1

An Overview of Your
Textbook

Five Themes in the Book

Theme 3:
Cognitive processes handle positive
information better than negative information.

Theme 4:

Cognitive processes are interrelated
with one another; they do not operate in
isolation.

Theme 5:

Many cognitive processes rely on
both bottom
-
up and top
-
down processing.


Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin

Chapter 1

An Overview of Your
Textbook

Chapter Outline

Chapter Preview

Opening Paragraph

Demonstrations

Individual Differences
Feature

Applications


New Terms and List at End
of Chapter

In
-
Depth Feature

Section Summaries

End
-
of
-
Chapter Review

Recommended Readings

Glossary


How to Use Your Book