Nanotechnology In Aerospace Applications

Alex EvangΗλεκτρονική - Συσκευές

23 Ιαν 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

622 εμφανίσεις

The problems of chemistry and biology can be greatly helped if our ability to see what we are doing, and to do things on an atomic level, is ultimately developed--- a development which I think cannot be avoided.

N
ANOTECHNOLOGY

I
N

A
EROSPACE

A
PPLICATIONS

Team S5

Pradip

Rijal
, Jason
Savatsky
,

Trevor Seidel, and Laura Young

“The
problems of chemistry and biology can be greatly
helped if our ability
to see
what we are doing, and to do
things on an atomic level, is ultimately developed
-
--

a development which
I think cannot be avoided
.”












Richard P. Feynman

T
HE

F
OCUS


NASA


Commercial


Military


http://corvusart.com/blog/wp
-
content/uploads/2008/10/fishbowl2.jpg

W
HAT

D
OES

T
HE

I
NDUSTRY

W
ANT
?


Materials that are:


Lighter


Stronger


More Durable


Resistant to Extreme
Conditions


Also interested in
materials that have
unique properties

http://www.washingtonstatewire.com/admin/contentmanager/photos/191409072
2%20Boeing%20787.jpg

T
HE

T
ECHNOLOGIES


Improved Electronics


Advanced Composites


Improved Paints and
Sealants


Carbon
Nanotubes

http://static.commentcamarche.net/en.kioskea.net/faq/images/372
-
phenom
-
x4
-
processors
-
01
-
s
-
.png

O
UR

R
OLE


Advanced material
research


Electronics


Production

http://www.europavalve.com/images/chemical
-
plant.jpg

A
EROSPACE

N
ANOTECHNOLOGY
: NASA


High level of funding


Four Areas of Focus


Materials


Electronics and Data
Processing


Sensors and
Components


Basic Research


http://www.azonano.com/details.asp?ArticleID=1174

NASA: C
OMPUTER

T
ECHNOLOGY


Moore’s Law


Manipulate molecules
with sub
-
angstrom
accuracy


Engrave patterns on
silicon surface


Application to
electronics


Carbon
Nanotube

SPM Tips

http://nanotechnologytoday.blogspo
t.com/2007_09_01_archive.html

NASA: A
EROSPACE

T
RANSPORTATION


Diamondoid

material


Price of
diamondoid

vehicles compared
to that of
titanium vehicles


Carbon
nanotubes

have a
Young’s modulus
comparable to
diamond

Launch Vehicles

http://pix.motivatedphotos.com/2009/5/15/633780049382659605
-
USSenterprise.jpg

NASA: A
EROSPACE

T
RANSPORTATION


Cable from Earth to
space


Strength of cable
must be tapered


Taper factor of steel
and diamond


Material must be
stronger than current
technology provides


Safety is still an


issue

Space Elevator

http://www.cmp.caltech.edu/refael/league/Space_elevator2.jpg

NASA: A
CTIVE

M
ATERIALS


The smallest feature
size in production
systems: 250 nm


Nanotubes

are
smaller


Human tissue as an
active material


http://www.ndriresource.org/SiteData/images/20042C/9d
57dcc0be146cf6680a7085b8c25615/20042C.jpg

NASA N
ANOTECHNOLOGY

V
IDEO

http://www.azonano.com/nanotechnology
-
video
-
details.asp?VidID=143


I
NDUSTRIAL
/C
OMMERCIAL

APPLICATIONS


Advanced Composites
Materials


Aerospace Paint


Deicing Materials

http://www.backpackersguide.co.uk/images/plane
-
travel.jpg

A
DVANCED

C
OMPOSITES

M
ATERIALS


http://authors.library.caltech.edu/5456/1/hrst.mit.edu/hrs/materials/public/composites/Compo
sites_rotor.gif

Schematic section of a helicopter rotor blade


Composites materials are
combinations of two or
more organic or inorganic
components


Consist of high strength
nano

fibers embedded in a
matrix


Materials are:

o
Matrix material: material
that holds everything
together.


e g . epoxy,
bismaleimide
,
or polyimide.

o
Fibers: serve as a
reinforcement, embedded
in the matrix.


e g. glass fiber, boron
fiber, carbon fiber


A
DVANCED

C
OMPOSITES

M
ATERIALS



Nano Fibers are laid out in
tape or fabric form


put in a mold under heat
and pressure.


The resin matrix flows
over nano fibers


Heat is remover and it
solidifies.


It can be formed into
various shapes. In some
cases,


the fibers are wound
tightly to increase
strength.



































http://people.sabanciuniv.edu/~yusufm/research/composite.jpg

A
DVANCED

C
OMPOSITES

M
ATERIALS


Traditionally used:
Aluminum metal


Aluminum made planes
heavier, consume more fuel


Fiberglass was first used in
the Boeing 707 passenger jet
in the 1950s, only 2% of the
structure.


Now , about one
-
third of the
structure of the commercial
planes uses composites


Composites are stronger


Composites makes aircrafts
lighter :~ 20% lighter


Fuel efficient





http://oea.larc.nasa.gov/PAIS/Concept2Reality/graphics/fig060.jpg

A
EROSPACE

P
AINT

AND

S
EALANT


Sealants to seal the
structures like fuel tanks,
aerodynamic sealing, and
windshield installation


Based on nanotechnology


e. g. PRC® and Pro
-
Seal™


PPG Aerospace chromate
-
free
de
-
paint/repaint process
includes a epoxy primer


Based on nanotechnology


Environment friendly


Better adhesion


Corrosion resistant


e. g.
DeSoto
® Aerospace Coatings


http://www.aerospace
-
technology.com/contractors/paints/ppg
-
aerospace/ppg
-
aerospace3.html

DEICING




http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8504734.stm

http://www.nano.org.uk/news/370/



When a plane is in the air,
icing can occur


plane’s performance suffers
and disasters can occur.


Currently used techniques:


use bleed air: heating the
surface with engine bleed
air


mechanical boot: breaking
the bond between surface
and ice




Issues:


Too complex,


too heavy


draws too much power to
be effective


DEICING


Solution by scientists at Battelle, U. K. : deicing
fluid


is based on nano technology


weighs 1/100th of current ice protection systems


uses simple painting methods


can be applied to a variety of curved surfaces without
needing a custom heater pad design.


How?


sprayed on planes prior to flight.


carbon nanotube coating is applied to surfaces then
energize that coating using the plane’s on
-
board
electrical system.


causes the nanotube coating to heat up, thus
preventing ice from forming.


M
ILITARY

A
PPLICATIONS



Satellites
weighing 15 tons or
more derive 1/3 of their weight
from copper harnesses


Boeing
747 uses up to 135 of
copper wire that can weight more
than 4000
pounds


Copper wires also oxidize and
corrode, are susceptible to
vibration
fatigue,
and create
premature electronics failures due
to overheating conditions.


Will replace
copper
wiring on
aerospace systems with carbon
nanotube

sheets



http://base1.googlehosted.com/base_media?q=http://www.capitolsu
pply.com/ImageServer.ashx%3Ft%3Dproduct%26h%3D200%26w%
3D200%26imageid%3DCS8516813&size=20&dhm=fdfe56f1&hl=en

M
ILITARY

A
PPLICATIONS


Conductive
coating to
be used on jet fighter
canopies
-

clear
bubbles that cover
planes' cockpits
-

for
the US air force


Coating will improve
electromagnetic
shielding and
electrostatic discharge
to prevent electronic
disruption

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c9/F
-
16_June_2008.jpg/800px
-
F
-
16_June_2008.jpg

R
EFERENCES

http://www.azonano.com/details.asp?ArticleID=11
74#_The_Main_Nanotechnology_Sectors%20tha


http://alglobus.net/NASAwork/papers/nano1997/ap
plications/


Group S5

Nanotechnology and Aerospace
Applications

Rebuttal


S5 Rebuttal of Presentation 2


S5 feels that for the most part, the criticism was accurate and
just. Laura should have tried to memorize the material to a
greater extent and not read from notes as much.
Pradip

had
extensive writing on his slides, as the audience reviewed on.
Jason could have put more effort into his slides and
rehearsed his part. More research would have been good
too. One of the reviews commented on the irrelevance of
the futuristic things that NASA is working on as they are too
far in the future, however, these are big projects and
definitely worth focusing on now. I think that we should have
discussed the space elevator

it shows that NASA is aimed
toward highly technological advances and is focused on
succeeding in their goals.

Presentation:

Nanotechnology and Aerospace Applications

By Group 5


Good presentation skills


Seemed knowledgeable


Good pace


Three of the presenters showed good preparation
skills, except last presenter.


Slides had good format


Good graphics


Presenters answered questions with further
information than what was presented


Enough presentation was presented by the
first presenters to make up for lack of
information by the fourth presenter.


Jason must improve speaking skills


Seemed in a hurry to finish presentation


Read straight from slides



Laura was able to get the audience’s
attention; however, less reading from notes
would have increased interaction with
audience.




One of the slides from composite material section
seemed overcrowded as well as the last two slides

o
Design of the slides could have been more creative.

Group S2’s Review of S5 Second
Presentation

Micheal

Jones

Rachel
Houk

Chris Heflin

Positive Aspects


Appearance of the Slides


The layout was professional


Figures were relevant to the concepts being
described and helped with understanding


Text to figure ratio was acceptable


Oral Presentation


For the most part, the presenters seemed
prepared with the use of minimal filler words and
good posture and body language


Room for Improvement


Consistency


The formatting and aesthetics of a few slides were inconsistent,
it seemed as though one group member through his slides in
last minute without formatting with the rest of the group


Other than that, some of the slides that were consistent format
wise had too much text with respect to the other slides and
seemed out of place


Preparation


The group as a whole seemed well prepared except for the last
presenter. He seemed as though this was the first time he was
actually going over his material. Although this is not the rest of
the groups responsibility, it would be more professional if he
would have pulled his own weight in the presentation.

By S3:

James
Kancewick

Michael
Koetting

Bradford Lamb

Positives


Slides were well
-
made and contained a nice text
-
to
-
image ratio.


Speaking was fairly good through the first three
presenters.


Contained a lot of good technical information
regarding the applications, especially in regard to the
“Advanced Composite Materials” slides.


Areas for Improvement


The final presenter really needs to practice more. He seemed
very nervous and unsure of himself. His entire section was very
short and was read completely off the slides, with his speaking
adding nothing to the presentation. Rehearsal would have
greatly helped!


Use of the video by NASA was somewhat distracting. The
information from the video should have just been incorporated
into your slides, with you presenting the information. This
would have reinforced your position as the “experts” on the topic,
rather than deferring to outside expertise.


Occasional format discrepancies between slides (e.g. different
bullets, inconsistent capitalization, etc.)


Speakers seemed to be lacking knowledge of the material during
the Q/A section, especially regarding the space elevator.

Danielle Miller

Joshua Moreno

Scott
Marwil

Good Things


Slides looked very professional.


Pictures were vibrant and great attention grabbers.


Laura and Trevor were very strong presenters, they did
a great job of keeping the attention of the audience
and delivering their message.


Prapid

was a good presenter, but was soft spoken. Just
needed to speak up and show more energy.

Places for Improvement


Jason was very nervous. Said “uh” and “um” a lot. He
did not appear to be well rehearsed
-

giant pause at the
beginning. His section was less developed than other
sections of the presentation. All these things can be
easily fixed by rehearsing and putting more time into
preparation.



Laura read from notes. Try to have more memorized,
but it was not that distracting.

Places for Improvement


Use consistent and parallel structure in bulleted lists.
Punctuation should be consistent throughout slide
(have all statements start with a capital letter & use
clauses
OR

complete sentences).


Some slides had too many words on them. This takes
the attention away from your main point you are trying
to get across.

S6

CHEN 481

2
nd

Presentation by S5 Review


John Baumhardt

Daniel Arnold

Michael Trevathan

Michael Tran

Presentation Review


Slide layout was agreeable and pleasant to look at. The
text on the slides seemed to be occasionally light on
content in the presentation.


The presentation was detailed and well thought out.


The final comment holds true throughout both of the
presentations: the final presenter was sub
-
par when
compared with the rest of the group. Everybody has
difficulties when it comes to presentations, but practice
serves to eliminate these difficulties. The fact that there
was no improvement between the presentations means
that no effort has been made to improve, and this is
unfair to the rest of your group.

Critique of Information


The applications of nanotechnology in aerospace were
very interesting. Some of the applications appear to be
so far in the future that they are not worth mentioning,
such as the space elevator.


Would have liked to see an analysis for the time estimate
to implement the carbon nano
-
tubes in the replacing
copper wires.


Since there are other advancing aerospace programs,
we would have liked to know about any other
applications that these programs are exploring. We
would like to know if these programs are progressing in
this research more rapidly then NASA.