robotics - da Vinci Lab

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2 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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8
-
1
-
2000 Rev 1a

By: Doug Bertain

1
Week 1


Robots use arms, end
effectors (grippers
),

drive
mechanisms, sensors,
controllers, gears and motors
to perform the human
-
like
functions necessary to
perform their jobs

Robot Components

Parts of a robot

8
-
1
-
2000 Rev 1a

By: Doug Bertain

2
Week 1


Robot arms come in all
shapes and sizes. The arm
is the part of the robot that
positions the end
-
effector
and sensors to do their pre
-
programmed business.

Robot Components

See http://www.paly.net/~dbertain/robotics/robo/griponrobotics/index.html


arms


Many (but not all) resemble human arms, and have shoulders, elbows, wrists,
even fingers. This gives the robot a lot of ways to position itself in its
environment. Each joint is said to give the robot 1 degree of freedom.


8
-
1
-
2000 Rev 1a

By: Doug Bertain

3
Week 1

Robot Components

Degrees of freedom

So, a simple robot arm with 3 degrees
of freedom could move in 3 ways: up
and down, left and right, forward and
backward. Most working robots today
have 6 degrees of freedom.

Humans have many more and some robots have 8, 12, or even 20
degrees of freedom, but these 6 are enough for most basic tasks.
As a result, most jointed
-
arm robots in use today have 6 degrees of
freedom

8
-
1
-
2000 rev 1a

by: Doug Bertain

Week 1

Robot Components

X, Y, Z, Tilt and Spin

Are 3 of the degrees of freedom
that robots perform. Most arms
move according to Cartesian
coordinates


AXIS OF ROTATION

8
-
1
-
2000 Rev 1a

By: Doug Bertain

5
Week 1


Tilt is the angle between
gripper and Z
-
Axis.


The animation sequence
shows the three most
important tilting angles +45,
0, and
-
45 and how tilting
enables to tip over a block.


Robot Components

tilt

8
-
1
-
2000 Rev 1a

By: Doug Bertain

6
Week 1


Spin

is defined as the gripper's rotation
around the Z
-
Axis. You need to choose a
spin value to align the jaws of the gripper
with a block. Spin 0 aligns the block with the
Y
-
Axis, Spin
-
45 with the diagonal between
Y
-

and X
-
Axis.

Robot Components

spin

8
-
1
-
2000 Rev 1a

By: Doug Bertain

7
Week 1


The end
-
effector is the "hand" connected
to the robot's arm. It is often different
from a human hand
-

it could be a tool
such as a gripper, a vacuum pump,
tweezers, scalpel, blowtorch
-

just about
anything that helps it do its job. Some
robots can change end
-
effectors, and be
reprogrammed for a different set of
tasks.




Robot Components

End
-
effector


If the robot has more than one arm, there can be
more than one end
-
effector on the same robot,
each suited for a specific task.


8
-
1
-
2000 Rev 1a

By: Doug Bertain

8
Week 1

Robot Components

SPECIALISTS NEEDED FOR MARS
MISSIONS!

The Exploration Mars CD
-
ROM has 9
guided challenges that takes you
through the basics.




The 9 guided challenges take you
through the basics of Mars exploration
from controlling a Rover to retrieving
samples with a Robotic Arm. The CD
-
ROM also comes with a database of
information on the Red Planet including
facts and photographs from almost 40
years of Mars exploration.



You can program your inventions in
RCX Code or control them directly
from your PC, then transmit sensor
readings from your Rover back to
your PC.


Minimum Specifications:

Requires the Robotic Invention System

Windows 98

Pentium 90Mhz

32MB Ram

52MB Hard Disk Space

http://mindstorms.lego.com/bookmarks/mars.asp


Projects

8
-
1
-
2000 Rev 1a

By: Doug Bertain

9
Week 1

Robot Components

EXPLORE UNCHARTED TERRITORY...




Welcome to pre
-
flight, Specialist.


Exploration Mars™, the long
-
awaited third
expansion set for the Robotics Invention
System, launches this March, 2000.

Designed in association
with The Planetary Society,

Exploration Mars lets you
build and program
inventions

that simulate the tasks of
actual Mars missions.




Exploration Mars includes
over 150 LEGO® pieces!


Projects