Study Guide-Exam II (Chapters correspond to 4th edition) Chapter 9 ...

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Study Guide
-
Exam II

(Chapters correspond to 4
th

edition)


Chapter 9

-
Be familiar with ELISAs; how they are performed and what they tell you

-
Explain how a monoclonal antibody is made

-
Know antibody structure and the differences between a polyclonal and
monoclonal antibody

-
Explain how DNA can be used for molecular diagnostics (e.g., DNA fingerprinting or diagnosis of a genetic disease
using PCR and/or restriction enzyme mapping)

-

What is DNA fingerprin
ting? How is it done? What are the uses of this te
chnology?


Chapter
s

10

and 11

Know which recombinant proteins are approved for human use and what they are used for

Know how to genetically engineer bacteria for expression of your favorite gene (YFG)

Antibody structure and function

with respect to disease

therapy

(eg., H
erceptin
)

Compare and contrast:
Ribozymes, antisense RNA, and RNAi (especially RNAi)

Know the mechanism of action of RNAi

Know the two types of gene therapy and the vectors used for gene therapy

Explain how to treat cystic fibrosis and SCI
D
using

human gene therapy

What are
stem cells
(embryonic and adult)
and why are they of interest to the medical community
?

Compare and contrast human therapeutic cloning and mammalian cloning


Chapter 12

Know how traditional vaccines are made (2
approaches)
; advantages and disadvantages of traditional vs rVaccines

Structure of a typical animal virus

Compare and contrast: subunit vaccine, peptide vaccine, DNA vaccine, vector vaccine

Be able to explain how to make a
subunit vaccine, peptide vaccine, DNA vaccine,
and
vector vaccine


Chapter 1
3

Realize that genetically engineer
ing the gene encoding an enzyme

can alter a naturally occurring pathway; give 2
examples


Chapter 1
6

Know the biology of the Bt toxin

(its synthe
sis, mode of action, and variants)

What is a baculovirus and how can it be used a biocontrol agent
?


Chapter 1
8

Know the biology of the Ti plasmid and the binary Ti plasmid system

Explain how the binary Ti plasmid system and the microprojectile bombardment

(biolistic)
system
is

used to
genetically engineer plants (i.e.,
k
now how to genetically engineer plants for expres
sion of your favorite gene
)

What are reporter genes and how do they work?


Chapter
s
1
9 and 20

Know what genes have been genetically engineered in plants and what new traits
they confer

as discussed in class

Be able to explain how to modify any given gene/cDNA for expression in plants (i.e., gene construction) and how to
introduce
it into plants

Kno
w how to test plants

for transgene insertion,
gene
expression, and protein

production

Know the r
easons for non
-
identical expression of foreign genes in genetically modified plants


Sample essay questions

1.

Explain how you would go about creating a traditi
onal vaccine for the H1N1 virus, and then explain how you
could produce an effective recombinant subunit vaccine for this H1N1 virus in yeast. What are the
advantages/disadvantages of each of these vaccines?


2.
Humans are now eating food from genetically
modified organisms (GMOs), particularly from plants. Give five
examples in which you identify the genetically engineered plant, the altered trait, and the gene construction
responsible for this trait. List any concerns that opponents have expressed with re
gard to the specific examples
you have selected.