Our test on Genetics is on Friday April 30th - nashvillebiology ...

alarmduckΒιοτεχνολογία

12 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 5 χρόνια και 25 μέρες)

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Name _______________________________________________

Genetics Review Sheet


Our test on Genetics is on
Friday April 30th

We will rev
iew in class on
Thursday
. We will have review
after school
Wednesday

and
before
school on
Thursday.


I need the following to study:



DNA Structure and Protein Synthesis Note Packet



Gene Expression Note Packet



Mutations Note Packet



Biotechnology Note Packet



Genetics and Protein Synthesis Quiz



Genetics and Protein Synthesis Homeworks 1


5



Genetics 2 Quizl
et Vocab



This review sheet



Review Book


Topic 3 Genetic Continuity (answers on the wikispace)



Wikispace


LE Genetics page


answers to review book and other awesome review links!


Things I need to know:



Genes



Structure of DNA



Nucleotides



DNA vs. RNA



DNA Replication



Transcription



Translation



Gene Expression



Mutations



Genetic Engineering (gene splicing)



Biotechnology



Genetically Modified Organisms



Selective Breeding


I should be able to:

Define gene

-

a segment of DNA (on

a chromosome) that contains the code for a specific trait


List the parts of a nucleotide




a.

sugar (deoxyribose for DNA and ribose for RNA)

b.

phosphate group

c.


nitrogenous base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine or uracil in RNA)


Compare and contrast DNA

and RNA













Replicate DNA by making the complementary
strand

ATGCTAGTCGATCGATGC

TACGATCAGCTAGCTACG


Complementary strand


Deoxyribose

A, T, C, G

Nucleus

Double Stranded



Ribose

Nucleotides


A, U, C, G

Genetic Codes


All over cell



Single Strand




Messenger, transfer,
ribosomal

Transcribe an RNA segment from a DNA segment

ATGCTAGTCGATCGATGC


DNA Template

UACGAUCAGCU
A
GCUACG


mRNA strand


Translate an RNA segment into its amino acids

UAC
|
GAU
|
CAG
|
CU
A|
GCU
|
ACG


mRNA strand

Tyr
-

Asp
-

Gln
-

Leu


Ala
-

Thr


Amino Acid sequence to make a protein
(polypeptide!)


State what affects gene expression

a.

Environment

i.

Radiation

ii.

Chemicals

iii.

Viruses

iv.

Parents

v.

Surroundings


Define mutation

-

any alteration in the sequence of DNA


Give examples of mutations

(insertion, deletion, substitution)

ATG|
C
CT|AGT|CGA|TCG|ATG|C

-

insertion

ATG|TAG|TCG|ATC|GAT|GC

-

deletion

ATG|
G
TA|GTC|GAT|CGA|TGC

-

substitution


State effects of mutations on phenotypes
or proteins made

1.

Sometimes nothing (neutral) because it still codes for the same amino acid


same protein

2.

Sometimes lethal


kills the organism

3.

Sometimes beneficial


reproductive advantage (makes organism better suited for environment so they can
have
lots of babies)

4.

Sometimes harmful


causes genetic disease (i.e. sickle
-
cell anemia) or cancer!


Give examples of biotechnology

1.

Selective breeding (Artificial selection)

2.

Genetic engineering (gene splicing)

3.

Genetically modified organisms

4.

Cl
oning


Know the steps of gene splicing (genetic engineering)

1.

Cut out gene of interest from one organism using a restriction enzyme

2.

Insert (Splice) that gene of interest into another organism using another enzyme

3.

Result: organism with gen
e of interest from another organism in its DNA, it can now reproduce with that
gene of interest in it and make the protein coded for by that gene


Give an example of gene splicing

Take human insulin

producing gene, cut it out of human cell and splice it i
nto bacteria cell that can reproduce quickly
and make lots of insulin. This insulin is the same as human insulin.


Interpret a draw
ing

of gene splicing


Give pros and cons of selective breeding

(artificial selection)

Pros






Cons

Put desirable traits
together



Cannot always predict outcome

Advantages of both parents



Disadvantages of parents too

Could eliminate diseases or harmful traits

Less biodiversity or genetic diversity because you are selecting out
undesirable traits


Give pros and cons of
genetically modified organisms

Pros






Cons

Can insert vaccines which are cheaper


Unknown safety to consumers

Can feed lots of people




Unknown effects of crossbreeding

Less chemicals (pesticides, herbicides)


Domination by companies who make seeds


make $

More biodiversity




Ethics


rights of animals

Less harm to environment with more


“Playing God” by tampering with genes

Disease resistance




Not always labeled or regulated

Tolerance to environment



Rich countries get richer

Efficiency







Com
pare and contrast selective breeding

(artificial selection)

and genetic engineering (gene splicing)


Selective breeding











Gene Splicing

Mating two organisms to

produce offspring


Selecting for desirable

traits of each parent


Involves more trial

and error

Inserting gene of one
organism
into another organism

Changing the DNA

of the organism



No mating of

eventually





individuals


Biotechnology




Faster than selective

breeding

*May result in a loss of

biodiversity

Ex: human insulin
producing bacteria