Honors Biology Final Exam Topics Ch. 12: DNA Technology What ...

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Honors Biology Final Exam Topics

Ch. 12: DNA Technology



What are the benefits and challenges to genetic engineering?

o

Benefits: healthier people, cures for illnesses, gene therapy

o

Challenges: increased population, expensive, possible increase in mutations.



How is the DNA of an organism, such as a bacterium, changed by scientists?

o

Introduce new genes into the plasmid of an organism

o

Place new plasmid into the bacteria.



What is a plasmid, and what role does it play in DNA modification?

o

Small ring of “extra” DN
A, not part of the chromosomes

o

Insert new genes into the plasmid and then put the plasmid into the bacteria.



What are the base pairs of DNA and RNA? How do they match up?

o

DNA: A&T, C&G

o

RNA: A&U, C&G



What are the risks and benefits of Genetically Modified p
lants and foods?

o

Pros: resistant to insects, able to grow in harsh conditions, increased nutritional value

o

Cons: new allergies, harmful to the environment, expensive

Chapter 13: Evolution



What does the term “evolution” mean?

o

The process of one species givi
ng rise to another or the change in an organism over
time.



What evidence do scientists have to prove evolution?

o

Fossils, Darwin’s studies, genetic change, comparative anatomy



Who is called the “father of evolution”

o

Charles Darwin



What is the role of
genetics in evolution?

o

Use to trace common ancestors

o

Determine the closeness of species

o

Genetic mutations can give rise to new organisms.

o

Genetic variation allows for survival of the “fittest” of a breed or organism.



Explain the usefulness of each of the f
ollowing in studying evolution
-

fossil record, comparative
anatomy, genetics

o

Fossil record: change over time of an organism, where like organisms lived, how long
ago an organism lived, other organisms alive at the same time

o

Comparative anatomy: bone struct
ure can indicate a common ancestor, also, you can
determine if the use of an appendage is the same for all species.

o

Genetics: shows how closely related organisms are based on DNA



What is the difference between natural selection and evolution?

o

Natural Selec
tion is a mechanism of evolution
-

it allows on organism to survive and
reproduce with more success than another.



How does genetic mutation influence evolution?

o

A mutation is a change in genes is passed on. It can help the species survive longer, or if
ha
rmful cause the species to die out.



What is the difference between micro and macro evolution?

o

Microevolution: Evolution of one species over a long time (sometimes unnoticed for
many generations)

o

Macroevolution: Drastic change in numerous species, ex: mass

extinction



Can acquired features be passed on to offspring, why or why not?

o

No, they are not genetic

Chapter 18/19: Ecology



What are the trophic levels?

o

Levels on the food chain (producer, consumers)



Given a list of organisms, create a food chain and trop
hic pyramid

o

Ex: plants, insects, bird, cat…



Given a food chain or trophic pyramid, identify producers, primary, secondary and tertiary
consumers.

o




Identify examples of the native and non native plants from our wetlands ecosystem

o

Native:
milkweed
, prarie

dock,
compass plant
, bedstraw,
white pine
, willow,
sugar
maple, red pine
, box elder, rubus

o

Non native:
Thistle
, wild mustard, garlic mustard,



Create an example food chain of our wetlands ecosystem

o

Given a partial chain, pick the missing organisms. Or pu
t given organisms in order of
blanks on a food chain.



Explain how organisms can be used to determine the health of a river or wetland ecosystem.

o

Given a list of organisms and they type of water they are normally found in, determine
the quality of the wate
r.



Explain why non native plants threaten native prairie and wetland ecosystems.

o

They are unstoppable in their growth and take the land that native species could
occupy.