Read the textbook section before you answer the following questions.
Give one example of selective breeding.
Nearly all domestic animals,including
horses, cats, and farm animals, and most crop
plants have been produced by selective breeding.
Relate genetic variation and mutations to each other.
Mutations are the ultimate source of genetic variation.
How might a breeder induce mutations?
By using ra
diation and chemicals.
What is Polyploidy?
The condition of having many sets of chromosomes.
Read: Section 13
Describe the process scientists use to manipulate DNA.
Biologist use various tools to extract, read, edit, and reinsert DNA into
including extraction, restriction enzymes, gel electrophoresis, sequencing DNA, and CPR.
Why might a scientist want to know the sequence of a DNA molecule?
To study specific genes; compare them with the genes of other organisms; and di
the functions of different genes.
How does gel electrophoresis work?
A mixture of DNA fragments in a porous gel
are separated by their sizes with electric
Which technique can be used to make multiple copies of a gene?
PCR; short pieces of complementary DNA are added to each end of a DNA sequence.
DNA is heated, then cooled, and DNA polymerase makes copies of the sequence.
What are the basic steps in this procedure?
Both rely on a code that can be manipulated to change
the function of the system.
Read: Section 13
What is transformation?
A process in which a cell incorporates DNA from outside the cell into its own DNA.
How can you tell if a transformation experiment has been successful?
on is successful, the DNA will be integrated into one of the cells
How are genetic markers related to
A genetic marker makes it possible to distinguish a cell that has not been transformed
from those that have not.
are two features that make plasmids useful for transforming cells?
They have DNA sequence that promote plasmid replication, and they have genetic
Read: section 4 (331
List one practical application for each of the following: transgenic
animals, transgenic plants.
Sample answers: transgenic bacteria
produce human proteins for medical use, produce
materials for plastics; animals
study genes, improve food supply, produce hum
antibodies, produce plastics.
What is a tr
An organism that contains genes from another species.
What basic steps were followed?
The nucleus of an egg cell is removed and replaced with a nucleus taken from another
adult. This egg is then placed in the reproductive system of a fo
ster mother, where it