Genetic Engineering Notes - Fulton County Schools

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12 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Genetic Engineering Notes

1.

Genetic Engineerin
g
--
T
he technology
of preparing
recombinant DNA.
This is
done by cutting up DNA molecules and splicing together fragments from more than
on
e organism
.


2.

Recombinant DN
A
--
DNA that has been recombined by genetic engineering.
This involves the combining of DNA from
two different
organisms
.

See below

3.

Plasmid
--
a small ring of DNA that is found in bacterial cells. This is in addition to
the large ring of DNA found in Prokaryotes.
Plasmids are used in genetic
engineering. See below.



Figure 1
: Illustration of a bacterium with plasmid enclosed showing
chromosom
al DNA

and
plasmids
.


4.

Restriction Enzymes
--
special enzymes that have the ability to cut DNA at
specific sites. These enzymes are used in Genetic Engineering.


5.

How
Genetic
ally

Engineer
ed Bacteria are used
--
Example
:

some
bacterial has been used to produce the human protein
insulin

which is used to treat
diabetes. In addition
,

some bacterial have been used to
clean up oil spills
.

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6.

Gene Thera
py
--
inserting a replacement gene into a person’s cell

to correct a
defective ge
ne

by using a genetically engineered
virus
.

Example: Cystic Fibrosis

7.


8.

Vecto
r
--
a genetically engineered virus
or bacteria that contains genes from
another organism. Examples: (1)

Plasmid

used to make human insulin in bacteria.

(2)
V
irus

used to replace a
defective gene in humans

such as cystic fibrosis
.

9.

Clon
e
--
an organism
, cell

or piece of genetic material that is genetically identical
to one that was preexisting.

Example: Dolly the sheep.


10.

Gel Electrophoresis

a process used to create a
DNA Fingerprint
.

11.

DNA Fingerprint
--
a banding pattern of DNA that is unique to an individual.
This banding pattern is created by Gel Electrophoresis



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DNA fragments are injected into wells and an
electric current is applied along the gel.


DNA is negatively charged so it
will travel
through the gel toward the positive electrode.
The pattern formed is the DNA
fingerprint.


12.

DNA Fingerprin
t
--
a banding pattern of DNA

that is unique to an individual.
This banding pattern is created by Gel Electrophoresis
. See Examples below.

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13.

Human Genome Projec
t
--
an international effort to sequence the human
gene pool called the Genome.
The goal is to be able to replace defective genes
through gene therapy.

14.

Genetically Engineered Plants
--
can help plants to be resistant to
disease
and insects.

Also make plants more desirable for human consumption.

15.

Transgenic Organism
--
Organisms containing the DNA of another organism.