Commonly called “heat lovers” - DPISD

alarmduckΒιοτεχνολογία

12 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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1


While organisms in this kingdom have genetic material, it is not
enclosed or surrounded by a nuclear envelope. Therefore, these
organisms ‘technically’ do not have a nucleus. Their genetic
material is in the form of a single circular chromosome. All
members of this kingdom are single
-
celled or unicellular. Some
are producers and can “make their own food” through
photosynthesis or chemosynthesis. Technically, they can
convert inorganic compounds, such

as carbon dioxide and
water, into

organic compoun
ds, such as glucose; in the process
they give off oxygen as a byproduct.
Depending on the species,
oxygen may be toxic, tolerated, or needed for
their
metabolism.
While these are autotrophic, many are heterotrophic. Except
for one, all organisms in this

kingdom have a cell wall
su
pporting

their cell membrane. They reproduce asexually by
splitting in half which is called binary fission. They can
exchange genetic information through conjugation.


These are a
diverse group of organisms living almost
eve
rywhere.
Many species are beneficial such as those that
convert nitrogen into a useable form for plants. Others, such as
E. coli,

aid
with

digestion. While many are helpful, others are
pathogenic causing diseases such as cholera, strep throat, and
salmo
nella
. Antibiotics have been developed to help attack
infections caused by these organisms.



2


These are the “ancient ones”.
These unicellular
prokaryotes are found in extre
mely
harsh, even
hostile
,

environments. Here
they have carv
ed out a niche for
themselves
where

other organisms fail to thrive.

Many
are autotrophic (but by chemosynthesis not necessarily by
photosynthesis).
Depending on the species, oxygen,
hydrogen, carbon dioxide,
or
sulfides may be needed for
their
metabolism. They reproduce asexually by binary
fission.
They have been found
living

in the hot springs

and geyers

of Yellowstone National Park as well as in the
hot thermal vents of the deep ocean
. Others thrive in
highl
y acidic
or salty
environments

such as the Dead Sea
or the Great Salt Lake
.
Native to Yellowstone National
Park, t
he
Taq

bac
terium

can survive in very hot
environments
and

this property enables it to be

used in
genetic engineering to
copy

large quantities of DNA
commercially
.









Commonly
called

“heat lovers”

or

“salt lovers”

3


The
se

multicellular organisms have specialized cells that
that form

tissues. Their cells
are complex and
have nuclei
with genetic material within
. No members
of this
kingdom
have a cell wall. T
rading

the extra rigid
supportive

boundary
of a cell wall for flexibility and
motility, these organisms can move from place to place.

Most organisms in this kingdom reproduce sexually

whi
le

a few

have retained the ability to reproduce asexually
.
Being heterotr
ophic, all

members are
consumers and are
dependent on in
gestion of nutrients for energy.
Oxygen is
needed for metabolism.
Mammals, birds, reptiles, fish,
amphibians, as well as invertebrates belong to this
kingdom.





4


These multicellular organisms have

complex
specialized
cells that form tissues. Their genetic material
,

which is
encoded in chromosomes
,

lies in the nuclei of their cells.
All members are autotrophic or producers by
photosynthesis where they convert radiant or solar energy
into chemical
energy that is stored in the bonds of
glucose.
Oxygen is needed for metabolism.
The cells of
these organisms have cell walls that give them extra
support. They can reproduce sexually and asexually.

Mosses, ferns, conifers, and flowering plants belong t
o
this kingdom.




5


All members of this kingdom are multicellular
(
except
one
)

and used to be con
fused with

plants. However,
they
are classified into a kingdom of their own

because their
cells lack chloroplasts making it impossible for them to
photosynthesize.
Oxygen is needed for
their
metabolism.
Nuclei can be observed in their cells

as well as many
other organelles.

These organisms

get their nutrients and
energy by dec
omposing
decaying matter
. These
organisms repro
duce sexually and asexually
. Cell walls
give an extra boundary to their cells;

however,

they are

different
in composition than

the cellulose ce
ll walls
found in plants.


Mushrooms, mold,
yeast,
and mildew
s

a
re all examples of organisms that belong to this
kingdom.




6


Most organisms that belong to this kingdom are
unicellular. Those that are multicellular
do not form

true
tissues. Their cells

are quite complex and

have nuclei

where genetic material can be found
.

Many are aquatic.
Some of the
se organisms

lack a cell wall and therefore are
able to move actively. Others have a cell wall. Some are
autotrophic and others are heterotrophic.
Oxygen is
needed for metabolism.
Mos
t reproduction is asexual
though they can reproduce
sexually.
Sometimes
members of this kingdom are call the “
left
-
overs” or the
“odds & ends” because they don’t seem to fit anywhere
else. This kingdom includes all microscopic or
ganisms
that are not bact
eria, n
ot animals, not plants, and not
fungi. Slime molds, algaes
, such as plankton
, and
protozoans such as paramecia, euglena, and amoeba
belong to this kingdom.