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RESEARCH PROJECT


ACTIVATED CARBON PREPARED FROM
WATER
HYACINTH
AS AN ADSORBENT F
OR THE
REMOVAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL
ORGANIC

COMPOUNDS















2


Table of Contents


RESEARCH PROPOSAL
ABSTRACT

................................
................................
....

3

1. Background

................................
................................
................................
..............

4

2. Statement of Scientific or Technical Problem

................................
.......................

5

2.1. Primary Goals

................................
................................
................................
....

5

2.2. Research
Specific O
bjectives

................................
................................
............

5

3. Project Description and Detailed Plan of Work
................................
....................

6

3.1. Present State of Knowledge in the Field
................................
..........................

6

3.2. Technical Approach and Plan of Work

................................
..........................

7

3.2.1. Task I

................................
................................
................................
...........

7

3.2.2. Task II

................................
........................

Error! Bookmark not defined.
11

3.2.3. Task III

................................
......................

Error! Bookmark not defined.
13

3
.
3.

Facilities and Equipments in Water Pollution Research Department
(WPRD) National Research Center (NRC)

................................
.........................

16

3.
4
.
Schedule of Tasks

................................
................

Error! Bookmark not defined.


4.
Personnel and Facilities Description
…………………………………………
16

5
.
Budget Justification

................................
................................
................................
...


6.
Curricula Vitae
................................
................................
................................
...........


7. References

................................
................................
................................
...............

17





3


RESEARCH PROPOSAL ABSTRACT


Growing concerns about the environment have resulted in the development of new
environmental technologies, new materials, and new ways to reduce; minimize and
solve the
environmental wastes problem.


Activated carbon adsorption is an effective technology f
or environmental
remediation, industrial processing and to remove trace contaminants from both air and
water

in general.
Its economical drawback has stimulated the interest to utilize
cheaper raw materials for the production of activated carbon. Consequent
ly, a wide
variety of agricul
tural by
-
products and wastes have

been investigated as cellulosic
precursors for the production
of activated carbon
.

Due to the high carbon content of
water
hyacinth,

and
its ubiquity
, preparing activated carbon with water hyacinth can
help in

utilising the
plant
for air and water treatment purposes.
.

Water hyacinth (
Eichhornia crassipes
) is a free floating water plant; has been
called the world's worst aquatic weed; continue to create

environmental problems in
terms of volume and method of valorization.

Water hyacinth (
Eichhornia crassipes
),
has attracted significant attention as the world’s worst invasive

aquatic plant due to its
extremely rapid proliferation

and congest growth, prese
nting serious
challenges

in
navigation, irrigation, and power generation.
Exploring new ways of water hyacinth
treatment, disposal and utilization has important significance in

solving the problem
of this water
plant.

We are presenting a
technology
that
aims to encourage the

valorization and recycling
of

water hyacinth by

producing
microporous
structure activated

carbon
, and by
encouraging the use of the activated carbonized products.


T
he investigators propose to prepare and/or modify
activated carbon from
aquatic plant
to enhance their a
dsorption capacities and the rate

for the removal of
conventional and emerging contaminants
. The prepared materials will be used for the
improvement of the treatment processes currently employed in
drin
king water
treatment plants

in Egypt.


Another goal of the research project will establish the technical and
economic

feasibility of a
dsorption technology
, providing a system to destroy
the
Volatile Organic Compounds (
VOCs
)

and other indoor a
ir cont
aminants at ambient
temperature

and at low cost.

4


1. Background


Water hyacinth (
Eichhorniacrassipes)

is a floating, fleshy
aquatic plant

that is
currently

exists

in almost all regions of the world. It was taken the
re as a beautiful
exotic plant.
It
is considered an invasive

species worldwide

because it

is
capable of
multiplying faster than any other known fresh water plant.

It
produces

as many as 90
million seeds per hectare which remain viable and ab
le to germinate up to 20 years.


Water hyacinth
c
auses
many problems

including
blocking

irrigation channels
and impeding the flow of water in large rivers
.

It may also have adverse effects on

human health by enabling the breeding of mosquitoes and schistomes (bilharzias) and
other human parasites.

In ad
dition,
w
ater hyacinth affects the water quality by
reducing water temperature, pH, bicarbonate content, dissolved oxygen and increasing
biological oxygen demand

and
, free carbon dioxide
. It may also reduce water
nutrients

level
which

ultimately makes water
remarkably less
useful

for livestock and
human
s.


The flowers of water hyacinth were

first seen wild in the River Nile in Egypt
in the 1890s.

Prior to the construction of the Aswan Dam, the main Nile channel was

relatively free of
water hyacinth, as the annual floods flushed it downstream.

The

presence of the dam
caused the flow of water to be much slower, and water

hyacinth
found its way into the irrigation and drainage canals fed by the Nile.

In Egypt, people
are
highly
dependen
t on
the R
iver Nile

for transportation, fishing,
tourism

and
drinking.
Introducing
water hyac
inth in the river Nile has

resulted in

severe socio
-
economic problems
.

For example, El
-
Sawaf, (1998a, b) reported that water losses due
to the presence of water hy
acinth in the river Nile branching channels and drainage
system
were
about 47523000 m3

/year
.

Attempts to
mechanical
ly

and manual
ly

control the plant

reproduction

were

prove
n

to be costly
and results were negligible
.

Consequently,
many
research

works
have been carried out with the main objective of utilizing water hyacinth especially
that the plant has shown considerable ability to absorb and
concentrate many toxic
metals from aquatic environments.


The
attempts to explore possible uses of water

hyacinth include
:


i
)
Biogas

plants, heating, lighting and generation of electricity

(
Ofoefule1
et al.
,
2009),

5



ii) Composting units

(
ADESINA

et al
., 2011
)
,


iii)
Animal/fish food

(Aboud
et al
., 2005)
,


iv)


Using

dried water hyacinth stems

to make crafts and furniture.


v)

Writing paper (De Groote
et al.
, 2003).


vi)
P
hytoremediation agent

and

bio
-
sorbent for

several heavy metals and other
pollutants

(
Mahamadi and Nharingo,

2010a
,

b
)
.




2. State
ment of Scientific or Technical
Problem

In
the
recent years, there has been growing interest in finding cheap and
effective alternatives to carbon, such as clay minerals, lignin, fly ash, wood powder,
coir pith and peat

etc. However, as the adsorption capacities of the above

adsorbents
are not v
ery large,

new adsorbents which are

more economic, easily available and
highly effective are still

needed.

Water hyacinth and water spinach were used as novel
precursor materials for the production of powdered activated carbons (
Luke

et al
.,

2008; Timi

et
al
.,

2011
;
Isichei
et al
.
,

2012
)
.


2.1. Primary Goals

The main aim of this work is to produce activated carbon from water hyacinth
and characterize the potential of the prepared activated carbon for the removal of
environmental pollutants from water and
air; the production of this carbon is expected
to be economically feasible.


2.2. Research
Specific O
bjectives


The specific
objectives of the project are listed below.



1.

To assess the ability of producing activated carbon from water hyacinth (E.C.)
,

and
fully characterizing the produced activated carbon
.

2.

To investigate the
capacity

of water hyacinth activated carbon as sorbent for
environmental organic
pollutants

from
water and air
.

6


3.

To identify the optimum condition
s for

the removal
of
organic compounds
i
ncluding the influence of the type and amount of
the produced
activated
carbon used, shaking time, and pollutant concentration.

4.

Fitting the adsorption data to commonly employed adsorption isotherms e.g.
Fre
u
nd
l
ich and Langmuir and develop

kinetic and/or di
ffusive models that
simulate the
adsorption of organic
pollutants
on

the produced activated
carbon.


3. Project Description and Detailed Plan of Work

3.1. Present State of Knowledge in the Field

Egypt has seen a rapid increase in the deterioration of its surface water and
groundwater, due to discharges of heavily polluted domestic and industrial effluents
into its waterways. Excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture also
causes wa
ter pollution problems
(Barakat, 2004; Harris and Abdel, 1995)
.
Egyptian
industries use 638 Mm
3
/yr of water, with a significant portion (549 Mm
3
/yr)

being
discharged to the drainage system. The organic synthesis industry is made up of
different sectors that produce a variety of products, such as polymers and resins,
pe
sticides, paints, oil and petrochemical, textiles and pharmaceuticals.

An estimated
200 million m
3
/
yr

of wastewater is generated from these sectors in Egypt. These
wastewater discharges can be characterized by high levels of hazardous chemicals,
total susp
ended solids (TSS), total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand
(COD),
strong color, and highly variable pH and temperatures. Discharging this type
of wastewater into open water sources would be particularly objectionable. Previous
studies have show
n that various combinations of biological, physical
,

and chemical
treatment methods have been applied to the effluent with limited success
,

due to the
stability of refractory and toxic compounds.

As a consequence, simple, low
-
cost
technologies are necessar
y to treat non
-
biodegradable wastewater.

On the other
hand;

Indoor air quality (IAQ) remains a very important issue today
because it can significantly
affect people’s health, comfort

satisfaction and
productivity.
The health effects of indoor air pollution

are important because
individuals spend large fractions of their time in indoor environments and frequently
have little control over exposure time or indoor air quality (IAQ)
.
Exposure to volatile
organic compounds (VOCs) has been a recent subject of conc
ern because of the
prevalence of these compounds

in indoor as well as outdoor environments and
7


because of their adverse health effects. They include aliphatic and aromatic

hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, various ketones,

acetaldehydes, and
formalde
hyde.

Many technologies for indoor air treatments have been developed
during the last years such as photocatal
ytic oxidation and adsorption
(Jing
et al.
,
2008)
.


Adsorption is an important alternative technology to provide realistic solutions to
many
environmental issues in which the concentrations of organic p
ollutants are low
or trace

(
Foley
et al
., 2001;

Mastral

et al.,

2002).

Activated carbons are widely used
for purification of air and water in industrial applications, because of their high
adsorp
tion capacity, fast adsorption kinetics and ease of
regeneration

(
Lorimier

et al.,

2005; Fisk, 2007
;
Seung

et al.,

2011
).


Searching for low cost activated carbons has been started a few decades ago as an
alternative for expensive coal
-
based activated
carbon. Biomass mainly derived from
industrial and agricultural solid waste is a preferable option for activated carbon
precursors (Malik, 2003; Ozacar and Sengil, 2003; Reddy and Kotaiah, 2006).
Biomass materials are cheaper, renewable and abundantly avai
lable. Numerous
successful attempts have been made to develop activated carbons from various range
of agricultural solid waste such as bamboo, rice husk, rubber
-
wood sawdust, oil palm
shell and coir pith (Namasivayam and Sangeetha, 2005; Kumar
et al
., 2006
; Adinata
et al
., 2007; Hameed
et al
., 2007
).
Therefore
,

the investigators propose to
prepare
low

cost adsorbent from biomass
.

The prepared materials will be used for the
improvement of treatment sequence currently worki
ng in indoor air treatment and
drink
ing water treatment plants (DWTPs)

in Egypt.

3.2. Technical Approach and Plan of Work

3.2.1. Task I

Phase 1:
L
iterature
R
eview

Update

This phase includes the following:



Updating literature survey
on the subject and the acquisition of
complementary
theoretical information.



Designing and optimizing experimental protocols
.



Testing analytical protocols.


Phase 2: Collection of
water hyacinth
Eichorniacrassipes

8



W
ater hyacinths
samples
(Eichorniacrassipes)

will be

collected from
the
River
Nile (Cairo
-

Egypt)
.

Samples will be

washed with water to r
emove dust and other
impurities, and air
-
dried in sunlight until all moisture
is

evaporated.


Phase 3: Preparation of
A
ctivated
C
arbon from
Water hyacinths



Characterization of the starting material

Determination of the elemental composition of the solid samples will be
conducted
. The standard test method ASTM D2866
-
94 is used to determine the ash
content.
The metals content is examined by atomic spectroscopy.



Preparation of activated carbon


There are basically two methods for manufacturing activated carbons, i.e.
physical and chemical activation (Fig.1).

Physical activation

It consists of two steps: carbonization and activation.

a. Carbonization

Carbonization is an inert thermal process to c
onvert the
carbonaceous precursor into solid char and leaving other liquids and
gaseous as by
-
products
(Chattopadhyaya
et al
., 2006)
. This takes place in
the absence of air and at temperatures of 600 to 800 ºC. The procedure is
r
epeated until substantial amount of carbonized sample is obtained. This is
stored in sealed plastic containers.

Characterization of the carbonized carbon

1.

Elemental analysis


To realize these analyses, the samples must be homogeneous and dry. The contents of
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur (CHNS) in the raw and carbonized samples
are
measured
and the contents of oxygen (O)
are

also
determined
.




2.

Moisture and dry matter
content

9


An amount of 1.0 g each of the carbonized samples
is

placed in a clean
silica crucible that
is

previously dried in a
desiccator

and weighed. They
are

then dried in an air
-
circulated oven at 105°C for 3 h after which they
are

cooled in a desiccator
and then weighed. Results
are

expressed as
a
percentage of

the initial weight
of
carbonized samples.

3.

Ash content

Copper crucibles
are

heated in a furnace at 500°C, then cooled in a
desiccator and weighed. The oven dried samples from the previous section
ar
e

placed in the crucible and transferred into the Muffle furnace at 900°C
for 3 h. The crucibles/content
are

allowed to cool in a desiccator and then
weighed to obtain the weight of the as
h. The ash content was expressed

as
a
percentage of

the oven dry wei
ght.

4.

Bulk density

The volume of distilled water displaced by a known mass of

the carbonized
sample is measured using a measuring cylinder.


b. Activation

Activation is a sequential process to enhance the char porosity and to clean out the
tar
-
clogging pores, thus increasing the total surface area of the produced activated
carbon
(Turmuzi et al., 2004)
. The precursor and preparation methods (activation) not
o
nly determine its porosity but also the chemical nature of its surface, which
consequently establishes its adsorptive and catalytic characteristics
(Khalil et al.,
2001)
. Activation can be done either p
hysically, chemically or a combination of both,
known as the physiochemical method. Physical activation is the gasification of the
resulting char with an activating agent, such as CO
2
, steam or air, at a high
temperature (800
-
1000°C); the char develops a p
orous structure.

Chemical activation

The two steps (carbonization and activation) are carried out simultaneously in one
step. The raw material
s

are

impregnated with certain chemical agents such as
phosphoric acid
(
Haimour

and Emeish, 2006)
,

sulphuric acid
(Martin et al., 2003)
,

potassium hydroxide
(Fierro et al., 2006)
,

or zinc chloride
(Tay et al., 2001)

in an
10


inert atmosphere. The impregnated product is heated either at mo
derate or high
temperatures (500
-
800 ºC) under a flow of steam, and the final temperature is kept for
a short period of time under the steam flow and then washed to remove the activating
agent. Chemical activation is usually carried out if the raw material

is wood or peat.

The yield of the chemical activation process is relatively large, i.e., it may exceed
that of the physical activation method by up to 30 % wt. Other possible advantages of
chemical activation are: (a) simplicity (e.g., no need of previous

carbonization of raw
material); (b) lower

temperatures of activation; and (c) good development of the
porous structure
(Dabrowski et al., 2005)
.

Additionally, some authors have studied the
combination of these two methods
(Hu et al., 2001)

to obtain activated carbon w
ith
specific surface properties.



Fig. 1

Scheme of the process of activated carbon manufacturing



Phase 4:
Characterisation methods of the prepared activated carbons


The
new

adsorbent
is

characterized for BET
(Brunauer, Emmet and Teller)
surface area, point of
zero charge,
Elemental analysis CHNSO
,
Ash content,

SEM,
EDX, FTIR
,

thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)
,

Boehm titration
,

etc.


Phase 5: Characterization of
W
ater
Q
uality



Collection of samples from intake of selected drinking water tre
atment plants
at different time intervals

and seasons
.

11




Determination of physi
co
chemical characteristics and examination of
m
icrobiological activity

in raw and treated water, according to the American
Public Health Association (APHA)



Determination of
persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by using gas
chromatography (GC), GC/MS, and high performance liquid chromatography
(HPLC0,) according APHA



Determination of
DBPs

(THMS and HAAs) using

USEPA Method 552.3.



Evaluation of existing methods used in drinking

water treatment plants.


3.2.
2
. Task II



Investigate the
potential environmental benefits of using the new activated carbon
for water and
Indoor air treatments




Screening of prepared activated carbons


The adsorption performances of the prepared
activated carbon on phenol as a
reference molecule model are firstly investigated.




Water decontamination
Adsorption
e
xperiments



Stock suspensions of 1,000 mg/L of
AC

will be prepared by adding them to
deionized (DI)

water and mixing them over a magnetic stirrer at 500 rpm. The
AC

will not undergo any additional treatment in order to most accurately replicate their
application in a commercial water treatment system. In current water treatment
applications, adsorbents
(e.g., powdered activated carbon) are purchased from the
manufacturer and applied directly into the existing flocculation tanks to facilitate the
removal of any contaminants. Adsorption kinetics experiments will be conducted
using 100 mL solutions in amber

bottles with initial concentrations of approximately
1 nM of each EDC/PPCP compound

(i.e., bisphenol A,
17
β
-
estradiol, 17
α
-
ethinyl
estradiol, erythromycin
,

gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, iopromide, meprobamate,
sulfamethoxazole, and triclosan). These compounds
have different
physico
-
chemical
properties, including differences in log
K
OW
,
pK
a
, and molecular weight, as well as
chemical structures
. These
target compounds were determined based on the following
criteria: (i
) the extent of their occurrence in source waters, (ii) the physico
-
chemical
properties of a particular compound, and (iii) the ability to quantify these compounds
12


using
HPLC

with fluorescence detection and HPLC
-
mass spectrometry (
LC
-
MS)
(Her
et al., 2011; Westerhoff et al., 2005; Yoon et al., 2003b)
. Among the target
compounds, three compounds (17
β
-
estradiol, 17
α
-
ethinyl estradiol, and erythromycin)
are listed in the EPA’s Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List 3.

The solutions
will then be
spiked with a small volume of
AC

stock solution to achieve a
concentration of 50 mg/L of
AC
. At predetermined time intervals of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30,
60, 120, 180, and 240 min, aliquots of the solutions will be withdrawn from the
bottles and passed through 0.4
5 µm Durapore membrane filters (Millipore, Ireland)
and analyzed using LC/MS/MS.



Potential
i
nfluences of
e
nvironmental
f
actors


In order to elucidate the effects of environmental factors on the
prepared AC
adsorption

of EDC/PPCPs, the following experiments will be performed using (i)
field
-
collected water samples, and (ii) laboratory prepared water samples.

Field
-
c
ollected
w
ater
s
amples:
Natural water samples that reflect diverse
environmental characteristics will be

collected from

intake of selected drinking water
treatment plants
. Basic measurements will be taken for each environmental factor to
be tested (e.g., pH, ionic strength, conductivity, DOC, turbidity and major cations and
anions).

DOC will be determined wi
th a DOC analyzer
.

Turbidity will be determined
with a turbidity meter.

Laboratory
p
repared
w
ater
s
amples:

Pure DI water will be spiked with various
sample compositions of ions (e.g., conductivity of 300
-

1,200 µS/cm), pH (acidic,
neutral, and basic), DOC

(1
-

20 mg/L), and turbidity (1
-

20 NTU). DOC will be
prepared using hydrophobic (e.g., humic acids) and hydrophilic (e.g., glucose)
hydrocarbons. The humic acids will be prepared with Suwannee River reverse
osmosis isolate obtained from the Internationa
l Humic Substance Society.

These
water samples will be spiked with
varying amounts of
prepared AC

(10
-
100 mg/L) for
the
use in the adsorption experiment.



Indoor air treatments

experiments

To improve the industrial design of th
is
adsorber

and to find the best operating
conditions, the

adsorption processes need to be modeled. To do this, gas
-
solid

equilibrium

experiments and adsorption kinetic experiments

m
ust be
performed
.

We
aim to evaluate

the use of
new
AC to adsorb
volatile organic com
pounds (
VOCs
)

13


from indoor air. In a cyclic regeneration

process, VOCs
are

desorbed from the AC
media to enable

the next cycle of air cleaning


Adsorption Equilibrium Experiments
.
A batch reactor

(volume about 1 L)
will be

used to obtain adsorption isotherms.

It
is

placed in a thermostated tank.
The new
AC

sample
is

kept at 150
°
C for 48 h and then cooled in a dry atmosphere

before the
experiments. The mass of
AC

used

will be

ranged

f
rom 0.5 to 4 g. The air/VOC
mixture
is

o
btained by injection

o
f a known mass of VOC in liquid form by means of
a syringe

t
hrough a septum. The zeolites
will be

put into contact with

t
he air/VOC
mixture by rotating an angled tube when all the

l
iquid
have

evaporated. The gas
will
be

homogenized by

a

m
agnetic mixer. Gas samples
are

taken with an airtight

syringe
at equilibrium (1 h) and injected into an HP 5890

s
eries II gas chromatograph
equipped with a flame ionization

d
etector (FID).


3.2.3
. Task III



Mechanistic Modeling to Determine Interactions between AC and Pollutants


To gain a mechanistic understanding of the reactions of
prepared AC and target
pollutants
, quantum chemical calculations will be used to evaluate the components
that are likely to interact with the target contaminants. The geometry of the molecular
structure of the representative
AC

will be optimized and the reaction energies will be
quantifie
d. Calculations will be performed using density functional theory with the
B3LYP parameterization and 6
-
31G(d) basis set. A hessian calculation will be
performed to verify that the structure is optimized by checking that there are no
negative frequencies.
Initial calculations will be performed in the gas phase, followed
by liquid phase calculations using the polarizable continuum model. Geometry
optimization will be performed using PC
-
Gamess/Firefly software that is optimized
for computational speed on Wind
ows platforms, while thermodynamic calculations
will be performed using Gaussian 03W that is capable of performing analytic hessian
calculations.

3.3.
Facilities and Equipments in Water Pollution Research Department
(WPRD) National Research Center (NRC)



We
ll
-
established water and wastewater laboratories have facilities and
equipment to carry out water and wastewater quality analysis, water and
wastewater treatment via conventional and advanced techniques, impact of
14


POPs and heavy metals in aquatic organisms
, and various microbiological
investigations. The following facilities and equipments will be used in the
project and are currently available in the laboratory.



Two photochemical reactors (bench scale) with different powers (150 watt,
1200 watt).



Parabolic

solar collector (bench scale).



Concentrated parabolic solar collectors (CPC)
.



Solar Box (Solbox, 1000 Watt).



Magnetic stirrer with hotplate.



Electric Water Bath.



Porcelain dishes.



Glassware.



UV/Visible spectrophotometer.



Chemical oxygen demand digester an
d spectrophotometer.



pH meter.



Electric Balance.



Oven and Muffle furnace.



Total Organic Carbon analyzer (Phoniex 8000).



High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determination of
refractory organic compounds (Model: Aglient 1100).



Gas
chromatography equipped with mass spectrometer (GC/MS/MS) (Model:
Varian 400).



Atomic Absorption
.



Wet oxidation reactor with Hg analyzer.



Jar testing apparatus

and o
zon
e generator
.
15



3.
4
.
Schedule of Tasks

We anticipate two full years of work for this project. All members of the project will work
closely together on all aspects of the projects. The schedule for this project is provided in
Table 1.

Table 1
.
Project schedule

Task

1
st

year (months)

2
nd

year (
months)

3

6

9

12

3

6

9

12

Task
I









-

L
iterature
R
eview

Update


-

Collection of
water
hyacinth
Eichorniacrassipes































-

P牥ra牡瑩on of
A
捴楶a瑥d
C
a牢rn from
Wate爠
hya捩湴h猠

-

䍨C牡捴e物za瑩tn映† †
W
ate爠
Q
ua汩瑹
†† †† †† ††††† †† †††† ††
























































Task
II












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po瑥n瑩t氠
env楲onmen瑡氠lenef楴i
of⁵獩湧⁴he new
a捴楶a瑥d⁣ 牢on 景爠
wa瑥爠⁡nd†
䥮doo爠r楲
瑲tatmen瑳
















Task III









-

Mechanistic Modeling to
Determine Interactions
between AC and
Pollutants
















Reports

X



X


X


X


16




4.
Personnel and Facilities Description

Team of Work and Job
Description


Name

Job Description

Prof. Dr. M.I. Badawy



Prin



Supervision of the whole work.



Evaluation of the research results



Evaluation of the performance of lab & pilot treatment units



Coordinate and assess the performance of training
programs




Reporting, publishing

Dr. Elham
F.
Mohamed




Production of AC
from raw materials



Physico
-
chemical properties of AC



Application of prepared AC in the treatment process



Member of training program

Dr. Tarek Abdel Shafy




Development and preparation of activated carbon



Member of training program.



Evaluation of prepared

AC

Dr. Waleed Hares



Production of AC from raw materials



Evaluation of prepared AC



























References

17


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