Bayu Priyambadha, S.Kom

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2 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μέρες)

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Bayu Priyambadha, S.Kom

2

Pada

akhir

pertemuan

ini
,
diharapkan

mahasiswa


akan

mampu

:


m
enjelaskan

apa yg dimaksud dg Central
Processing Unit, komponen
-
komponennya,
dan cara kerjanya


m
enjelaskan

berbagai jenis secondary
storage yg ada pada masa kini, dan
perkembangannya ke depan

3


Microchips, Miniaturization, & Mobility


The System Unit: The Basics


More on the System Unit


Secondary Storage


Future Developments in Processing &
Storage


4
-
4


Vacuum Tubes vs. Transistors


Vacuum tubes were the original logic gates of
computers


They looked like light bulbs, were hot, and
burned out like them too


The original transistors were 1/100
th

the size of
vacuum tubes (less power, faster, more reliable
too)


Transistors vs. Integrated Circuits


Compare 1955’s 45 lb “portable” color TV to
today’s 7 oz Casio 2.3 inch color TV


One integrated circuit contains thousands of
transistors

4
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6


Semiconductor


A material whose electrical properties are
intermediate between a good conductor and
a nonconductor of electricity


Perfect substrate to overlay complex circuits
on


Microchips are made from semiconductors


Contain millions of microminiature
integrated circuits

4
-
7


Microprocessor


The miniaturized circuitry of an entire computer
processor on a single chip


Contains the CPU, which processes data


Microcontroller or Embedded Computer


A microprocessor that was modified for use in a
machine that isn’t a computer

4
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8


Binary System: the basic unit of computing


Uses just two numbers: 0 and 1


All data and program instructions in the computer
are represented as binary


Bit: each 0 or 1 is a bit


Byte: a group of 8 bits


Kilobyte: ~1,000 (1,024) bytes


Megabyte: ~1 Million (1,048,576) bytes


Gigabyte: ~1 Billion (1,073,741,824) bytes


Terabyte: ~ 1 Trillion (1,009,511,627,576) bytes


Petabyte: ~ 1 quadrillion bytes


Exabyte: ~ 1 quintillion bytes

4
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9


Binary coding schemes assign a unique binary code
to each letter


EBCDIC


Requires 8 bits per character


Used for IBM mainframes


ASCII


Requires 7 or 8 bits per character, depending on the
version


8 bit Extended ASCII provides 256 characters


Used for PCs, Unix hosts, Macs


Unicode


Requires 16 bits per character


Handles 65,536 characters


4
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10


Error Checking: Parity Bits


Used in modems & communications to verify
correctness


One check bit is added to 7 bit byte


The check bit is defined as either odd or even


For odd parity, if the data sent is correct, the
parity bit plus the first 7 data bits is an odd
number


For even parity, if the data sent is correct, the
parity bit plus the first 7 data bits is an even
number

4
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11


Machine Language


A binary
-
type programming language built into the
CPU that is run directly by the computer


Each CPU type has its own machine language


Language Translators


System programs convert the programming
instructions for you into machine language

4
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12

4
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13


The CPU


Older CPUs processing speeds are in MegaHertz


1 MHz = 1 Million ticks per second


Current CPUs processing speeds are in GigaHertz


1 GHz = 1 Billion ticks per second


The faster a CPU runs, the more power it consumes,
and the more heat it generates

4
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14


The CPU Continued


Mainframe and minicomputer speed is
measured in MIPS


MIPS stands for millions of instructions per second


Workstations perform at 100 MIPS or more


Mainframes perform at 200


1,200 MIPS


Supercomputer processing speed is
measured in flops


Flops stands for floating point operations per second


IBM’s Blue Gene/L cranks out 70.72 teraflops (
tera

=
trillion) per second


4
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15


Name

1.
Word size


2.
Control
unit


3.
Arithmetic
Logic Unit

4.
Registers


5.
Buses


Definition

1.
The number of bits the processor can
process at any one time

2.
The part of the CPU that deciphers
instructions and carries them out

3.
The ALU performs mathematical and logical
operations and controls the speed of them

4.
High
-
speed storage areas that temporarily
store data during processing

5.
Electrical data roadways used to transmit
bits within the CPU and between CPU and
other motherboard components

4
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16


Memory Chip

1.
RAM



2.
ROM




3.
CMOS



4.
Flash


Explanation

1.
Random Access Memory chips are volatile and
hold:

a.
Software instructions

b.
Data before & after the CPU processes it

2.
Read only memory

a.
Cannot be written on or erased without
special equipment

b.
Are loaded at factory with fixed start
-
up
instructions

3.
Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor

a.
Powered by a battery

b.
Contains time, date, calendar, boot
password

4.
Nonvolatile memory that can be erased and
reprogrammed more than once

a.
Doesn’t require a battery

b.
Used in newer PCs for BIOS instructions

4
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17


RAM Types

1.
DRAM


2.
SDRAM


3.
SRAM


4.
DDR
-
SDRAM

5.
SIMM



6.
DIMM


Explanation

1.
Dynamic RAM must be constantly refreshed
by the CPU or it loses its contents

2.
Synchronous Dynamic RAM is synchronized
by the system clock and is much faster than
DRAM

3.
Static RAM is faster than DRAM and retains
its contents without having to be refreshed
by CPU

4.
Double
-
data rate synchronous dynamic RAM

5.
Single Inline Memory Module has RAM chips
on only one side

a.
FPM is fast page mode type

b.
EDO is extended data output; is faster than
FPM

6.
Dual Inline Memory Module has chips on both
sides

4
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18


The CPU works much faster than RAM


So it could sit there waiting for information


Cache temporarily stores instructions and data that
the processor uses frequently to speed up
processing


Level 1 cache is part of the microprocessor


Holds 8 to 256 k
B


Faster than Level 2 cache


Level 2 cache is SRAM external cache


Holds 64 kb to 2 M
B


Level 3 cache is on the motherboard


Comes on very high
-
end computers

4
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19


Method

1.
Interleaving


2.
Bursting


3.
Pipelining



4.
Superscalar
Architecture

5.
Hyperthreading


Description

1.
CPU alternates communications between
two or more memory banks

2.
CPU grabs a block of data from memory
instead of retrieving one piece at a time

3.
CPU doesn’t wait for one instruction to
complete before fetching its next
instruction

4.
The computer can execute more than one
instruction per clock cycle

5.
A technique used in superscalar
architecture in which the OS treats the
microprocessor as though it is two
microprocessors

4
-
20


Port Type

1.
Serial Port




2.
Parallel Port



3.
SCSI Port


4.
USB Port


Description

1.
Used to transmit slow data over long
distances

a.
Sends data sequentially, one bit at a time

b.
Used to connect keyboard, mouse,
monitors, dial
-
up modems

2.
For transmitting fast data over short
distances

a.
Transmits 8 bytes simultaneously

b.
Connects printers, external disks,
backups

3.
Small Computer System Interface

a.
Connects up to 7 devices in a daisy chain

b.
Transmits data 32 bits at a time

4.
Universal Serial Bus can theoretically connect
up to 127 peripheral devices in a daisy chain

4
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21


Goals


Be low
-
cost


Be able to connect lots of devices


Be hot swappable


People hate rebooting because it takes time


Hot swapping means a device can be
connected/disconnected without rebooting


Permit plug and play


Devices are automatically configured when they are
installed


no need to download new drivers

4
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22


Standards


USB 1.1


the original standard


USB 2.0


the current standard for new PCs


USB On The Go (OTG)


currently under
development


Connectors


A


in USB Type 1.1 and 2.0


B


in USB Type 1.1 and 2.0


Mini B


in USB Type 2.0


Mini A


in USB OTG used for smaller peripherals
like
cellphones

4
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23


Port Type

1.
FireWire



2.
MIDI



3.
IrDA


4.
Bluetooth





5.
Ethernet


Description

1.
Intended for devices working with lots of data

a.
Used for camcorders, DVD players, TVs

b.
Handles up to 400 megabits per second

2.
Musical Instrument Digital Interface

a.
Connects musical instruments

b.
Used in creating, recording, editing, performing
music

3.
Infrared Data Association: Infrared ports used to
make a
cableless

connection

4.
Uses short
-
range radio waves that transmit up
to 30 ft

a.
Connects computers to printers, keyboards,
headsets, even refrigerators

b.
Named after King
Harald

Bluetooth, son of
Gorm
,
who united the Norway and Denmark. Ruled 910
-
940 A.D.

5.
The standard for linking all devices in a Local
Area Network

4
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24

4
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25


Bus

1.
PCI bus





2.
AGP Bus



Description

1.
Peripheral Component Interconnect

a.
For high
-
speed connections

b.
32 or 64 bits wide

c.
Typically used for sound cards,
modems, high
-
speed network cards

2.
Accelerated Graphics Port

1.
Twice the speed of PCI bus

2.
For Video and 3
-
D graphics cards

4
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26


Storage Types

1.
Floppy and Zip disks



2.
Hard disks


3.
Optical disks

4.
Magnetic tape


5.
Smart Cards

6.
Flash memory

7.
Online secondary
storage


Descriptions

1.
Removable disks.

a.
Floppies store 1.44 MB

b.
Zip disks store 100, 250, or 750 MB

2.
Made from thin rigid metal covered with
magnetizable substrate. Most disks have 2
or more platters

3.
Removable CDs and DVDs

4.
Thin plastic tape coated with magnetizable
substance

5.
Like a credit card, but contains a
microprocessor and memory chips

6.
Nonvolatile memory


no moving parts

7.
Lets you store data on an online vendor’s
server

4
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27


Floppies


Flat piece of mylar plastic
inside a 3.5” plastic case


Store about 1.44 MB


Have a write
-
protect notch


Data is recorded in tracks:
concentric recording bands


Formatting breaks the
tracks into small wedge
-
shaped sectors


Read/Write head transfers
data between the computer
and disk


Floppies DO wear out!


Zip Disks


Disks with a high
-
quality
magnetic coating


Store 100, 250, or 750
MB


Require a Zip drive; won’t
work on floppy drives


Used to store larger files
than floppies can hold


Zip disks wear out too!

4
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28


Thin, rigid metal, glass, or ceramic platters
covered with a substance that allows data to be
held in the form of magnetized spots


The more platters there are, the higher the drive
capacity


Store data in tracks, sectors, and clusters


Formatting creates a file allocation table that maps
files to clusters or
inodes


Typical file systems are VFAT & NTFS for Windows, HFS and
ext2 for Unix


Drive heads ride on .000001” cushion of air, and can
crash!


Important data should always be backed up!


4
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29


Hard Disk Types:



External Hard Disks


a freestanding disk drive


Removable Hard Disk


inserted into a cartridge
drive on the PC


Hard Disk Controllers


EIDE


Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics


Supports up to 4 disks at 137 GB per disk


Marketed as SATA, Fast ATA, Ultra ATA, ATA
-
2, ATA/100


SCSI


Faster than EIDE controllers


Fibre Channel


used in large servers


faster and
costlier than SCSI

4
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30


CDs and DVDs are Optical disks


Data is written and read using lasers, not a
disk head


CD
-
ROM is Compact Disk Read
-
Only Memory


CD
-
R is used for recording only once


CD
-
RW is an erasable optical disk that can both record
and erase data over and over again


DVD is a CD
-
style disk with extremely high
capacity


Stores 4.7 or more GB


DVD
-
R is used for recording only once


DVD
-
RW, DVD
-
RAM, DVD+RW are reusable DVDs

4
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31


Thin plastic tape coated with a substance that
can be magnetized


Store 200 GB and higher


Used in the form of tape cartridges


Still popular for large backups because of their
large data capacity


But don’t get it near a magnet as that will erase it!

4
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32


Resembles a credit card, but contains a
microprocessor and memory chips


Holds more information than standard magnetic
-
strip credit cards; 8


40 MB of data


UltraCard


Uses a magnetic shim that draws out of the card to be
read, then retracts into the drive


Provides 2 GB of storage


Contact smart cards


Must be swiped through card readers


Can wear out from use


Contactless smart cards


Read when held in front of a low
-
powered laser

4
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33


Nonvolatile memory with no moving parts


But the electronics can wear out


Available as


Flash memory cards


Insert these into a flash port of a camera, handheld PC,
smartphone


Flash memory sticks


A form of flash memory that plugs into a memory stick
port


Flash memory drives


A finger
-
sized module of flash memory


Plugs into the USB port of most PCs and Macintoshes

4
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34


Allows you to use the internet to back up
your data


Sign up with a vendor and receive access to
software that allows you to upload your data to that
company’s server


Files should be encrypted to maintain security


Use only for vital files that require immediate
availability


Use tape, removable hard disk cartridges, zip disks,
optical storage or tape for normal backup

4
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35


Moore’s Law


Gordon Moore predicted the number of transistors on a
silicon chip will double every 18 months


It has held up since the 1960s!

4
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36


New
Technology

1.
M
-
RAM


2.
OUM


3.
Nanotechnology


4.
Optical
Computing

5.
DNA Computing

6.
Quantum
Computing


Description of Processing
Technology

1.
Magnetic RAM uses miniscule magnets
rather than electrical charges

2.
Ovonic

Multiplied Memory stores bits by
generating different levels of low and
high resistance on a glossy material

3.
Tiny machines work at a molecular level
to make
nanocircuits

4.
Uses lasers and light, not electricity

5.
Uses strands of synthetic DNA to store
data

6.
Based on quantum mechanics and stores
information using particle states

4
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37


New Technology

1.
Higher
-
density
disks






2.
Molecular
electronics



Description of Storage
Technology

1.
Magnetic disk drives currently hold
100 GB of data

a.
Blank CDs are replacing floppy disks
since they hold 650MB and cost < $1
each

b.
DVD disks hold up to 4.7 GB of data
currently

c.
Perpendicular recording technology
allows 25%
-

100% more data to be
stored on the same disk

2.
Polymer memory creates chips that store
data on plastics

a.
Nonvolatile memory

b.
Data is stored based on polymer’s
electrical resistance