Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems

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29 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

59 εμφανίσεις

Artificial
Intelligence

and


Expert
Systems

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)

is the science of



R



L





Being able

to



Ability to

solve a

problem

Comparing a DSS to Artificial
Intelligence


Decision Support System (DSS)


User actively involved with the system.


Relies on . The user must understand
problem situation and what needs to be done.


The user makes the ultimate decision/choice.



Artificial Intelligence


User not as actively involved because all of the expertise
is


The system makes the ultimate decision/choice.

Robotics

AN EXPERT SYSTEM

is an artificial intelligence system that
applies to reach a
conclusion.


An expert system captures expertise from a
human expert and applies it to a problem.

Tricks of the trade


Knowledge base

Reasoning Process


Expert Systems


Programming is in the form of


and Reasons



Decision Support System guides you, but you
must reason through the problem.



Expert Systems : you provide the facts, it




Used as diagnostic and prescriptive.

Expert
System
Rules for a
Bank
Mortgage
Application


Traffic Light Expert System


Can handle massive
amounts of information
and they can



Can

from complex
relationships



Can explain their
reasoning or suggested
decisions




Provide in
decision making.



Improve customer
service.



Reduce errors and costs.



Provide

WHAT EXPERT SYSTEMS CAN DO

WHAT

EXPERT


SYSTEMS

CAN’T

DO


Handle all types of domain expertise. Human
experts might not fully be aware of the process
that they use. Can’t put everything into
machine form.



Can’t solve problems in areas not designed for.
Can’t



Apply



or judgment to a problem


Expert Systems Perform

and



Tasks Like


Auditing and tax planning


Diagnosing illnesses


Managing forest resources


Evaluate credit and loan applications


Computer help desk diagnosis assistance


Rules to follow when directing air traffic

Smartflow

Expert System used
by American
Express’ Optima
Card program.

Whale and Forest Pest Identification

http://www.aiinc.ca/demos/whale.html

http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hti/iid//

Easy
Diagnosis
Medical
Expert
System


Ethical Questions and the Use of
Expert Systems


An expert system will act as it is programmed. If
you program in bias, then the system will be
biased.



The expert system is consistent, which is easily
defended in court.



Can distinguish between good and bad, but may
not be able to distinguish between degrees of
good.

A NEURAL NETWORK

is an artificial intelligence system which is
capable of learning because it’s patterned
after the human brain. Uses parallel
processors.


A neural network simulates the human ability to
classify things based on the experience of seeing
many examples.

Learn by

A Neural Network Can Perform




Tasks Like


Distinguishing different chemical compounds


D







in human tissue
that may signify disease


A






to detect forgeries.


De




Track habits of insurance customers and predict

which ones might not renew their policies



Virus Detection Software by IBM



Neugent monitors 1,200 data points in the Allstate

Insurance network every 5 seconds, trying to

predict a potential problem in/with the network.

A Self
-
Organizing Neural Network
:






in vast amounts of data by itself.

Back
-
propagation

neural networks

are trained by
someone. You

Neural networks attempt to

mimic the structure and

functioning of the human

brain. They contain input,

output and hidden layers.

The hidden layers use

various weights of strength


to



it can change the

classification weights.

Neural Networks serve as Systems


Allows the computer to or








it receives.


There are computer games with learning abilities.


20Questions

www.20Q.net



F and neural networks are often
combined to express complicated and
concepts (that are and ambiguous) in a
form that makes it possible to simplify the
problem and apply rules with some degree of
certainty.

Fuzzy Logic


Fuzzy Logic
: a special field of computer science that





and does not require conditions to be




A mathematical method of handling


information so that ambiguous information such as “


” or “ ” or other “non
-
exact areas
usable in computer systems



Applications


Google’s search engine
(your perception of a topic frames your query)


Washing machines that wash until the water is “clean”


A

and subway/tram control systems



A cameras


Temperature sensors attached to furnace controls


Medical equipment that based upon
patient vital signs.

A GENETIC ALGORITHM

is an artificial intelligence system that mimics
the


to generate
increasingly better solutions to a problem.


Genetic algorithms produce several generations
of solutions, choosing the best of the current set
for each new generation.

THE CONCEPTS OF EVOLUTION
IN GENETIC ALGORITHMS



-

or survival of the fittest. The
key is to give preference to better outcomes.



-

combining portions of good
outcomes in the hope of creating an even
better outcome.



-

randomly trying combinations
and evaluating the success (or failure) of the
outcome.

Seeking an

Genetic Algorithms Can Generate Lots of
Solutions As In


Deciding which a firm should invest in,
given limited investment dollars.



Generating solutions to


How much cable or track to lay?


What should your delivery vehicles take?



Used to






(make the best use of your
production resources)



Investment companies use them to generate


by considering of stocks
and bonds .



Clothing manufacturing: so as to
generate the


www.coyotegulch.com
: The Traveling Salesman

AN INTELLIGENT AGENT

is a that and
then

with a certain degree of , and in doing so,
employs knowledge or representation of the user’s
goals or desires.

The Agent will take your profile and preferences and
then go out and work on your behalf.


Characteristics of an intelligent agent

A
: can act without you telling them what to do

A
:
can and what it does based
upon your changing characteristics.

S :

can and with other
agents that it encounters.

Types of Intelligent Agents


I






and bring it back to you (from the
Internet or a database)


B


s, shopping bots,




,
Googlebots that scour the
Internet locating and indexing sites that ultimately appear in search results when you do a
Google search.


The SuperFetch feature (search feature) found in Vista




M




and Surveillance Agents: constantly


A






and offer suggestions for improvement.


Wizards and the Microsoft Office Assistant (Clip It)





U


: act as a personal assistant by






.
Examples include sorting and prioritizing email, filling out forms on
the Web automatically for you, and automatically storing your information.




D




agents
operate in a data warehouse by sifting through the
data, trying to discover trends, relationships and patterns through the use of
multidimensional statistical analysis.


A relational database stores information in a series of



Data warehouses are



, containing




. Each



is an of information.

Data
-
mining agents perform
multidimensional analysis in data
warehouses



C



common term for the representation of
multi
-
dimensional information


Info in an Excel spreadsheet and a relational
database (Access) appears in the form of a two
dimensional table of rows and columns.



By adding a






, you can
add






: 3
-
D (rows
and columns and layers).


Creating a 3
-
dimensional Pivot Table in Excel is a
means of conceptually building a data warehouse.
Page fields represent the depth layer



Pivot Tables can help you see relationships in
the data



AI System


Expert
Systems


Neural
Networks



Genetic
Algorithms



Intelligent
Agents

Problem Type


Diagnostic or
prescriptive


Identification,
classification,
prediction



Optimal solution



Specific and
repetitive tasks


Based On


Strategies of
experts


The human
brain



Biological
evolution



One or more AI
techniques

Starting
Information


Expert’s
know
-
how


Acceptable
patterns



Set of
possible
solutions


Your
preferences