PRODUCT CATEGORY RULES

advertisementhumphΔιαχείριση

9 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

84 εμφανίσεις




THE INTERNATIONAL EPD
®
SYSTEM






PRODUCT CATEGORY RULES


CPC
2143: FRUIT JUICE


OPEN CONSULTATION DRAFT


DATED 2010
-
09
-
03








DOCUMENT NAME

Product category Rules

CPC 21
43
:
Fruit juice


DATE


PAGE

2011
-
02
-
22

2
/
23




General Introduction

................................
................................
................................
............

3

1

General information

................................
................................
................................
......

5

2

Definition of the product group

................................
................................
......................

5

3

Declared unit

................................
................................
................................
.................

6

4

Content of materials and chemical substances

................................
.............................

6

5

Units and quantities

................................
................................
................................
......

6

6

General system boundaries

................................
................................
..........................

7

7

Core Module

................................
................................
................................
.................

7

8

Upstream Module
................................
................................
................................
........

10

9

Downstream Module

................................
................................
................................
...

13

10

Environmental performance related information

................................
.....................

14

11

Content of the EPD

................................
................................
................................

15

12

Validity of the EPD

................................
................................
................................
.

17

13

Changes in this document

................................
................................
......................

17

Annex 1


Ecological footprint

................................
................................
............................

18

Annex 2


Virtual water content

................................
................................
.........................

21








DOCUMENT NAME

Product category Rules

CPC 21
43
:
Fruit juice


DATE


PAGE

2011
-
02
-
22

3
/
23



GENERAL INTRODUCTION

The international EPD
®

system is based on a hierarchic approach follow
ing the international
standards:



ISO 9001,
Quality management systems



ISO 14001
,
Environmental management systems



ISO 14040,
LCA
-

Principles and procedures



ISO 14044,
LCA
-

Requirements and guidelines



ISO 14025,
Type III environmental declaration
s



ISO 21930
,
Environmental declaration of building products
.

Th
e General Programme Instructions are based

on these standards
, as well
as instructions
for developing Product

Category Rules (PCR).

The documentation to the International EPD®

system includes three separate parts
(
www.environdec.com
):



Introduction, intended u
ses and key programme elements



General Programme Instructions



Supporting annexes

This PCR
-
document specifies further and additional minimum requirements on EPDs of the
product group

defined below complementary to the above mentioned general requirement
d
ocuments.

Principle programme elements concerning the Product Category Rules (PCR) included in
International EPD® system are presented below.

Purpose

Element identification and principal approach

Complying with principles set
in ISO 14025 on modularity
and comparability

1. "Book
-
keeping LCA approach"

2. A Polluter
-
Pays (PP) allocation method

Simplifying work to develop
Product Category Rules
(PCR)

3. PCR Module Initiative (PMI) in order to structure PCR in
modules according to international classificati
on

4. PCR moderator for leadership and support of the PCR
work

Secure international
participation in PCR work

5. Global PCR Forum for open and transparent EPD
stakeholder consultation

Facilitating, identification and
collection of LCA
-
based
information

6
. Selective data quality approach for specific and generic
data


Product Category Rules (PCR) are specified for specified information modules

“gate
-
to
-
gate”, so called core modules. The structure and aggregation level of the core modules is
defined by the
United Nation Statistics Division
-

Classification Registry

CPC codes
(
http://unstats.un.org
). The PCR als
o provides rules for which methodology and data to use



DOCUMENT NAME

Product category Rules

CPC 21
43
:
Fruit juice


DATE


PAGE

2011
-
02
-
22

4
/
23



in the full LCA, i.e. life cycle parts up
-
streams and down
-
streams the core module. The PCR
also has requirements on the information given in the EPD, e.g. additional environmental
information. A gener
al requirement on the information in the EPD is that all information
given in the EPD, mandatory and voluntary, shall be verifiable.

In the EPD, the environmental performance associated with each of the three life
-
cycle
stages mentioned above are reported
separately:






DOCUMENT NAME

Product category Rules

CPC 21
43
:
Fruit juice


DATE


PAGE

2011
-
02
-
22

5
/
23



1

GENERAL INFORMATION

Date and registration no
:

date and registration number of the PCR

This PCR was prepared by:

Massimo Marino


Life Cycle Engineering

Luca Ruini
-

Barilla

Valentina Niccolucci, Simone Bastianoni


Ecodynamics
Group, Siena
University

Appointed PCR moderator:

Massimo Marino: marino@studiolce.it

Open consultation period:

2011
-
02
-
22


2011
-

Valid within the following
geographical
representativeness:

World

Valid until:

XXX to be completed


This document provides Product
Category Rules (PCR) for the assessment of the
environme
ntal performance of
UN CPC 2143 (Fruit Juice)

and the declaratio
n of this
performance by an EPD.


This PCR is based on the requirements and guidelines given in “PCR Basic Module, CPC
Division 21: “Mea
t, fish, fruit, vegetables, oils and fats”
version 1.1
, dated
August 29
, 20
10.

Any comments to this PCR document may be given on the Global PCR Forum or directly to
the PCR moderator during the period of validity.

The PCR document is a living document. If relevant changes in the LCA methodology or in
the technology for the product category occur, the document will be revised and any
changes will be published on the international website: www.environdec.com.

The EPD

shall refer to a specific PCR version number. The production of new PCR versions
does not affect the EPD certification period.


2

DEFINITION OF THE PR
ODUCT GROUP

The product group and CPC code shall be specified in the EPD.


2.1

SPECIFICATION OF MAN
UFACTURING C
OMPANY

This section highlights all information related to the producing company that is required in
the EPD, separated into mandatory and voluntary items.

Mandatory information:



Manufacturing company



Manufacturing sites involved in the production




DOCUMENT NAME

Product category Rules

CPC 21
43
:
Fruit juice


DATE


PAGE

2011
-
02
-
22

6
/
23





Issuer
and contact information

Examples of voluntary information:



ISO 14001 and/or EMAS certificate at the manufacturing site



Specific aspects regarding the production



Environmental policy



Manufacturers logotype

2.2

SPECIFICATION OF THE

PRODUCT

For the purposes of t
his document, the terms “
fruit juice
” refers to a liquid food product
obtained by treating and/or mixing one or more semi product, such as puree, produced from
fruit. Fruit percentage in the final product should be at least 25%.

Further details are availab
le in the EU directive 2001/112 “
relating to fruit juices and certain
similar products intended for human consumption
” the Annex 1
of which
give
s

more
specification
s

about the definition.

The product group and the CPC code shall be specified in the EPD.

3

DECLARED

UNIT

The
declared unit (D
U) is 1
litre of product
ready for consumption
including packaging.

4

CONTENT OF MATERIALS

AND CHEMICAL SUBSTAN
CES

A minimum of 9
5
% of all ingredients
, excluding added water
,

per
declared
unit product are
to be declared in
the EPD
.

The nutritional values must also b
e stated in the same section.

5

UNITS AND QUANTITIES

“SI units” shall be used in all notations. Exceptions are allowed for:



land use: could be used hectare (ha) in some data about crops yields. Results shall be
reported in square meter (m
2
);



f
uel consumption in agricultural activities: data could be reported in
litres per hours
.

A maximum of

three
decimal units

shall be used when reporting LCA results; in any case, it
is recommended to provide rounded data in respect of their scientific significance
.




DOCUMENT NAME

Product category Rules

CPC 21
43
:
Fruit juice


DATE


PAGE

2011
-
02
-
22

7
/
23



6

GENERAL SYSTEM BOUND
ARIES

Figure 6.1 shows the general system boundaries. Further information is available in the

following sections of this PCR.

UPSTREAM
CORE
DOWNSTREAM
Fruit cultivation
Semi
-
product manufacturing
(such as puree)
Ingredients production
Transportation from field to
plants
Packaging materials
production
Cold chain
operations (where
applicable)
Mixing process
Thermal treatment
Packaging process
Final product distribution
Cold chain
(where applicable)
Cold storage
(where
necessary)
Primary packaging end of life
(qualitative information)

Figure 1. Presentation of Core Module (core process) and upstream and downstream
processes
.

In the EPD, the environmental performance
s

associated with each of the three life
-
cycle
stages a
bove are reported separately.

7

CORE MODULE

The core processes include



Preparation of the final product (
from puree

or from fresh fruit

to the product as sold to
the consumer)



External transportation of raw materials
(semi
-
products, other ingredients, …)
and
energy wares to the core process



Cold chain operations



Transportation from final production to an average distribution platform




DOCUMENT NAME

Product category Rules

CPC 21
43
:
Fruit juice


DATE


PAGE

2011
-
02
-
22

8
/
23



7.1

SYSTEM BOUNDARIES

7.1.1

PREPARATION OF FRUIT

JUICE (FINAL PRODUCT
)

The processes

listed below for the production of the final
product,

including primary
and
secondary
packaging
,

shal
l be included. Some other relevant m
anufacturing processes not
listed
here,
may be included.

The following m
anufacturing

processes

shall be included
(
where

applicable)
:



m
ixing process
es;



t
hermal
treatment
s

or other preservation techniques



p
ackaging process
es



distribution of the final product from the plant to the distribution platform. In this case an
average platform shall be considered and the hypotheses shall be presented in the
declaration.

Ot
her relevant hypotheses that shall be considered are:



A minimum of 95% of the total weight

excluding added water

of the fruit juice recipe
shall be considered.
For the ingredients that are not considered a brief sensitivity
analysis should be provided to t
he verifier during the audit.



Secondary packaging shall be considered; quantities lower than 1 g per DU could be
excluded by the system.



Environmental impacts related to waste deposited in landfills should not be included in
the system
boundaries
; waste
s must be stated as “kg of waste”. See further information
about waste
-
management in the following paragraphs.



The manufacturing of production equipments with an expected lifetime over three
years, buildings and other capital goods shall not be included. M
aintenance activities
more frequent than every three years shall be included.



Business travel and staff commuting should not be included.



If several plants are involved in the production
process
, an average virtual plant shall
be defined by accounting for

the annual production (expressed in mass) as the
weighting factor.

Any deviations from these rules must be declared in the LCA and in the EPD

7.1.2

GEOGRAPHICAL BOUNDAR
IES
.

The data for the core module shall be representative for the actual production processes
and representative for the site/region where the
respective process is taking

place.

7.1.3

TIME BOUNDARIES

The data should be representative of the years/time frame for which the EPD is valid
(maximum three years).




DOCUMENT NAME

Product category Rules

CPC 21
43
:
Fruit juice


DATE


PAGE

2011
-
02
-
22

9
/
23



7.1.4

BOUNDARIES TO NATURE

Boundaries to nature are defined as flows of material and energy resources from nature into
the system. Emissions to air, wate
r and soil cross the system boundary when they are
emitted from or leaving the product
system
.

7.1.5

BOUNDARIES TO OTHER
PRODUCT LIFE CYCLES

Should there be any inflow of recycled material into the production system, both the
recycling process and the relevant t
ransportation of the material from the recycling process
to the site of use shall be included in the calculations.

If there is an outflow of material to recycling, the transportation of the material to the
recycling process shall be indicated. The material

going to recycling is regarded as an
outflow of the production system.

Transportation of waste to landfills or other final treatment plants should be included.

(See Supporting Annex of the EPD programme; A.7.1;
www.env
irondec.com
)

7.2

CUT OFF RULES

Life Cycle
Inventory data for a minimum of 9
5

% of total inflows to the core module shall be
included
. Inflows not included in the LCA shall be documented in the
EPD.

If some ingredients are not included in the recipe, the rel
ated environmental impact shall be
evaluated considering the average value of the recipe.

7.3

ALLOCATION RULES

Should the production plant
generate more than one product
, the inputs and outputs of the
system should be partitioned between
the

different products or functions. Partitioning should
reflect the underlying physical relationships between them; i.e. they should reflect the
manner in which the inputs and outputs are modified by quantitative changes in the
products delivered by the syst
em (allocation
by mass).

Products that are not compliant to the quality requirements and are destined to
uses
different from human consumption must be considered as waste and reported as indicated
in the specific section.

Any deviation from these rules

must be declared in the LCA and in the EPD
.

7.4

DATA QUALITY RULES

Specific data (often called site
-
specific data) shall be used for the all core processes.

Specific data is collected from
the
sites where
the
specific processes are carried out. If
many sites

are involved in the analysed production system, site
-
specific data must cover at
least the 90% of the whole production.

The electricity generation mix shall be given and proved by means of reproducible and
verifiable information such as administrative do
cuments (such as invoices) or similar.

If specific data is unavailable or if the electricity procured is not specified for parts of the
Core Module, the electricity mix used in such parts shall be approximated as the official
electricity mix

(including ele
ctricity import)

for

the country of manufacture




DOCUMENT NAME

Product category Rules

CPC 21
43
:
Fruit juice


DATE


PAGE

2011
-
02
-
22

10
/
23



8

UPSTREAM MODULE

The upstream processes include the following inflow of raw materials and energy wares
needed for the
production of fruit juice
:



Fruit c
ultivation. This phase includes e.g. air and water emissions and emissions from
energy wares used in the agriculture as well as emissions of nitrous gases.



S
emi product manufacturing stages. In this phase all the activities from the fruit

picking

to the puree
or

juice concentrate

production are included.



Production of fertilizers used in the agriculture.



M
anufacturing of primary and secondary packaging.



P
roduction processes of energy wares used in agriculture, at the farm, and in
manufacturing.



Production of other ingredients

and

additives used in the
juice

production



Production of auxiliary products used such as detergents for cleaning etc.



Transportation from the fie
lds to the semi production plants.



Cold chain operation where applicable

More

details about the upstream operation are given in this section.

8.1

FRUIT
PRODUCTION

The fruit production phase is organised into two different processes: orchard preparation,
fruit cultivation. Both of them are included in the upstream operations and in this

paragraph
some information for the calculation is provided.

8.1.1

ORCHARD PREPARATION

In this phase these activities shall be considered:

-

Soil preparation;

-

Production of the fertilizers;

-

Air, water and soil emissions due to the fertilizers use;

-

Cropping
operation and related use of energy (such as diesel for tractors);

-

Water consumption;

-

Pesticide use

Data used for the calculation of the environmental impacts due to this phase could be
collected by the literature but shall be as
specific as possible.

If the expected orchard production period is longer than 10 years, this phase could be
excluded by the system
.

8.1.2

FRUIT CULTIVATION

AND HARVEST

This phase includes all the activities that are made
between two different fruit picking
cycles. The following
environmental aspects shall be considered:




DOCUMENT NAME

Product category Rules

CPC 21
43
:
Fruit juice


DATE


PAGE

2011
-
02
-
22

11
/
23



-

Soil preparation;

-

Production of the fertilizers;

-

Air, water and soil emissions due to the fertilizers use;

-

Cropping operation
,fruit picking

and related use of energy (such as diesel for
tractors).

-

Water consumptio
n

-

Pesticide use

8.1.3

USE OF FERTILIZERS

The use of fertilizers must be related to the specific areas.

The production of fertilizers and chemicals can be assessed using secondary database.
Sources must be cited in the LCA report.

Emission from use of
fertilizers must be accounted for. If site
-
spec
ific data is not available,
the
following information could
be used:


Data on emissions due to N
-
based fertilizers.
This data come from the experience of the team involved in the PCR
preparation and it could b
e used in lack of more detailed information

N
-
BASED FERTILIZERS

Unit

N
-
content

Amount of NH
3

released

Amount of N
2
O

released

Amount of NO
x

released

Cow slurry

kg/m
3

3

0,92

0,09

0,02

Cow manure

g/kg

5

1,21

0,15

0,03

Urea
-

CO(NH
2
)
2

g/kg

460

83,79

14,19

2,98

Ammonium Nitrate
-

NH
4
NO
3

g/kg

200

4,86

6,27

1,32

g/kg

300

7,29

9,41

1,97


Data on emissions due to P
-
based fertilizers.
This data come from the experience of the team involved in the PCR
preparation and it could be used in lack of more
detailed information.

P
-
BASED FERTILIZERS

Unit

P
2
O
5

content in
fertilizers

P content in
fertilizers

P emissions

Cow slurry

kg/m
3

1,15

0,251

(20%) 0,050

Cow manure

g/kg

2,5

0,545

(20%) 0,1

Triple super phosphate

g/kg

460

200

(30%) 60


Any
deviations from these rules must be declared in the LCA and in the EPD.

K

and other fertilizer substances, correctives ?




DOCUMENT NAME

Product category Rules

CPC 21
43
:
Fruit juice


DATE


PAGE

2011
-
02
-
22

12
/
23



8.2

OTHER INGREDIENTS

If the production of fruit juice employs other ingredients (such as sugar, additives, etc),
environmental impacts
could be assessed by means of generic data contained in a
database.

Cut off could be used for

5%

of the recipe

e
x
cluding added water.
.

8.3

SEMIPRODUCT PRODUCTI
ON

Among these processes all the activities
from

fruit collection
to

semi product manufacturing
such as puree shall be considered.

The analysis of this phase shall be made taken into
account at least the following aspects:



Energy consumption for the processes;



Transformation yields (kg of fruit per kg of puree),



Waste generation.

8.4

DATA QUALITY RULES

For production of
semi

products
,

operations at the farm or other production sites
,

specific
data shall be used
.


Selected generic data

shall be used for other parts of the LCI, such as the life
-
cycles of
additives or fertilizers, i.e.

data from commonly av
aila
ble data sources such as commercial
database
s

and free database
s
, describing

spec
ific raw materials or processes

usually
refer
ring

to the system under study or to other systems equivalent from a technical point of
view
.


For allowing the use of
selecte
d generic data
, a number of pre
-
set characteristics must be
fulfilled and demonstrated:




Representativeness of the geographical

area should
adhere

to “Data deriving from
areas with the same legislative framework and the same energetic mix

,



Technological e
quivalence

adhere

to “Data deriving from the same chemical and
physical processes or at least the same technology coverage (nature of the technology
mix, e.g. weighted average of the actual process mix, best available technology or
worst operating unit)”,



Boundaries towards nature

adhere

to

“Data shall report all the quantitative information
(resources, solid, liquid, gaseous emissions; etc.)

necessary for the EPD
”, and



Boundaries towards technical systems

adhere

to

“The boundaries of

the considered life
cycle stage

shall be equivalent”.

8.5

RULES FOR GENERIC DA
TA

If these data sources do not supply the necessary data, other generic data may be used
and documented. The environmental impact
of the processes where the
other generic data
are
used
must not exceed 10% of the overall environmental impact from the product
system.





DOCUMENT NAME

Product category Rules

CPC 21
43
:
Fruit juice


DATE


PAGE

2011
-
02
-
22

13
/
23



9

DOWNSTREAM MODULE

The downstream processes include:




The cold chai
n if necessary for the storage.



Recycling or handling of packaging waste/materials after use

9.1

USE PHASE
SCENARIO


COLD STORAGE

If the product needs a cold storage for preserving its shelf life, the environmental impacts
related to this process shall be estimated.

Since the impacts could be quite variables, the following hypotheses shall be adopted in
order to calculate the values in a “comparable” way. These hypotheses come from
www.lcafood.dk
.


Electric energy due to the cold st
orage shall be evaluated by the following formula:

E
p

= E
s

× 100%/u × V
p

× t

Where




E
s

is the specific energy consumption of the cooling room (k
W
h per m
3

per day)



u is the degree of utilisation of the storage room (%)



V
p

is the volume of the considered
product (m
3
).



t is the time of the storage (days).


Values have to be set as follow:



E
s

= 0,59 kWh per m
3

per day;



u = 50%



V
p

= 0,001 m
3



t = shelf life of the product (days).

An average
energy mix
representing the market

place

for
the
DU

shall
be used
.

Other
hypotheses could be used but they have to be presented in the EPD.

9.2

RECYCLING DECLARATIO
N AND WASTE TREATMEN
T

Recommendations for the responsible and correct recycling of packaging materials, as well
as recommendations for other was
te treatment of product parts
,

if relevant, shall be
provided. The potential environmental impacts and benefits of recycling of primary
packaging shall be illustrated in the EPD.

Impacts could be calculated taking into account a typical scenario of the ar
ea in which

the
product is
mainly distributed
.




DOCUMENT NAME

Product category Rules

CPC 21
43
:
Fruit juice


DATE


PAGE

2011
-
02
-
22

14
/
23



10

ENVIRONMENTAL PERFOR
MANCE RELATED
INFORMATION

10.1

USE OF RESOURCES

T
he consumption of natural resources and

resources per declared unit shall be reported

in
the EPD, divided into core, upstream and, if relevant,
downstream module.


Input parameters, extracted resources:




Non
-
renewable resources



Material resources



Energy resources (used for energy conversion purposes)



Renewable resources



Material resources



Energy resources (used for energy conversion purposes)



Water use



Electricity consumption
(
e
lectricity consumption during manufacturing
).

10.2

POTENTIAL ENVIRONMEN
TAL IMPACT

The following environmental impact categories shall be reported in the EPD:
(CPC 21)



The emissions of greenhouse gases (expressed in global war
ming potential, GWP, in
100 year perspective).
Information about biogenic CO
2

emissions is optional. If
reported, the biogenic CO
2

emissions shall be separated from the other greenhouse
gases
.

CO
2

sequestration
shall not be

considered.

CO2 due to land transformation

should be considered, (see comment above)



Emission of ozone
-
depleting gases (expressed as the sum of ozone
-
depleting potential
in CFC 11
-
equivalents, 20 years).



Emission of acidification gases (expressed as the sum of acidif
ication potential
expresses in SO
2
-

equivalents).



Emissions of gases that contribute to the creation of ground level ozone (expressed as
the sum of ozone
-
creating potential, ethene
-
equivalents).



Emission of substances to water contributing to oxygen deplet
ion (expressed as PO
4
3
-
-
equivalents).

The tables from General Programme Instructions, Annex B shall be used.


10.3

OTHER INDICATORS

The following additional indicators shall be reported in the EPD:



Material addressed to recycling



Hazardous waste



Other waste



Co
-
products that are destined to other chains (such as animal feed industry).




DOCUMENT NAME

Product category Rules

CPC 21
43
:
Fruit juice


DATE


PAGE

2011
-
02
-
22

15
/
23





Pesticide use

10.4

ADDITIONAL

ENVIRONMENTAL INFORM
ATION

Some additional optional indicators that could be included in the LCA report and in the EPD
include the ecological footprint an
d the virtual water c
ontent, as described hereafter.

10.4.1

ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT

This indicator is to be expressed as “global m
2
” (square meter) per D
U
.

Further information
about the calculation procedure is available in Annex 1.

10.4.2

VIRTUAL WATER CONTEN
T

This value shall be calculated according to the indications presented by the “Water footprint
network” in the specific accounting protocol. The indicators shall be expresses in litres of
water per
DU.
Further information is presented in Annex 2
.

11

CONTENT OF

THE EPD


11.1

PROGRAMME RELATED IN
FORMATION

The programme related part of the EPD shall include:



Name of the programme and programme operator



The reference PCR document



Registration number



Date of publication and validity



Geographical scope of application of
EPD



Information about the year or reference period of the underlying data to the EPD



Reference to the homepage


www.environdec.com



for more information
.

11.2

PRODUCT RELATED INFO
RMATION

11.2.1

SPECIFICATION OF THE

PRODUCTION
COMPANY

See 2.1
.

11.2.2

SPECIFICATION OF THE

PRODUCT

See 2.2.

11.2.3

DECLARED UNIT

See 3.




DOCUMENT NAME

Product category Rules

CPC 21
43
:
Fruit juice


DATE


PAGE

2011
-
02
-
22

16
/
23



11.2.4

CONTENT OF MATERIALS

AND CHEMICAL SUBSTAN
CES

See 4.

11.2.5

COMPARISONS OF EPDS
WITHIN THIS PRODUCT
CATEGORY

Only EPDs based on this specific PCR may be compared within this product
category. The
user of the EPD information should be made aware of this by the inclusion of the following
statement in the EPD:


“EPDs from different programmes may not be comparable”

11.2.6

VALIDITY OF THE EPD

The validity of the EPD shall be reported in the EPD
.

11.3

ENVIRONMENTAL PERFOR
MANCE
-
RELATED INFORMATION

11.3.1

ENVIRONMENTAL PERFOR
MANCE DECLARATION
-

MINIMUM SET OF
PARAMETERS FROM THE
LCA STUDY, REPORTED
PER
DECLARED UNIT

Upstream and core modules shall be reported separately for resource use, potential
environmenta
l impact and other indicators such as waste.

Downstream module results may be presented in a more “communicative and qualitative”
way.


11.3.2

USE OF RESOURCES

The consumption of natural resources per

declared

unit shall be reported in this category.

See 10.1

11.3.3

POTENTIAL ENVIRONMEN
TAL IMPACT

The potential environmental impact per
declared

unit shall be reported in this category.

See 10.2

11.3.4

OTHER INDICATORS

The relevant indicators per functional unit shall be reported in this category.

See 10.3

11.3.5

ADDITIONAL
ENVIRONMEN
TAL INFORMATION

See 10.4

11.4

DIFFERENCES VERSUS P
REVIOUS VERSIONS OF
THE EPD

The main causes for any changes in environmental performance in comparison with
previous EPD versions shall be described shortly.




DOCUMENT NAME

Product category Rules

CPC 21
43
:
Fruit juice


DATE


PAGE

2011
-
02
-
22

17
/
23



11.5

VERIFICATION

The EPD shall give the following
information about the verification process:

PCR review conducted by:

International EPD™ consortium


www.environdec.com


Independent verification of
the declaration and data,
according to ISO 14025:

Internal (EPD process certificate) or external, if external
name of the
third party verifier

Accredited or approved by

(if relevant)
:

Name of the organisation


11.6

REFERENCES

The EPD shall
,

if relevant, refer to
:



The underlying LCA



The PCRs used



Other
documents that verify and complement the EPD



Programme instructions



Sources of additional information

12

VALIDITY OF THE EPD

If changes in any of the environmental impacts are larger than +
-

5% the EPD shall be
adjusted. Regardless, the EPD shall be reviewed every three years.
(CPC 21)

13

CHANGES IN THIS DOCU
MENT

OPEN CONSULTATION DR
AFT 2011
-
02
-
22

Draft sent out on open consultatio
n





DOCUMENT NAME

Product category Rules

CPC 21
43
:
Fruit juice


DATE


PAGE

2011
-
02
-
22

18
/
23



ANNEX 1


ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT

The “Ecological Footprint” (EF) is a measure of the quantity of biologically productive land
and water any individual, population or activity requires to produce all the resources it
consumes and to absorb the waste it ge
nerates using prevailing technology and resource
management practices.

The
Global Footprint Network
1

has developed the “
Ecological Footprint Accounting

(EFA) method. It is usually measured in global hectares

(gha)
: by conversions and
equivalence factors
for different land use (
Energy
up take
land, Crop land, Grazing land,
Forest, Built
-
up land, Fishing ground
) translated into a single unit.

Therefore, the life cycle assessment of fruit juice could be integrated with a calculation of
the ecological footpr
int that was based on the same system boundaries considered for the
LCA. In order to have an EF estimation aligned to LCA results as much as possible, the
environmental aspects used for the EF calculation must originate from the same sources
used for the L
CA inventory.

While LCA data usually refers to a physical unit (such as mass of products), the EF
indicator is refers to a specific period. In other words, the EF indicates the quantity of land
used during one year by the system under analysis.

Total EF is

calculated as the sum of the single EF contributors using the following formula:



i
tot
EF
EF

Therefore, the formula of the Ecological Footprint becomes:

EQF
YF
Yn
P
EF
*
*
1
*



Where



P is the amount of a product harvested or waste emitted (equal to DANNUAL
above),



YN is the natio
nal average yield for P,



YF
is the
yield factor

for the country and land in question. This factor represents
the
ratio of national
-
to world
-
average yields. It

is calculated as the annual availability of
usable products and varies by country and year
.
Yield factors account for
differences in productivity of a given land use type between a country and the global
average in this area type. A hectare of grazing lan
d in New Zealand, for example,
produces more grass on average than a world average grazing land hectare.
Inversely, a hectare of grazing land in Jordan produces less. Hence, the New
Zealand hectare is potentially capable of supporting more meat production
than the
global average hectare of grazing land. These differences are driven by natural
factors, such as precipitation or soil quality, as well as by management practices. To
account for these differences, the yield factor compares the production of a spe
cific



1

www.footprintnetwork.org





DOCUMENT NAME

Product category Rules

CPC 21
43
:
Fruit juice


DATE


PAGE

2011
-
02
-
22

19
/
23



land use type in a country to a world average hectare of the same land use type.
Each country and each year has its own set of yield factors. Yield factors are
available, upon request, at Global Footprint Network.”



EQF is the and equivalence

factor

f
or the land use type in question.
It
translate
s

the
area supplied or demanded of a specific land use type (e.g. world average cropland,
grazing land, etc.) into units of world average biologically


Table A1.1.
Equivalence Factors used for the calculation


Source: Global Footprint Network

Component

Unit

Equivalence factor

Carbon up take land (energy land)

gha/ha

1,
26

Cropland

gha/ha

2,
51

Grazing Land

gha/ha

0,
46

Forest

gha/ha

1,
26

Built
-
up land

gha/ha

2,
51

Fishing Ground

gha/ha

0,
37

Please note that

for the fruit juice system grazing land and fishing ground are not
applicable. Built
-
up land could be negligible.

Forest

must be considered for the production of primary and secondary packaging from
virgin wood.

In details, for the each kind of land, the
following hypotheses have been considered.

A1.1 CARBON UP TAKE
LAND (ENERGY LAND)

Carbon up take

land represents the land needed to sequestrate the CO
2

(not CO
2

equivalent) generated by the system. The methodology does not take into account the
emission o
f other greenhouse gases because only CO
2

undergoes a natural process of
forest sequestration.

These figures shall be calculated by multiplying the specific CO
2

emissions related to each
environmental aspect of the considered system by the EF conversion fa
ctors, which is
0,208 global hectares (per year) per t of CO
2
, by the energy land equivalence factor. An
example of this calculation is shown in Table A1.2.






DOCUMENT NAME

Product category Rules

CPC 21
43
:
Fruit juice


DATE


PAGE

2011
-
02
-
22

20
/
23




Table A1.2.

Calculation of the energy land for the main environmental aspects related to the operations included in
the system boundaries.

Environmental aspect

Unit

g of CO
2

per unit

Land for CO
2

sequestration

Gha/t CO
2

EF energy land
equivalence factor

Gha/ha

global
m
2

per
unit

Electricity (in Italy)

MJ

174,0

0,208

1,
26

0,4
56

Natural gas (in Italy)

MJ

57,8

0,
015

Oil (in Italy)

MJ

77,0

0,
0
2
0

Transport by truck

t
-
km

55,3

0,
014


A1.2 CROP LAND

This component shall be calculated by multiplying the inverses of specific yields considered
for the fruit cultivation by the EF equivalence factor of cropland.
Source of this information
could be the FAOSTAT web site (
ht
tp://faostat.fao.org/
).

An example is shown in Table A1.3.



Table A1.3.

Example of the calculation of the cropland related to the fruit cultivation

Region

Yield in t per ha

EF cropland equivalence factor

gha/ha

global ha per t

Banana

23,3

2,51

0,108

Apple

36,7

0,068

Peach

17,7

0,142


A1.3 FORESTLAND

The forestland refers to the wood used for the production of primary cardboard for
packaging. The calculation must account for the forest conversion factor multiplied by the
forest equivalence factor, as shown in Table A1.4.


Table A1.4
. Example of the
calculation of forestland related to the production of virgin paperboard

Environmental aspect

Forest conversion
factor ha/t cardboard

EF forest equivalence
factor

gha/ha

global ha / t
cardboard

Cardboard

1,70

1,
26

2,
14




DOCUMENT NAME

Product category Rules

CPC 21
43
:
Fruit juice


DATE


PAGE

2011
-
02
-
22

21
/
23



ANNEX 2


V
IRTUAL WATER CONTENT

The indicator
“virtual water content”

measures the water consumption in terms of water
volumes consumed (
directly, indirectly and
evaporated) and/or polluted per unit of time.
Main reference for the methodology is the
Water Footprint Network
2
, founded by T
wente
University, UNESCO
-
IHE Institute for Water Education e World Business Council for
Sustainable Development.

The total virtual water content breaks down into three components:



the blue water footprint is the volume of freshwater evaporated from the gl
obal blue
water resources (surface water and ground water) to produce the goods and services
consumed by the individual or community;



the green water footprint is the volume of water evaporated from the global green water
resources (rainwater stored in the

soil as soil moisture);



the grey water footprint is the volume of polluted water that is associated with the
production of all goods and services for the individual or community. The latter was
calculated as the volume of water required to dilute pollutan
ts to an extent that the
quality of the water remains above established water quality standards.

As in the typical LCA approach, the virtual water content should take into account two
components: direct water use by the producer (for producing/manufacturi
ng or for
supporting activities) and the indirect water use (the water use in the producer’s supply
chain).

The calculation of this indicator must follow the main hypotheses explained below.

The use of data regarding virtual water content, available at
www.waterfootprint.org
, is
suggested
.

A2.1 GREEN WATER CAL
CULATION

The calculation could be made by mean of the database and the software available on the
FAO web site
3
.

A2.2 BLUE WATER CALC
ULATION

The sum of
irrigation

water from the
cultivation phase

and the amount of processing water
for the industrial production must be considered.

Be careful that the irrigation amount of water could be calculated with the same tool used
for the green water.

A2.3 GREY WAT
ER CALCULATION

The grey water, shall be calculated by mean of the rules presented in the “Water Footprint
Assessment Manual” published by the waterfootprint network
4
.




2

www.waterfootprint.org

3

http://www.fao.org/nr/water/infores_databases_cropwat.html




DOCUMENT NAME

Product category Rules

CPC 21
43
:
Fruit juice


DATE


PAGE

2011
-
02
-
22

22
/
23



The formula that shall be used is:




Y
C
C
AR
WF
nat
grey


max
/(
)
*


Where:



α

= the leaching run of
fertilizer
fraction [%];



AR = the chemical application rate to the field per hectare [kg/ha];



C
max

= maximum acceptable concentration of chemical in the waste water (law level)
[kg/m
3
];



C
nat

= natural concentration for the pollutant
considered [kg/m
3
];



Y = crop yield [t/ha];


For the purposes of this PCR, the following simplification and hypotheses could be made:



α

could be assumed equal to 10%;



AR could be reached from the FERTISTAT database
5

or from specific data;



C
max

depends on th
e country law limitation;



C
nat

could be assumed equal to zero;



Y could be reached by the FAOSTAT
6

database or from specific data







4

Hoekstra, A.Y., Chapagain, A.K., Aldaya, M.M. and Mekonnen, M.M. (2011); The
Water Footprint
Assessment Manual: setting th
e Global Standard, Earthscan, London, UK

5

http://www.fao.org/ag/agl/fertistat/

6

http://faostat.fao.org/default.aspx













































© 2011 The International EPD
®
system

www.environdec.com