Inventor - Webs

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15 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Herman Hollerith:



World’s first Statistical Engineer



He was known as the “Father of Information Processing”



Created an invention to tabulate the census that made it possible to complete
a census in a reasonable time frame and to collect other forms of data
.



His machine was based on the Hole Punch System which was based on
Jacquard’s hole punch system.(Jacquard used his hole punch system to weave
patterns into cloth)



In 1889 his machine was used for the Twelfth Census and it only took 6
weeks. (That is a fra
ction of the time it took to take previous census.)



His machine saved the Census Bureau about $5,000,000



In 1911 his company, called tabulating Machine Company, merged with 2
other companies and created the Computing
-
Tabulating
-
Recording Company



The comp
any changed names in 1924 to International Business Machines
(IBM) under Thomas Watson.



Hollerith’s machine was the basis of IBM’s success.



Joseph Jacquard:



Created the Jacquard Loom


a Loom to weave patterns in cloth.



The Jacquard Loom uses stiff cards

with patterns of punched holes that program
the loom to weave on cloth and carpets.



Jacquard changed the weaving industry and inspired the use of punch cards.



By 1812 there were 11,000 looms in use.



The loom increased productivity and reduced the cost of
textiles.



Today computers use the same binary on and off coding.



The loom caused riots by people who were against replacing human jobs with
machinery.



Punch cards were used in the first design of calculators and programmed
computers of the 12
th

century.


J
ohn Bardeen:



Was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956 for his
Transistor
along with
William Bradford Shockely and Walter Bratlam.



Was an American physicist and electrical engineer.



Was awarded a second Nobel Prize in 1972 for fundamental theory of
S
uperconductivity,

with Leon Cooper and Bob Schrieffer.



A
Transistor

is a semiconductor device that runs the operation of computers, cell
phones, and modern electronics. It is a small switch that controls the passage of
electricity. It replaces the large va
cuum tubes, which makes the devices much
smaller.



Superconductivity

is how they use extremely cold metals to conduct electricity.



To this day superconductivity is know as the BCS Theory. (Bardeen, Cooper,
Schrieffer)



John Bardeen was the only person in hi
story to receive 2 Nobel Prizes in physics.