Introduction to Cryogenics Storyboards Module 1- Introduction

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Introduction to Cryogenics Storyboards

Module 1
-

Introduction


C101
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01
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01

Use a NASA video and audio footage of a shuttle launch along with flash animation as an
attention getter. Show a countdown from 10 seconds, the launch, along with an audio
narration
.


Narrator (Audio): “The launch of the space shuttle is one of the most dangerous and
complex engineering feats that take place on this planet. Without the hard work, effort,
and precision of the men and women on the cryogenics team, technology such as t
he
Space Shuttle or an Atlas Rocket, would never make it off the ground. Their efforts not
only lower costs in dollars, but in human lives as well. Regardless of the specific
cryogenics field you are in, your understanding of the skills required to operate

cryogenics systems is critical to the success and safety of your mission. We wish you
good luck in your endeavors as a cryogenic engineer.”


Note to programmer: Give the user the option of skipping the flash introduction.


C101
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05


Introduction to Cry
ogenics


Welcome to the Florida Space Research Institute’s Introduction to Cryogenics Program.


The goal of this program is to provide:



A fundamental and theoretical foundation of knowledge pertaining to Cryogenic



A concrete grasp of the applications of
Cryogenics Engineering as it is used in
the aerospace industry.


Insert graphic such as a space shuttle launch or a tank containing cryogenic fluids.


C101
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Technology Requirements


<Programmer: Use a graphic of a computer to represent technology
requirements>


To participate in this on
-
line program, a student must possess computer hardware and software
that meet the minimal technical requirements.

1. Computer Hardware Requirements


PC Configuration Minimum

PC Configuration Recommended




120 Penti
um Processor



64 Megabytes of RAM



200mb free on Hard Drive



15” monitor




733 mhz Pentium Processor



128 Megabytes of RAM



200mb free on Hard Drive



DSL or Cable Modem




28.8 Kbps Modem



Windows 95



Windows 98, ME, 2000 or NT 4.0


Macintosh Configuration Minimum

Ma
cintosh Configuration Recommended




200 megahertz 604 CPU



64 MB RAM (virtual enabled)



200mb free on Hard Drive



15” monitor



28.8 Kbps Modem



Macintosh OS 8.5 or later




450 megahertz Power Mac



128 MB RAM



200mb free on Hard Drive



DSL or Cable Modem



Macintosh O
S 9 or later


C101
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Technology Requirements

Due to the large amount of content, this page continues from C101
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07


Computer Software Requirements:




Netscape Navigator 4.7 or Explorer 5.0



Flash Viewer



Authorware Web Player



Cult 3
-
D Viewer



Adobe Ac
robat Reader 4.0 or higher


Programmer: Link each of the software requirements above to their associated download
page. Use “All About the ALE” as a reference.


C101
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Navigation Guidance

*Note to Programmer: Use a graphic of a compass rose to repres
ent “navigation.” You
will be creating the navigation features, so please explain here how to navigate through
the program. Explain hyperlinks, back and next buttons, what they look like, etc.


Navigation should be the same as currently in use, except we w
ill remove the left
-
side
navigation bar and add a 1
st
-
page menu to sub
-
topics for each module. We should also
add a “Menu” button to the top nav bar to jump the user back to the first page subtopic
menu.


C101
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What Is Cryogenics?


What is cryogenic
s?

Cryogenics is the science and technology of low temperatures, traditionally below 120
Kelvin (K). The study of cryogenics started back in the nineteenth century as scientists
and engineers raced each other to liquefy gases such as oxygen and hydrogen,
reaching
ever
-
lower temperatures. Finally in 1908, a physicist by the name of Kamerlingh Onnes
(pronunciation?)

figured out how to liquefy helium gas. He used that liquefied helium
gas to discover the phenomenon of “
superconductivity
.” Thus, Onnes is credi
ted with
coining the term “cryogenics.”


To SME: why were the scientists trying to liquefy gases? Do you think the student might
be curious about that? Do you have any pronunciations available for the difficult names?


Graphic suggestion: Picture of Kamer
lingh Onnes and his liquefaction apparatus


Programmer: Hyperlink
superconductivity
to an introductory website on
superconductivity. Suggestion:
http://www.xrefer.com/entry/224710

(all links, including
gl
ossary terms, should open in a new browser window)


C101
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Cryogenics Evolves



Following Kamerlingh Onne’s technological discovery in 1908, the field of cryogenics
evolved quickly and continued to grow into what it is today. The space race of the
1960s
greatly increased cryogenic research in the handling of liquid hydrogen and oxygen
rocket fuels. Another major trend in the field of cryogenics over the last 25 years has
been the development of practical superconducting materials. Today, cryogenic r
esearch
continues, especially in the areas of cryocoolers, Helium II (He II) technology, space
cryogenics, and superconductivity.


Graphic suggestion: Liquid
-
fueled rocket launching


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Why Is Cryogenics Important?


Cryogenics is important becaus
e it plays a major role in modern industry and science. For
example, large
-
scale air separation plants use cryogenics to break down air into its
component elements for industrial and medical uses. For efficiency the resulting products
are frequently transp
orted and stored as cryogenic fluids. Magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI) systems that use superconducting magnets cooled by liquid helium have become a
common feature in modern hospitals. In space technology, cryogenics is found in the
liquid hydrogen and ox
ygen fuels used in rocket engines and in applications such as the
Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, whose superfluid (He II) cooled sensors
have detected remnants of the Big Bang.


Graphic suggestion: Picture of the Cosmic Background Explorer a
nd or MRI system


C101
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Knowledge Check

Note to Programmer: Each of the following questions in the quick quiz should be a
separate html page. Have the user click on the answers. Clicking on the answer will pop
up text below the question providing th
e correct and incorrect answers.


Q1: Cryogenics is the science and technology of low temperatures, traditionally below:

a.

130 degrees Kelvin

b.


120 degrees Kelvin

c.

120 degrees Kelvin

d.



120 degrees Celsius

e.


120 degrees Fahrenheit


Programmer: For answer choice
c, write this below the question:
Correct! Cryogenics is
the science and technology of low temperatures, traditionally below
120 degrees Kelvin
.


Programmer: For all other answer choices, write this below the question:
The answer
you chose was incorrect.
The correct answer is c. 120 degrees Kelvin. Cryogenics is the
science and technology of low temperatures, traditionally below120 degrees Kelvin.


Programmer: User will use a next button or continue button to go on to the next question.


C101
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Kno
wledge Check

Programmer: Note that this second quiz question is on a separate html page.


Q2: The term “cryogenics” was coined after Kamerlingh Onnes liquefied which gas?

a.

Oxygen

b.

Nitrogen

c.

Hydrogen

d.

Helium



Programmer: For answer choice d, write this below t
he question:
Correct! The term
“cryogenics” was coined after Kamerlingh Onnes successfully liquefied
helium
.

Note that the liquefying of Helium was a big step in liquefaction because the liquefying
of oxygen and hydrogen had been conducted decades before.

In fact, Kamerlingh
Onnes’s research in cryogenics and superconductivity eventually won him the Nobel
Prize in 1913.


Programmer: For all other answer choices, write this below the question:
The answer
you chose was incorrect. The term “cryogenics” was c
oined after Kamerlingh Onnes
successfully liquefied
helium
. Note that the liquefying of Helium was a big step in
liquefaction because the liquefying of oxygen and hydrogen had been conducted decades
before. In fact, Onnes Kamerlingh’s eventual research in

cryogenics and
superconductivity won him the Nobel Prize in 1913.


C101
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Cryogenic Fluids in Terrestrial Gravity vs. Microgravity


In most cases, discussions in this program about cryogenic fluids will be based on an
environment with terrestrial gr
avity. However, it is important to remember that cryogenic
fluids react quite differently in a microgravity environment. Depending on your
background or requirements, it may be necessary for you to complete another program
specifically on cryogenics in mic
rogravity.


Programmer: Insert a graphic or animated graphic if possible showing how cryogenic
fluids react in gravity vs. zero gravity


C101
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The Introduction to Cryogenics Program


There are six main objectives in the Introduction to Cryogenics p
rogram:



Identify the fundamental and theoretical foundation of knowledge pertaining to
cryogenic engineering



Recognize the practical elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer in
cryogenics



Identify and safely apply the skills necessary for storage, han
dling, and transfer of
cryogenics fluids



Identify the techniques used in thermal management and production of cryogenic
fluids



Identify and apply command and control procedures used when working with
cryogenic fluids and systems



Recognize and effectively a
pply the proper policies and procedures that must be
followed when working with cryogenic fluids and systems


C101
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The Introduction to Cryogenics Program


Before you begin the Introduction to Cryogenics Program, it may be useful for you to
review
the layout of the program. Based on the objectives, there are 6 main sections to
the program, each divided into separate modules. The six main sections are as follows:


Please click on either link below to view a layout of the Introduction to Cryogenics
pr
ogram.


Animated Outline of the Introduction to Cryogenics Program
<note to programmer:
hyperlink to C101
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01
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11


An Animated Program map>

Text Outline of the Introduction to Cryogenics Program
<note to programmer: hyperlink
to C101
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01
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12


An Outline Prog
ram Map>


C101
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Introduction to Cryogenics Program: Animated Outline

Programmer: This is a flash animation sequence. Make buttons for each of the six
sections of the Introduction to Cryogenics program so that the user can click on them.
When the but
tons are clicked, the content (descriptions of each section) will move across
the screen from right to left like a slide show. The section objective and its corresponding
important subsections will be listed as well. However, because we are in the middle o
f the
design process, we can’t determine the exactly how all of the subsections will look yet.


Screen 1:


Section I.


Fundamentals of Cryogenics


Objective:

Identify the fundamentals of cryogenics including important terms,
background and history, and
applications and examples of cryogenics. Additionally,
recognize the underlying physics behind the fundamental concepts of cryogenics such as
the thermophysical properties of fluids and the low temperature properties of engineering
materials.


Section Topi
cs:



Cryogenics Terms and Concepts



Background and History of Cryogenics



Thermophysical Properties of Fluids



Low Temperature Properties of Engineering Materials



Examples of Cryogenic Systems



Applications of Cryogenics


Screen 2:

Section II: Practical Eleme
nts of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer


Objective:
TBD


Section Topics:



Basic Conservation Principles



Laminar Flow in Pipes and Ducts



Turbulent Flow in Pipes and Ducts



Modes of Heat Transfer



Laminar and Turbulent Heat Transfer



Heat Exchangers


Screen 3:

Section III: Storage, Handling, and Transfer of Cryogenics Fluids


Objective:
TBD


Section Topics:



Storage of Cryogenic Fluids



Handling of Cryogenic Fluids



Transfer of Cryogenic Fluids Through Pipelines



Safety for the Production, Handling, and Storage of
Cryogenic Fluids


Screen 4:

Section IV: Thermal Management and Production of Cryogenic Fluids


Objective:
TBD


Section Topics:



Gas
-
Liquefaction Systems



Cryogenic Refrigeration Systems



Temperature Measurement Devices



Thermal Considerations in Storage and T
ransfer Systems



Two
-
Phase Thermal Transport


Screen 5:

Section V: Command and Control of Cryogenic Fluids and Systems


Objective:
TBD


Section Topics:



Controls and Instrumentation



Console Logs



Automation vs. Manual Control



Load, Launch, and Scrub Procedur
es


Screen 6:

Section VI: Cryogenics Policy and Procedures


Objective:
TBD


Section Topics:



Laws



Standards



Guidelines


C101
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Introduction to Cryogenics Program: Text Outline

Programmer: This is just a regular text outline map of the Introduction to
Cryogenics
Program. Since we are in the middle of the design process, we cannot go into much more
detail than what we already have, except for section I


I.

Fundamentals of Cryogenics



A.

Cryogenics Terms and Concepts

1.

Cryogenics

2.

Joule
-
Thomson Effect

3.

Isentropic

Expansion

4.

Reciprocating Engine

B.

Background and History of Cryogenics

1.

Late 1800s

2.

Early 1900s

3.

Miniaturization

4.

Magnetic Cooling

5.

Mass and Commercial Development

C.

Thermophysical Properties of Fluids

1.

Thermodynamic States

2.

Phase Diagrams

3.

Transport Properties

4.

Using
Thermodynamic Tables

D.

Low Temperature Properties of Engineering Materials

1.

Yield Strength

2.

Fatigue Strength

3.

Impact Strength

4.

Hardness

5.

Ductility

6.

Elastic Modulus

7.

Specific Heat

8.

Thermal Conductivity

9.

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

E.

Examples of Cryogenic Systems

1.

Pr
oduction Systems

2.

Cryogenic refrigeration Systems

3.

Fluid Storage and Transfer Systems

4.

Life Support Systems in Space Vehicles

F.

Applications of Cryogenics

1.

Oxygen

2.

Hydrogen

3.

Helium


II.

Practical Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer


A.

Basic Conservation Princi
ples

B.

Laminar Flow in Pipes and Ducts

C.

Turbulent Flow in Pipes and Ducts

D.

Modes of Heat Transfer

E.

Laminar and Turbulent Heat Transfer

F.

Heat Exchangers


III.

Storage, Handling, and Transfer of Cryogenics Fluids


A.

Storage of Cryogenic Fluids

B.

Handling of Cryogenic Fluid
s

C.

Transfer of Cryogenic Fluids Through Pipelines

D.

Safety for the Production, Handling, and Storage of Cryogenic Fluids


IV.

Thermal Management and Production of Cryogenic Fluids

A.

Gas
-
Liquefaction Systems

B.

Cryogenic Refrigeration Systems

C.

Temperature Measurement De
vices

D.

Thermal Considerations in Storage and Transfer Systems

E.

Two
-
Phase Thermal Transport


V.

Command and Control of Cryogenic Fluids and Systems


A.

Controls and Instrumentation

B.

Console Logs

C.

Automation vs. Manual Control

D.

Load, Launch, and Scrub Procedures


VI.

Cryog
enics Policy and Procedures


A.

Laws

B.

Standards

C.

Guidelines


C101
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Ready to Begin?


Now that you have a grasp of what the Introduction to Cryogenics Program will consist
of, you are ready to begin the program. If this is your first time through the prog
ram, it is
recommended that you take the modules in sequence. However, if you are returning for
refresher information, you may proceed directly to a specific module.
Recommended
prerequisites for each module will be provided.


Programmer: Insert an end of
introduction graphic