# Ch 19. The First Law of Thermodynamics

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27 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Liu UCD Phy9B 071
Ch 19. The First Law of Thermodynamics
Liu UCD Phy9B 072
19-1. Thermodynamic Systems
Thermodynamic system:
A system that can interact (and exchange energy) with its surroundings
Thermodynamic process:
A process in which there are changes in the state of a thermodynamic system
Heat Q
taken away from the systemQ<0
Work
done by the system onto its surroundings W>0
done by the surrounding onto the system W<0
Energy change of the system isQ + (-W) or Q-W
Gaining energy:+;Losing energy:-
Liu UCD Phy9B 073
19-2. Work Done During Volume Changes
Force exerted on the piston:F=pA
Work done in a finite volume change
Area:A
Pressure: p

=
final
initial
V
V
pdVW
Liu UCD Phy9B 074
Graphical View of Work
Gas expands
dV>0, W>0
Gas compresses
dV<0, W<0
Constant p
W=p(V2-V1)
Liu UCD Phy9B 075
19-3. Paths Between Thermodynamic States
Path: a series of intermediate states between initial state (p1
, V1) and
a final state (p2, V2)
The path between two states is NOT unique.
W= p1(V2-V1) +0W=0+ p2(V2-V1)

=
2
1
V
V
pdVW
Work done by the system is path-dependent.
Liu UCD Phy9B 076
Path Dependence of Heat Transfer
Isotherml: Keep temperature const.Insulation +
Free expansion (uncontrolled expansion
of a gas into vacuum)
Heat transfer depends on the initial & final states, also on thepath.
Liu UCD Phy9B 077
19-4. Internal Energy &
the First Law of Thermodynamics
Internal energy U: kinetic energies of all constituent particles +
potential energies of particle-particle interactions
Recall energy change is Q-W
Thus

U= Q-WFirst law of thermodynamics
Although Q & Ware path-dependent, experiments found that

Uis path-independent
For an isolated system, W=Q=0,

U=0
Liu UCD Phy9B 078
19-5. Kinds of Thermodynamic Processes
Adiabatic:No heat transfer in or out, Q=0

U= -W
Expansion,W>0,

U<0
Compression,W<0,

U>0
Isochoric: constant volume, W=0

U= Q
Isobaric: constant pressure,W=p(V2-V1
)
Isothermal: constant temperature
Liu UCD Phy9B 079
19-6 &7. Internal Energy &
Heat Capacities of an Ideal Gas
Ideal gas: Uonly depends on T
Q=nC

T
CV: molar heat capacity at constant volume
Cp: molar heat capacity at constant pressure
Isochoric:W=0,Q=

U=nCV

T
Isobaric:Q=

U+W
nCp

T= nCV

T+W
ThusCp > CV (opposite if volume reduces during heating)
Cp = CV+R
γ
= Cp/ CV >1
Monatomic gas:CV=3R/2,
γ
= 5/3
Diatomic molecules near RT:CV=5R/2,
γ
= 7/5
Liu UCD Phy9B 0710
19-8. Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas

U= -W
1
22
1
11
−−
=
γγ
VTVT
γγ
2211
VpVp=
State equations
or:
Since
γ
-1>0,
Adiabatic expansion dV>0, dT<0, temperature drops
Adiabatic compression, dV<0, dT>0, temperature rises
Work W=nCV
(T1-T2)
= CV (p1V
1-p2V2 )/R
= (p1V1-p2
V2
)/ (
γ
-1)
Liu UCD Phy9B 0711
Summary for Ideal Gas
WQ

U
work done by system heat into system
Isochoric:

V=00nCV

TnC
V

T
Isobaric:

p=0 p(V2-V1)nC
p

TnC
V

T
Isothermal:

T=0 0

T0nCV

T

2
1
V
V
pdV

2
1
V
V
pdV
Liu UCD Phy9B 0712
Example
A cylinder with a piston contains 0.25 mol of O2
(treat as
ideal gas) at 2.40 x 105
Pa and 355K. The gas first expands
isobaricallyto twice its original volume. It is then
compressed isothermally back to its original volume, and
finally cooled isochoricallyto its original pressure.
A) show the processes in a p-V diagram
B) T during isothermal process?
C) maximum pressure?
D) total ∆U during the cycle?
E) total work done by the piston on the gas during the
processes?
Liu UCD Phy9B 0713
Example
A monatomic ideal gas initially at p=1.50 x105
Pa and
V=0.0800 m3 is compressed adiabatically to a volume of
0.0400 m3.
A) final pressure?
B) Work done by the gas?
C) Tfinal/Tinitial?