CARE USA Knowledge Sharing Strategy

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1

CARE
USA

Knowledge Sharing Strategy



(Final
draft
)


Atlanta,
January 2007


1.

Introduction


Over the last several years, effective
K
nowledge
S
haring (KS) has become an increasing
priority for CARE in its fight against global poverty. Many recent KS activit
ies at CARE have
contributed to this and yet, a common vision for what a successful KS program should
accomplish at CARE has not been articulated.



The purpose of this document is to present
CARE USA’s
KS strategic approach
, along with

a
three year
imple
mentation
plan

for the
global
organization.

Since
Knowledge Sharing
is
one
of
CARE’s
critical support processes,
the approach to KS has to be aligned
with the
organization
al

strategy of CARE USA and CARE International.


T
he CARE USA Strategic Plan



now i
n process


will

more clearly

define the
global learning
agenda

for the organization
.

This agenda will shape

CARE’s

Knowledge Sharing effort
s
.
However,

effective

Knowledge Sharing
in an organization needs to take place both

from the

top down

(i.e. in suppo
rt of strategy), and
from the
bottom up (at the operational level).
Therefore, in addition to the strategic component, Knowledge Sharing efforts at CARE

must
be embedded as

a core process in
all
our projects, interventions and actions.


Th
e strategy prese
nted in this document build
s
o
n

our organizational experience and
culture, as well as the experience of other organizations. It highligh
ts

the main ideas
presented in the

Knowledge Sharing position

paper
1
,

tak
ing

them down to the level of
operational detai
l.


Knowledge Sharing includes
the
process of generation, dissemination and utilization of
knowledge.
This is the terminology

generally used
for these activities in the development
sector. These activities are also known as
K
nowledge
M
anagement
, especially

in the private
sector
.
W
e
have explicitly selected the term

Knowledge Sharing

because we feel that this
t
erminology better reflects
the operational processes of

dissemination and application of
knowledge

as well as

the cultural and behavioral
aspects
th
at are so critical to success
.


2.

Definition of Knowledge Sharing at CARE


Knowledge Sharing at CARE refers to
the open and efficient sharing and use of the critical
pieces of knowledge that enable CARE to increase its effectiveness in fighting poverty and
social injustice.


3.

Why

knowledge
is increasingly

important at CARE


Knowledge Sharing is important for CARE to continue to maintain and enhance its
reputation as a global leader in developing successful solutions to fight poverty.

CARE’s
need for Knowled
ge Sharing is

manifested in our current
extended CARE USA Strategic Plan
(FY06
-
07
), as well as in the new C
ARE
I
nternational

Strategic plan (
2007
-
2012).




1

Creating a knowledge Sharing vision. Position Paper. L&OD, October, 2005.


2


Extended CARE USA Strategic Plan (FY06
-
07):

One
o
bjective

of the enabling
strategies:


Develop
a more
coherent global strategy for
knowledge s
haring

and
information management to enhance programming and staff effectiveness
.


CARE International strategic plan (2007
-
2012)
:


Strategic Direction 1
: Build shared expertise in key areas of competence

To build sh
ared expertise in selected program areas, in order to strengthen CI
member and country office operations, and thereby their impact on the causes and
consequences of poverty.

Strategic Direction 5
: Information and knowledge management

To become more effecti
ve in knowledge and information management.
Strengthened performance in these areas will allow CI to leverage its scale in ways
that increase organizational accountability, learning and relevance and, ultimately,
program impact.


Making Knowledge Sharing
a core support process at CARE

will contribute significantly
to
:


a.

Impro
ving program quality and reduc
ing

duplication of efforts

b.

Creating an environment that enables reflection and fosters innovation

c.

Increasing cost
-
effectiveness


4.

Current K
nowledge
Sharing
activities at CARE


K
nowledge Sharing is
now
taking place

at CAR
E
, to a limited extent.

Some
Knowledge
Sharing activities are providing

significant value, but only to small groups of employees.

Currently

these local
experiences
do not allow

the
entire
orga
nization to benefit
from the
knowledge that is

created.


Any KS strategy should provide the structure to allow for the efficient sharing of knowledge
to

improve the quality and effectiveness of CARE’s work
across the organization
. However,
this strategy
s
hould also be flexible enough to accommodate CARE’
s organizationa
l culture.
F
indings from the recent
KS
global assessment

conducted by ADP/Accenture
2

provide
insights
suggesting what
the proposed KS strategy should take into account.
These

key
findings
inc
lude
:





Many processes, methods, tools and technologies are used to support the current
local KS but these items are
not built from a global perspective
, hindering a better
connection across the different levels of the organization.



CARE’s culture focuses

on personal interaction
.
CARE’s staff members
communicate
and interact most successfully through verbal, face
-
to
-
face and informal
communications rather than by written, formal documentation.



Diversity

(different languages, different cultures, ethnicities
, gender, etc
.
) as well as
the
decentralized structure

of the organization are critical challenges for any global
KS effort.



Employees

feel

that there
is not always openness to constructive criticism

and
feedback in the organization.

Additionally
,
staff

of
ten do not understand how
valuable their knowledge is for the organization, or how to best share
it
.
Individuals
have difficulty understanding how to apply what others say to their context.



Although connectivity (
I
nternet/email) is a challenge in some of t
he places we work,
we are also challenged to
take full advantage of our available technology
.



People are not clear whose role it

is

to leverage and scale up local knowledge more
broadly through the organization
.

Who is a global player at CARE
?


5.

Key princip
les for Knowledge Sharing at CARE




2

A summary of the Assessment can be found at www.carecademy.org


3


Based on the findings from the Accenture study, and the concepts outlined in the position
paper, t
he following are the
key principles

of Knowledge Sharing at CARE:




Knowledge Sharing at CARE must serve two key purposes:

o

I
t

must allow
knowledge
that is
strategic to the organization

to be created,
documented and distributed
;

o

It

must also
connect people

to allow them to share their experiences and
expertise.



Knowledge Sharing at CARE is not just about making knowledge availab
le
. T
he real
benefit
of
Knowledge Sharing

is not
achieve
d unless this
knowledge is used and
appl
ied
.



Knowledge Sharing at CARE is about fostering personal
attitudes and behaviors

that
motivate people to connect and share with each other
. However, it

is als
o about
creating the processes, capabilities and technology to support these attitudes.



Knowledge is considered
a
social
asset
--

not
a private asset
.

T
herefore all knowledge
generated by

CARE is to be shared
with our
development
partners (local communiti
es, other NGOs, Governments, etc)
.


Types of knowledge



K
nowledge Sharing
at
CARE
involves the sharing of
two types

of knowledge:

Explicit

and
Tacit
.




Explicit
k
nowledge

is organized and structured
. It
is available in documents,
databases, training videos

and other
traditional knowledge sharing
channels.



Tacit

k
nowledge

is mainly
based on experience
. It
exists in people’s minds as
memories, impressions, practical know
-
how, etc.


I
t is important to share tacit knowledge
,

because

the real value
knowledge of
fers to any
staff member is

benefiting from

others’

experiences. These experiences are often difficult to
articulate and “package” for sharing, since they are often stories, anecdotes or incidents
that lose their richness when translated into text document
s.


Tacit knowledge is best shared through personal interactions based on willingness to share
and trust. This
is
why
encouraging
Knowledge Sharing

behaviors
is a critical
component of CARE’s KS strategy.


6. Approach
to

KS at CARE



C
ore
Knowledge Sharin
g

processes


SECI Model


T
o develop a successful KS strategy, it is important to understand
how explicit and tacit
knowledge

components

interact
.
The

SECI model
3

below

illustrates
how tacit knowledge is
transformed into explicit

knowledge,
and back into ta
cit

knowledge.

As the model shows,
t
he process of knowledge creation and sharing takes place through continually deepening
cycles of the following four steps:


Socialization

(Tacit to Tacit)
:

People share
their
expertise

in informal social settings

throu
gh stories
,
analogies,

draw
ings
,
and personal experiences.

Ex
ternalization

(Tacit to Explicit)
:

The knowledge
shared in social settings is

documented and converted
into explicit knowledge that is shared through publicly



3

Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi. The knowledge creating company.

Tacit

Explicit

Explicit

Tacit


Explicitation

S
ocialization

Internalitation

C
o
mbination

Tacit

Explicit

Explicit

Tacit


Externalization

S
ocialization

Interna
lization

C
ombination


4

accessible media (
papers,
books, aud
iovisual material etc.)
.

Combination

(Explicit to Explicit)
:
Individuals receive
new

knowledge and combine it with their own
experience and
former
knowledge

to

expand

their knowledge base.

Internalization

(Explicit to Tacit)
:

As individuals continue to use

what they have learned, they
internalize the knowledge
.

I
t

becomes part of their
set of belie
fs

and expertise that dictate their new
behavior.


The CARE Knowledge Sharing Model


The proposed model for

Knowledge Sharing at CARE
is shown in the figure below
.
While t
he model
is
based on the SECI concepts
, it
defin
es

five

core Knowledge
Sharing processes
.

T
he processes can
be implemented at the global level, the regional level, the CO level or the project level, and therefore
do not impose any rigid implement
ation criteria.


T
wo
cyclic
al

paths


First path

In t
he first path
, new knowled
ge gets
created
. This knowledge



primarily
explicit



is
communicated

and
applied
,

expand
ing

the organization’s knowledge base
.
This creates requirements for new
knowledge that

are fed back to the creation process.
As this
cycle continues
,

organizational knowledge
grows

and becomes more refined
as
employees gain expertise in identifying knowledge that is most
relevant to them
.

T
h
is

cycle
emphasi
zes

applying explicit knowledge
.

M
any KS models focus primarily
on documentation and dissemination.
However,
these activities are meaningless unless the knowledge
is applied
.


S
econd

p
ath

The second, deeper path
in
volves
deepening and enric
hing

knowledge through socialization and
interact
ion.

These are the
tacit

components of KS. The first three processes in this path are the same
as
the first
: creation
, communication and application.
However,
this path

goes further to

include the
processes of
socialization

and
synthe
sis
. In knowledge soci
alization
,
knowledge
users share their
experiences about
applying

knowledge in the context of their work. This sharing may be through
informal forums such as chat groups or social events, or through more structured settings such as
knowledge fairs.
T
he emp
hasis of this process should be

on

communicating experience through

conversation, story tellin
g or dialog, rather than through formally documented presentations. This
process therefore represents a
tacit to tacit

transfer of knowledge.

The final process, s
ynthesis, is a
tacit to explicit transfer. The key learning that emerges from the conversations and stories in the
socialization process is

synthesized, documented and becomes part of organizational expertise, which
in turn feeds new knowledge creation.



Processes at a glance



First path
: creation, communication, application



Second path
: creation, communication, application, socialization, synthesis


A
s part of the work plan associated with

CARE’s Knowledge Sharing

strategy,
these processes must be
created
, as well as

the metrics that assess their effectiveness. These processes will then be made
available to regions,
COs,

and other
s throughout the

CARE
organization
to assist with the
implementation of KS activities.


5



It is important to distinguish between

the kinds of knowledge an organization acquires by following
each of the two paths described above.


By following the first path, the organization produces experts who all learn from
a

common source.

Each expert expands his or her knowledge base by integ
rating the new knowledge with what he or she
already knows
, and gains further experience by applying the knowledge.
On this path,
the process of
gaining experience is individual


the organization does not benefit from the collective experience of all
its
experts. Demand for new knowledge is therefore generated by each expert individually, and
therefore the knowledge creation process runs the risk of being inefficient and duplicative.


In contrast, when following
the second path
,

experts have a means to com
municate with each other
and build their collective expertise.

As a result, the organizational knowledge pool is richer and deeper,
and demand for new knowledge comes from this deeper source. The knowledge creation process is
therefore less likely to be du
plicative, and has the greater potential to innovate. The organizational
burden to support the second path is clearly greater, but the return
s are also potentially higher.


7.
The
CARE KS approach:
an e
xample


T
his section illustrate
s

how the different pro
cesses of the CARE KS approach work
.

In this
case, the focus is

on the
design of a
new development intervention
for
Marginalized
G
irls


Education in a specific Country Office.

Defining a specific thematic is the first step for a
knowledge creation process
(see Knowledge
Sharing Enablers, Item 8
)
.

This is a typical
example that should have relevance
for

many levels of the organization.


PROCESS

EXAMPLE

Knowledge
C
reatio
n

One
similar knowledge creation effort that is currently
underway
is the Strategic Impa
ct Inquiry about Women’s
b浰ower浥湴K⁁⁧ oup映glob慬⁳t慦aIed⁢礠
CARE’s
f浰慣琠
䵥慳arement⁡ d⁌earning⁴ 慭Ⱐre獥ar捨ed⁴ e⁩浰慣琠au獩ng
di晦erentethod猩son one映our⁵ derl祩yg⁣慵獥sf⁰ 癥rt礮
周e⁳tudy⁣re慴ednowledge⁰ rt慩ning⁴ ⁴ e⁩浰
慣琠afur
work in women’s empowerment.


cor⁡ org慮iz慴ion⁳u捨⁡猠䍁obⰠit⁩猠i浰ort慮t⁴ 慴⁴ e
歮o睬edge 捲e慴ion⁰ o捥ss

i猠not re獴si捴cd⁴o the
歮o睬edge
呯 捲e慴eno睬edge⁡ ound⁴ e⁴ pi挠
o映
j
arginalized
d
irls’
b
du捡瑩onⰠthe
䍯untr礠l晦i捥

睩ll⁲e獥慲捨⁷c慴
other猠in
獩de

慮dut獩de
䍁ob⁨ ve
done

good

pr慣瑩捥猩
;

浡礠condu捴⁡c
deep⁡ 慬祳i猠of⁴ e 獩tu慴ion in⁴ e
慲ea⁷ ⁷慮t⁴ ⁩nter癥ne
;

浡礠
dialogue⁷ th⁰ er猠th慴⁡ e⁤ ing⁴ e
獡浥 歩nd映proje捴c
;

and⁷楬l⁦inall礠
develop⁡ h祰潴ye獩猠景r⁩nter癥ntion

6

of so called “experts
,

either
external or internal. Knowledge
creation at CARE should activel
y encompass knowledge from
our partners

and

constituencies, as well as the local actors and
communities we work with.


that will give rise to
an intervention
strategy and a proposal.


Knowledge Communication


Dissemination or transfer of knowledge can
take place

in
different ways. Depending on the audience or the culture,
different approaches will be appropriate
.

I
t is important to
tailor the

documentation and dissemination process to meet
the needs of the users. For example, organizations with high
I
nternet connectivity may use portals or gateways to share
their explicit knowledge
.

O
thers need more personal interaction
to achieve th
e same

goa
l. CARE’s culture (very strong in people
interaction) and decentralized structure imply that we must be
flexible in using different means to ensure that knowledge is
shared in the most appropriate and effective way throughout
the organization.

The proposal

is shared with a
neighboring Country Office, which is
also
developing a new proposa
l

for a
different donor. It is presented in the
regional ERAC meeting and posted in
a collaborative area

(Intranet)
, so
that
everyone can access it. The ERAC
leader and the

technical unit create a
summary that is posted on the
I
ntranet and distributed by CD to
other country offices.

Knowledge Application

The communication of knowledge does not necessarily imply
that it will be used.
Barriers to the effective use of
communi
cated knowledge include t
he perception that each
project is unique, “not
-
invented
-
here” dynamics, or the
inability to customize communicated knowledge to the local
context communicated knowledge. The knowledge use
processes therefore need to incorporate
va
lue
and
compliance
.
On the value side, communicated knowledge
must
address
help
ing

to resolve a problem, a tension,
or
a challenge that the
group who is using it is facing. On the compliance side, it is
important to mandate that the potential users of the
knowledge
access all existing knowledge before creating their own. For
example, it could be mandated that
C
ountry
O
ffices writing
proposals on
M
arginalized
G
irls’
E
ducation first review the
relevant ERAC meeting summaries before starting their
proposal.


B
ased on the information presented at
the ERAC meeting, other
C
ountry
O
ffices create their own proposals for
M
arginalized
G
irls’
E
ducation. The
proposals will not be identical, but will
incorporate aspects of the research
that are relevant to their particul
ar
application.

Knowledge
S
ocialization

This is a critical step of our KS approach and forms the
“connection” part of our strategy. It is important to explicitly
create processes for KS where people from different places,
levels, sectors, etc. share thei
r experience that comes from the
application of knowledge. As part of this process design,

we
must en
sure that we develop the organizational skills (group
facilitators, story telling experts etc.), the communication and
change management processes, the lea
dership support
,
and
the technology platforms that are needed to allow people to
connect efficiently and meaningfully.

The

region’s

Marginalized Girls
Education project

staff meet

once a
year for a face
-
to face learning
experience
.
Simultaneously
, they kee
p
in
contact
through

a
n

e
-
platform
where they discuss issues pertaining
to their project, as well as post
questions for peer
-
assist.

Knowledge
S
ynthesis

The synthesis process is difficult and is not formally undertaken
by many organizations. This proces
s
is difficult because it
requires the blending of tacit and explicit knowledge, which in
turn requires an understanding of how to maintain local and
contextual elements when necessary, and when to generalize
to global applicability. Often, the synthesis p
rocess either
results in many disconnected stories that users are unable to
generalize to their own practice, or the synthesis output
The Basic and Girls


Education
technical un
it and the regional leader
of the ERAC group lead a discussion
about best practices and strategies
that did not work. The results of this
discussion, captured in the voice of
the users using multiple media (audio,
video text)
,

are made available

7

becomes so generic (power point slides with lessons learned in
bullet points) that an understanding of how best to apply t
hese
concepts in the local context is lost. T
herefore, t
he role of an
expert facilitator who can successfully guide a group of
knowledgeable
staff
through careful reflection and discussion
becomes very important.

globally a
s part of the expanding
knowledge base of CARE and its
partners. This knowledge is integrated
into future sectoral strateg
ies

and
used as part of new program designs
globally, and share
d in

different ways
outside and inside CARE.


Once tacit knowledge ha
s been synthesized and integrated with the existing body of
knowledge, it becomes part of the

organization’s

explicit

knowledge base, and
an

input to
the knowledge

creation

process. As is obvious from this example, the processes of creation,
communication,

use, reflection and synthesis are not linear, sequential processes


they
take place continually and support and enhance each other.
F
or CARE to implement its KS
strategy, it is necessary to create these
core
processes and provide guidelines on how they
c
an be made operational. In addition, it
is necessary to ensure that the people and
technologies that enable KS are also in place.
(Please see section 8, below, for a discussion
about
Knowledge Sharing

E
nablers
.)


8.
K
nowledge Sharing

Enablers


There are fi
ve critical enablers that are needed to support K
nowledge
S
haring
efforts at
CARE
:



1

Defining strategic topics for K
S

2

Establishing a governance structure for KS

3

Develo
ping competencies for KS in HQ, Regions and Country Offices

4

Communicating and
demonstrating the value and importance of KS

5

Recognizing individuals and groups actively involved in KS.

6

Providing the appropriate technology to support communication

7

Providing content management and editorial guidance


Enabl
er
1:
Defining
strate
gic topics for KS



the Learning Agenda




In a mature organization, KS is
an everyday activity undertaken at various levels by
everyone in the organization. Over time, individuals develop the skills to identify knowledge
that i
s relevant and needs to be shared, and to select the appropriate group within which to
share this knowledge. As a result
Knowledge Sharing

becomes effective through self
-
selection, as irrelevant information gets filtered out.


However, as an organization
begins to establish a KS culture, it is useful to identify key
topics around which
Knowledge Sharing

is critical for the entire organization, and to
create

organizational KS efforts around these topics. This makes it easier to articulate the
importance and

value of KS, and makes it possible to design KS activities at the HQ
, region
and country office levels that are all aligned and focused on a common goal, while at the
same time allowing individuals to get experience and practice in participating in KS.


These key topics are usually derived from strategic directions established in the
organization’s strategic plans.
Even in mature organizations, these key topi
cs, called the

learning agenda

or the
knowledge agenda
, help to guide and structure global KS
effo
rts. In these organizations, local entities such as
C
ountry
O
ffices have the autonomy to
decide how to prioritize between global and local activities. In the beginning, however, it is
useful for the organizational leadership to be more prescriptive around
topics of strategic
Strategic plan

Organizational
challenges to
achieve them

Strategic Directions

LEARNING

AGENDA


8

importance. For example, the current KS effort sponsored by the Impact Measurement
group on the impact of Women’s Empowerment programming
could

be
included
on the
l
earning
a
genda. Typically, learning agendas are created and defined annu
ally.


The process for
creating

the learning agenda needs to be designed.
CARE needs to have a
global learning agenda, as well as more specific learning agendas for the d
ifferent levels

and
areas of the organization
, as shown in the figure below.



Enabl
er 2: Establishing a governance structure for KS


To

guide KS efforts successfully, a governance team

must be established

t
o

oversee KS
activities globally. There are t
hree
c
omponents of this governance team:


1. An
E
xecutive
S
ponsor

team

s
ets priorities,

communicates the critical importance of KS
and allocates funds for KS activities.
This team will consist of the members of the executive
team.


2. A
Knowledge Steering Committee

develop
s

the learning agenda,
provid
ing

guidance on
the processes, technologi
es and skills needed to enable better KS in the organization,
approving global work activities, and evaluating progress and impact. At the HQ level, a
global Knowledge Sharing Committee

(KNOSCO)

is already in place
with one representative
from

each di
visio
n that is of importance to KS
: Program, Program Support, H
uman
R
esources
, E
xternal
R
elations
, I
nformation
T
echnology
and Internal Communications.


3.
Reg
ional
sponsors

who provide guidance and leadership to the KS effort in the regions
.


Enabl
er 3
: Develop
ing

competenc
i
es for
KS resources


At this time, individuals with
knowledge and experience in KS
exist at every
level of the
organization
. However, the
ir
expertise is not complete or consistent
.

W
ith the e
xception of a
few limited cases,

KS activities are
not aligned around a critical component of a Learning
Agenda. It is necessary to define and establish KS roles within the

organization and to
identify KS competencies, proficiency levels and specific behaviors around these roles.
Many
of these roles do not

require the hiring of new personnel; in most cases, the KS
competencies will supplement the role that the individuals already have within the
org
anization.
However,
there are so
me methodological support

and facilitation roles that
might need to be staffed

in
CARE
regions.
As the KS program launche
s
, the regional
members of the Steering Committee should review any staffing needs.


9


In addition to the Sponsor team and the Steering Committee, t
he following key roles are
needed to support the implementation of
the KS strategy:


a)

KS methodological support and facilitation:



Global level
: The L&OD
unit
lead
s

the Knowledge Sh
aring effort in CARE
, with the
methodological support of the KS Se
nior Advisor. L&OD will w
ork

closely with IMLT
4

(program), Information Te
chnology

and Internal Communications in HQ, as well as with the
different program sectors and Regional Management Units.

Regional level

: R
egional Management Units have specific positions whose role is to provide
organizational learning and
Knowledge Shari
ng

expertise
inside the region (horizontal flow,
see graphic below).
They lead the effort at the regional level.

Country Office
level

: Most of the COs have specific positions whose role is to provide
organizational learning and
Knowledge Sharing

expertise

inside the country. Most of them
have also into DME into their respons
i
bilities. They lead the effort at the CO level.


Program
division
: IMLT
, with the support of L&OD,

leads
the methodological support and
facilitati
on for the sectors and units in the pr
ogram division.
Each Unit has a Knowledge
M
anager/
A
d
visor, whose

role is to promote and facilitate organizational learning processes
in its specific thematic.


b)
KS promoters:


The role of promoters is to communicate the role, value and successes of KS a
ctivities
within their organizations and beyond. Knowledge promoters may not always lead or
champion individual projects, but are primarily involved in connecting their organization’s
KS efforts with others. In KS terminology, these promoters are referred
to as “knowledge
brokers” or “knowledge connectors
.
” Some people who act as promoters are:




CDs and ACDs



Regional
M
anagers



Vice Presidents



Director of Units/areas


c)

KS
champions
:

Some CARE staff will
need to
play a KS champion role in his or her area of

influence. These
people

will

primarily

lead

KS initiatives in different levels of the organization.


d)
KS
practitioners
:

All
CARE staff

members are expected

to be a
KS
practitioner in his or
her area of influence.
Knowledge Sharing
must
be part of every
one’s job responsibilities.


Competency building
for all
of
these roles
should inc
lude
the creation of
a
Knowledge
Sharing

toolkit and e
-
Learning
course.
This program
should

be linked and complementary to
current
staff development effort
s

offered

by
L&OD a
nd Human Resources.


Enabler 4: Communicating the value of KS


One critical
way to

motivate
employees

to participate

in KS activities is

through
clear and
sustained communication.
P
romoters need to provide consistent and accurate
communication about the st
atus of KS activities in various regions and country offices,
resources available from L&OD and other regional experts
,

and where

and how

to access
different knowled
ge sources
. A global communications team consisting of knowledge



4

Impact Measurement and Learni
ng Team


10

promoters should coordinat
e the communication effort


regional and country office
knowledge promoters should be responsible for local communications.


Enabl
er 5
: Individual and group recognition


Promoting

behavioral change
s

requires

a mechanism to reward individuals and groups
en
gaged in outstanding

Kn
owledge Sharing in the organization.
This reward system should
begin at the
c
ountry
o
ffice level with loc
al recognition. At the regional level, knowledge fairs
or knowledge exchange programs should be planned to provide opportunities

for
demonstrating effective KS practices. At the global level, instituting prestigious and visible
Knowledge Sharing
awards
for different categories of KS activities that showcase successful
practices is an effective way of generating interest in KS. Othe
r incentive schemes
might
include

fellow
ships or

scholarships,
or grants through vehicles such as the recently
instituted KS Fund.


Over time, t
o reflect the value and accountability for Knowledge Sharing
, we need to revisit
CARE’s

performance management p
rocess
,
from

hiring t
hrough

evaluation.
This process
should begin with the CARE USA staff (
HQ, RMUs and CDs/ACDs) as a way to promote its
review in the different Country Offices. Different levels of accountability, responsibility,
knowledge and practice
mu
st

be clear
ly understood

and associated with
different positions
.

H
owever
,

we need to
incorporate
Knowledge Sharing

as a behavior and practice in all
positions of the organization
to experience real
behavioral change.
This is a second or third
year activit
y.



Enabler 6:
Providing the appropriate technology for KS


Technology to support

this
KS strategy

needs to be developed in partnership with IT
.
For a
decentralized

and diverse
organization such as CARE,
the challenge is assur
ing
that we are
globally conn
ected. T
here should be multiple technology options at the local, regional and
global levels
.

T
he

global solution should then assess how these
options
can be tied together.
The IT partners
on

the Steering Committee need to provide expertise in this area.


E
nabler 7:
Content management and editorial guidance


Content management refers to the processes to manage and update collected knowledge
through its life cycle. The key activities of content management include:




Determining how

knowledge should be classifi
ed and indexed for easy and efficient
retrieval;



Determining editorial guidelines in multiple languages for content



Providing guidelines for publishing on local and global technology platforms



Managing and providing access to users



Updating and retiring kn
owledge as needed



Developing review standards and review policies for global knowledge


Some of these responsibilities currently fall within the purview of Internal Communications
;

we must
assess where the entire suite of responsibilities will reside. The
CARE Knowledge
Sharing model is likely to be a blend of local and global strategies. As with IT, the key role
of content management is to be a bridge between global and local Knowledge Sharing
activities, and to provide standards and guidance for the effec
tive linkage of relevant local
and global knowledge.



9.
K
ey
activities

from 2007
-
2009


This strategy

is for a three
-
year

effort,
by which time KS activities need be institutionalized
within the organization. A typical change initiative follows the steps
of awareness,

11

understanding, adoption and internalization. The KS effort at CARE is currently in the
awareness stage, and the proposed activities are intended to move it into the adoption
stage.
The

activities
described below reflect the

need for
participa
tion
by all
areas of the
organization

to ensure success of the KS effort.



First Year Activities


Knowing that the new CARE St
r
ategic Plan will start FY08, the first year of the present
strategy will

focus on

disseminating

the strategy,

as well as
develop
ing processes
and
some
f
oundation
al activities:


ACTIVITY

OWNER

Ap
proval, commitment and support of the KS strategy organizationall
y

wide


L&OD,KNOSCO

L
aunch of the Knowledge Sharing Fund

L&OD

D
evelopment of the KS capacity building program: Development

of a KS
e
-
Learning
course and KS toolkit
5

L&OD

Identification of few key Knowledge Promoters in the regions and
Country Offices.

Regional Directors

Development and implementation of
KS
communication plan

Internal
Communications

PROSHARE
6
: Design and i
mplementation of the global KS process for
the knowledge created by the SII on women empowerment

IMLT &
L&OD

Completi
ng

an assessment of technology requirements and developing a
technology strategy for KS

IT

Completi
ng

high
-
level design of core processes

and supporting toolkits
and testing with PROSHARE to the extent possible

L&OD

Design and launch
of
the Program Digital library

Program

-

IMLT

Develop
ing

KM maturity model and calibrat
ion

with baseline data

L&OD

Creat
ing
standards for review, content ma
nagement and editing

Internal
Communications




Second
Y
ear

Activities:

ACTIVITY

OWNER

Defining the Global
L
earning Agenda, as well as
its
thematic leaders
(“subject owners

).

ET, Regions

Identifying KS champions for key strategic topics

KNOSCO,
RMU

Im
plementing KS core processes for each of the strategic topics selected

KS Champion

Beginning implementation of technology strategy

IT

Review
ing

and improv
ing

the
I
ntranet (portal): content and access

IT & IC

Reviewing the performance management to incl
ude KS

HR

Implementing the KS capacity building program, especially for
Knowledge Promoters

L&OD

& RMU

Continuing selection of Knowledge Promoters

Regions

Continuing implementation of communications plan

Internal
Communications

Designing and implementi
ng the award and recognition system: Global
KS Fair and innovation prize

HR,L&OD

Institutionalizing KM maturity model as a method for M&E

L&OD





5

With the support of PROSHARE.

6

PROSHARE is the Knowledge Sharing group of the program Division.


12

Third
Y
ear

Activities (tentative)


a.

Continu
ing

the i
mplementation of the KS capacity building program

with othe
r groups in
the organization

(L&OD, Regions and HQ Units)

b.

Continuing M&E to assess progression along the maturity models

c.

Activating
the exchange and fellowship program

d.

Develop
ing

links for external dissemination of knowledge

e.

Promot
ing

the r
eview
of
the per
formance management

in Country Offices



10. Measuring progress and Effectiveness of KS


As
shown in
the
above
figure,
all
successf
ul KS
program
s have
three
critical
KS
pathway
s
:


1
) Top
-
down
vertical
sharing
:

Most
organiza
tions
begin
with this pathway, w
hich corresponds to the knowledge creation, communication and use
processes of the KS approach. In this pathway, explicit knowledge
of importance to the
organization
is created and made available to the organization.
Knowledge Promoters
facilitate communic
ations and use.


2
) Horizontal sharing
:
This is usually the next pathway in organizational KS maturity,
corresponding to the socialization process of the KS approach
.
Discussion groups,
conferences, communities of practice and other peer
-
to
-
peer networks,
supported by
moderators and facilitators as needed, allow sharing of experience between peer groups to
take place. These horizontal interactions are encouraged and rewarded by the organization.


3
) Bottom
-
up vertical sharing
:
At this stage of maturity, loc
al knowledge begins to
influence strategy. Corresponding to the synthesis process, experience gained from the field
and communities shapes the design and focus of global programs. Innovations resulting
from local best practices are identified and rewarded,

often through external recognition
from the development community.


The ultimate measure of success of any KS initiative is the

Return on Investment
.

In the
corporate world, this is reflected by increased profitability as a result of better Knowledge
Shar
ing
. I
n the development community, this is reflected by more innovative interventions

13

deployed globally to reduce poverty. But ROI is difficult to measure, especially in the first
three years of a KS initiative.



A successful approach to evaluating

the pr
ogress of a KS initiative is to measure
the
performance of the core
processes
and the enablers. The performance of the core processes
reflects the extent to which the desired behaviors in knowledge creation, communication,
use, socialization and synthesis
are demonstrated. The performance

of the enablers
reflects
how effectively the organization has developed the infrastructure
to support KS.


One method of capturing these metrics is through a
maturity model
.
The model has two
dimensions:
maturity of behav
iors

and
maturity of enablers
. The maturity of enablers
should be leading indicators to the maturity of behaviors. If that does not happen, then
change interventions are appropriate.


To measure the effectiveness of K
S
, we should create a maturity model wi
th multiple
attributes of each dimension and create definitions of maturity levels for each attribute.
Benchmarks and CARE strategy
-
specific data can be used to create these definitions. The
model should be piloted and baseline measures should be collected

in 2007; in 2008 and
beyond, the model should be self administered at various levels of the organization to
evaluate progress on key KS infrastructural and behavioral attributes.


Support documents


As stated in the introduction, t
his
KS
strategy was deve
loped

by
building upon CARE’s
former experience
,

reflection on Knowledge

Sharing
,

and
review

of

other organizational
experiences in the development
and private
sector
s. The
support documents
below
summarize relevant information
. These documents can be acce
ssed at
www.careacademy.org

along with
other KS
documents and resources
.


1

CARE Global KS Assessment
: Main findings and recommendations
.

2

CARE KS Position paper
:
Summarize
d the approach proposed for the
organ
ization.