CRP Number: E4.30.29CRP Title:

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CRP Number: E4.30.29

CRP Title:
Using nuclear techniques to assess the role of nutrition
-
sensitive agri
-
food systems in
improving diet, health and nutritional status of vulnerable populations

Objective:
Malnutrition is a significant public health problem
in low
-

and middle
-
income countries. It
includes both undernutrition, especially among women and children, as well as overnutrition, leading to
overweight and obesity. Improving health and nutrition of vulnerable populations will require not only
direct “n
utrition
-
specific” interventions, but also indirect “nutrition
-
sensitive” action addressing the
underlying determinants of nutrition and inputs from multiple sectors. Nutrition
-
sensitive, biodiverse,
and sustainable agri
-
food systems improve nutritional st
atus through increased access to and
consumption of high quality diets; however there is a need for further research in this area that includes
rigorous design and appropriate measurement techniques for assessing health and nutritional impacts.
Body compos
ition divides weight into fat mass and fat
-
free mass and, compared to total body weight,
will provide a more sensitive means of assessing changes in nutritional status in response to nutrition
-
sensitive agricultural interventions and changes in consumption
. It can thus help to improve or optimize
intervention strategies and understand the impact of dietary transitions. The deuterium dilution stable
isotope technique, which will be used in this CRP, is among the most accurate techniques for assessing
body co
mposition. It involves the estimation of fat
-
free mass by measuring total body water (TBW) and
provides reliable information on changes in body composition in individuals. This CRP will provide
important information on the role of structural outcome measur
es such as body composition in
understanding the link between agriculture and nutrition and in strengthening the evidence in support
of nutrition
-
sensitive agricultural policies and practices. Studies to be included in this CRP may be stand
-
alone projects,

or, perhaps more appropriately, build on existing research agendas (e.g. added on to a
larger study). Doctoral students are encouraged to participate. The CRP will contribute to better
understanding of the effect of nutrition
-
sensitive agri
-
food systems o
n the diet, health, and nutritional
status of vulnerable populations. These findings will inform stakeholders influencing public health and
agricultural policies in the design of effective interventions to combat malnutrition in all its forms.

Number of RC
Ms:
0

Year of Commencement:
2013

Details



Nutritional and Health
-
Related Environmental Studies
(NAHRES)


Using nuclear techniques
to assess the role of nutrition
-
sensitive a
gri
-
food
systems
in improving
diet
, health

and nutritional status
of
vulnerable
populations
.


Brief summary


Malnutrition
is a significant public health problem in low
-

and middle
-
income cou
ntries
. It
includes
both

undernutrition
,
especially among women
and children
, as well as

overnutrition
,
leading to overweight
and obesity
.

Improving health and nutrition of vulnerable populations will require not only direct
“nutrition
-
specific” interventions, but also indirect “nutrition
-
sensitive” action
addressing t
he underlying
determinants of nutrition
and inputs from multiple sectors.
Nutrition
-
sensitive
, biodiverse,

and
sustainable
a
gri
-
food systems
improve
nutritional status through increased
access to and consumption
of high quality
diet
s
; however there is a ne
ed for further

research in this area

that includes
rigorous
design and
appropriate measurement techniques

for assessing health and nutritional impacts
.
Body
composition divides weight into fat mass and fat
-
free mass and, compared to total body weight, will
provide
a more sensitive means of assessing
changes in nutritional status in response to nutrition
-
sensitive agricultural interventions and changes in
consumption
. It
can
thus
help
to
improv
e

or optimiz
e

intervention strategies

and
understand

the impact of dietary transition
s
.

The d
euterium dilution
stable
isotope technique
, which will be used in this CRP,

is a
mong the most accurate
technique
s

for assess
ing
body composition.

It
involves
the estimation of fat
-
free mass by m
easuring total body water (TBW) and
provides reliable information on changes in body composition in individuals.
Th
is

CRP
will

provide
important information
on the role of
structural
outcome measures such as body composi
tion in
understanding
the link between agriculture and nutrition and
in
strengthen
ing

the evidence in support
of nutrition
-
sensitive agricultural policies and practices.
Studies to be included in this CRP may be stand
-
a
lone projects, or, perhaps more appropriately, build on existing research agendas (e.g. added on to a
larger study).
D
octoral student
s

are encouraged

to participate
.
The CRP
will

c
ontribute
to
better
understanding of
the
effect
of nutrition
-
sensitive agri
-
food systems
on
the
diet
, health,

and nutritional
status
of
vulnerable populations
. These findings will
inform
stakeholders influencing public health and
agricultural policies in
the
design
of
effective interventions to combat malnutrition in all its forms
.


Background


The burden of malnutrition

Undernutrition remains a highly prevalent and pervasive problem in low
-

and middle
-
income countries,
particularly among women and children.
The
direct or
immediate causes of
under
nutrition include
inadequate
dietary

intake and disease
[1]
, which can lead
to
such consequences as poor growth and
m
icronutrient deficiencies.
These immediate nutrition
-
related factors account for approximately 35% of
preventable deaths among children less than 5 years of age, and 11% of the total global disease burden
[2]
.

Along
side
the burden of undernutrition,
rates
of
overweight

and

obesity
,
as well as ch
ronic and
non
-
communicable diseases
(NCDs)
ar
e increasing rapidly
[3, 4]
.

This dual burden of
over
-

and undernutrition
is
part
icularly
prevalent
in
low
-

and
middle
-
income countries undergoing
a
“nutrition transition”



that
is, a rapid shift in dietary and lifestyle patterns toward consumption of foods
that are micronutrient
poor and
higher in
calories from
fat and sugar,
as well

as

decreased physical activity levels
[5, 6]
.
Adequate access to nutritious f
oods is only one of several u
nderlying determinants of
adequate
nutrition
. Healthy
environments
,
access to
quality
health services, and adequate care practices for
children and mothers
[2, 7]

are also required
.
As such
,

i
mproving nu
trition

requires a

multi
-
sectoral
approach

that targets the

underlying determinants of
nutrition (“nutrition
-
sensitive” development), in
addition to approaches that directly affect the immediate determinants of nutrition such as food intake
and disease (“nutrition
-
specific”)
[7]
.


The role of agriculture and agri
-
food systems in malnutrition

Agricultural
policies and
interventions can impact both
the
underlyin
g and immediate determinants of
nutrition by
altering the availability and accessibility of nutrient
-
rich foods at the household, community
and national level. At the household level, agricultural strategies can directly affect food and nutrition
security
through alterations in the production of nutrient
-
dense foods and/or income derived through
agricultural livelihoods
[8]
.

Indeed r
ecent systematic reviews of the effects of agricultural interventions
to increase household food production on the nutrition and health outcomes of women and young
children documented significant improvements in dietary patterns and nutr
ient intakes

but not

nutritional status
. However, the evidence base for household food production interventions is of
relatively poor quality, largely consisting

of heterogeneous studies with significant methodological and
design
l
imitations
[8,
9]
.

On a larger scale, agricultural
practices
and policies, including for example,
subsidies, industrialized food prod
uction and processing, and redirecting of staples to livesto
ck feed or
ethanol production,
affect local and global market supplies and food prices. Agricultural growth is
also
strongly associated with poverty reduction
[10]
,
and t
he importance of agricultural biodiversity and
sustainable food systems for improving nutritio
n and health is increasingly recognized.
The notion of
“sustainable diets” acknowledges the interdependencies of food production and consumption with food
requirements
,
nutrient recommendations
, and the environment

[11]
.
For example, i
n order to
address
the food and nutrition needs of a wealthier, more urbanized, and growing world population, while
preserving natural and productive resources, food systems must become more efficient in terms of
resource use and food consumption. Sustainable diets h
ave lower water and carbon footprints,
and can
facilitate the transition to
agricultural practices that are more sensitive to nutritional needs and seasonal
climate changes.

Dietary sustainability also
promote
s

the use of food biodiversity, including tradi
tional
and local foods
, which
can improve nutrient intakes, and counterbalance current diet trends of low
diversity and high energy that are contributing to the escalating problems of obesity and chronic
diseases
[11, 12]
.



A
gricultural programs and policies
may also negatively impact
health and nutritional status, for example
by causing a shift in food consumption toward
micronutrient poor, energy dense
diets
[13]
.
I
ncreases in
agricultural income
are associated with increased

overweight and obesity rates
, even among the rural
poor

[14]
. Agricultural intensification may also adversely affect women’s and children’s health by
increasing energy expenditures of women without concom
itant increases in
food
intakes
or by
reducing
the time women are able to allocate to child care, including breastfeeding.
Intensification of agriculture
may also increase exposure to agri
-
chemicals and zoonotic diseases
,
as well as
environmental
degradati
on and loss of biodiversity
, r
egardless of advances in agricultural practices and

technologies.

I
nvestments in agriculture and poverty reduction strategies should

thus

not only
lead to improvements
in food production, food variety and biodiversity, and enh
anced agricultural practices
[1, 11, 12]
,

but
also
be cognizant of the
variation in nutritional vulnerabilities across communities, particularly

in
contexts where the dual burden of malnutrition exists
[7, 13]
.


The role of agriculture and agri
-
food systems in improving the health and nutritional status without
contributing to the later development of NCDs is not yet ful
ly understood. However, ongoing multi
-
sectoral programs have the potential to contribute to our understanding of these pathways, such as the
Leveraging Agriculture for Nutrition in South Asia (LANSA) Research Programme
[15
]
,
and
the
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) Research Program on Agriculture for
Improved Nutrition and Health (
A4NH
)
[16]
.

Another example is
the

global project of the Global
Environment Facility (GEF) to mainstream biodiversity
conservation and sustainable use for improved
human nutrition and wellbeing into national and global policies and programs in Brazil, Kenya, Sri Lanka
and Turkey

that
will provide evidence on the nutritional value of agricultural biodiversity, influence
po
licies using the evidence generated and raise awareness including the identification of best practices
for scaling
-
up
(
http://www.bioversityinternational.org/fileadmin/bioversityDocs/Research/Nutrition__new_/Biodivers
ity_for_Food_and_Nutrition.pdf
).

To foster more nutrition
-
sensitive agricultura
l and rural development
projects,
The World Bank suggests the following

guiding principles: 1) Incorporate nutritional concerns
into the design and implementation of agricultural policies, projects, and investments; 2) Target
nutritionally vulnerable groups; 3) Invest in women; 4) Increase year
-
round access to diverse, nutrie
nt
-
dense foods; 5) Protect health through water management; 6) Design poverty
-
reduction strategies
explicitly to benefit nutrition; 7) Create enabling environments for good nutrition through knowledge
and incentives; 8) Seek opportunities to work across se
ctors

[13]
.


Future
considerations for agriculture and nutrition
research

R
eviews of the research linking agriculture with nutrition outcomes
commonly identify

several
limitations in the body of evidence and these limitations should be heeded when
planning

future
programs and
evaluations

[8, 9, 13]
.
Authors stress the need for
more rigorous
design and
monitoring
and evaluation strategies
including for example, 1)
selecting
a
ppro
priate counterfactuals
,

2)
assessment
and control for confounding
and clustering
,

3
)
allowing sufficient implementation time

to

observe

change in
desired nutrition outcome
s
,

4
)
adequately powering

evaluations
for nutrition outcomes
,

5
)
including

indicators

that span the impact pathway for nutrition outcomes (i
.
e.
production,

i
ncome,

food
expenditures
,

dietary intakes, body composition, micronutrient status)
, and
6
)
collecting information on
costs to enable assessment of
cost
-
effectiveness
[13]
.


B
ody composition as indicator of health and nutritional status

B
ody composition is an indicator of
nutritional status that reflects the relative proportions of the two
major body compartments,
fat mass (FM) and
fat
-
free
or lean
mass (FFM).
The amount and distribution
of body fat and lean mass change with age, and are important health outcomes throughout

the life
course

[18
]
.
Body compositi
on
as

a structural outcome measure

that
characterizes the
change

in body
mass in terms
of FFM and FM

can be used to evaluate
the success of nutritional interventions

covering
the whole spectrum of the double burden of malnutrition

[17
]
.
For example, in the management of
acute undernutrition
it determines the nature of the weight gained and provides information on the
quality of grow
t
h, i.e., lean versus fat mass accumulation.
A
ssess
ing
body composition in relation to
dietary intake and quality can play an important role in
optimizing
the health benefits of
nutrition
intervention strategies
.

For example, i
n a
recent review
,
Marinangeli and Jones (2012)
showed that
consumption of
pulses

was associated with reduced visceral fat deposition, and thus

could
modulate
the
risk of obesity

[
20
]
.
B
ody fat
accretion has been shown to vary

across

ethnicities
, which is
important to
consider when assessing the health impact of nutrition programs implemented in different countries, as
well as identifying target populations for such programs
[21
]
.
For interpretation of the obtained body
comp
osition measures of FM and FFM, it is recommended to adjust them for body size to make
comparisons within and between individuals meaningful. This is especially important when children
grow between 2 measurement points. The expression of FM as a proportion

of weight to derive
percentage fat
has been used traditionally, but
is influenced by the relative amount of FFM tissue in
body weight. Therefore,
it is proposed to normalise
both FM and FFM separately
for height

rather than
body mass
, deriving a fat mass index and fat
-
free mass index
[18
]
. However, research
on
how best to
adjust body composition data for size
is going on
, in particular on the use of indices relating FFM to
indices of height
[19]
. In addition, t
he acquisition of reference data is currently a priority and is
addressed by several research groups.


B
ody compositio
n

measurement

approaches

and application
s

The ‘gold standard’ for body composition analysis is chemical analysis of cadavers. No in vivo technique
can meet the accuracy of cadaver analysis, as there are always assumptions involved in getting from the
measu
red parameter to body composition. In vivo techniques do not measure body composition
directly, but predict it from measurements of
body properties

and

the application of

certain
assumptions

that may also
affect

the
ir

suitability under
certain

conditions
.
Several
measurement
techniques exist,
each with their own
complexities, feasibility, and
limitations.
S
imple measures, such as
skinfold thickness, body mass index (BMI), and bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) are
generally easy to
perform with minimal eq
uipment

requirements
. They
provide
useful

objective

indicators in
epidemiological studies
, although

tend to ha
ve poor accuracy in individuals

and
are not sensitive enough
to provide reliable information on changes in body composition over time

[
18
]
.
Skinfold thickness
measurements
are reliable indices of regional body fat, and thus can be
used to rank individuals in terms
of relative fatness.
They
are suitable for use in
most age groups

and are useful for monitoring growth.

Skinfold measures can

also

be used
with relevant equations
to

predict percent body

fat; however, t
he
accuracy is poor in individuals, and also varies in relation to body fatness
,

making them unsuitable for
longitudinal
inter
-
individual
comparisons
[
18
]
.

Body mass index (BMI
)
, calculated as weight

in
kg/
height
in
m
2
,

is
a global index of nutritional status and
correlated with percent body fat
.

It is
used to categorise
overweight and obesity
. It
cannot
, however,

distinguish betwe
en fat and lean masses
, and
can be
misleading in children suffering from inflammation or other clinical conditions
, where low BMI can be
associated with an increase in relative body fat and a severe decrease in lean tissue

[
22
]
.
Furthermore,
comparisons in
adults and older children

across eth
n
ic groups are limited
,

due to
differences in the
amount of body fat for a given BMI
[
21, 23
]
.

Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) measures impedance
of the body to a small electric current
. Adjustment of bioelectrica
l data for height allows

estimation of
total body water (TBW). In practice this requires empirical derivation of regression equations
, which are
population specific
,

and

tend to

perform poorly in individuals
.

Conventional single frequency BIA
measurements
are appropriate for assessing FFM in terms of the direction of change, though

are
unlikely to quantify magnitude with accuracy
[
18
]
, and may also be confounded by clinical status.

BIA is
useful
primarily as an epidemiological tool,
where
it is the only predictive technique that estimates lean
mass.

Com
pared to the
simpler single
-
compartment
measures described above,
m
ulti
-
compartment models
are

more accurate for assessing body composition because there are fewer assumptions involved
;
however they are also more complex and have greater equipment requirem
ents.
The most commonly
used four compartment model assumes the body is composed of fat, water, mineral and ‘the rest’. Total
body water is measured by isotope dilution. Bone mineral mass is measured by dual energy X ray
absorptiometry (DXA) and body fat is meas
ured by densitometry.
Each of these techniques can be used
to assess body composition using a two compartment model

(one that divides the body into FM and
FFM)
, but isotope dilution is the only method that can be used in the field and in subjects of all ag
es.


Isotope dilution can be used to
estimate FFM via the measurement of total body water (
TBW
)
.
The
method
involves giving a

dose of water labelled with deuterium

(a stable isotope of
hydrogen
)
, and
following equilibration,
measuring the isotope
enrichmen
t of body water using saliva or urine samples

[
18, 24, 25
]
.
Deuterium

dilution
is simple to perform and requires minimal subject cooperation, thus
making it particularly suitable for infants and toddlers
, as well as field studies
.
Isotope ratio mass
spectrometr
y can
be used to
measure deuterium enrichment in either urine or saliva specimens
. S
aliva

enrichment

can also be measured using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, which is a relatively
inexpensive (but labour intensive) technique particularly suited
to resource limited settings.

Estimati
ng

FFM from TBW requires an assumed value of
the hydration of
FFM, which varies with age
. Published
t
ables
of hydration values
are available and relatively consistent with measured values in healthy
participants
. The i
nter
-
individual variability

of published hydration values is relatively low; however, i
n
certain
disease states
,
and during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy
,
variation in FFM
hydration may be substantially higher, owing to overhydration or unde
rhydration
, so isotope dilution
should only be used where normal hydration can be assumed

[
24, 25
]
.

The accuracy of deuterium
dilution is comparable to other
gold standard
multicomponent models

for measuring body composition
in vivo

[
18, 26, 27
]
. In fact, it
has been used to develop population
-
specific prediction equations for
other measurement techniques, such as
BIA and skinfold thickness
[
21, 28
-
30
]
.
Over the past 20 years,
it
has been among the various
types of
stable isotope techniques
that
have played an increasingly vital
role in monitoring the efficac
y of nutrition interventions

in both developed and developing countries

[
31
-
37
]
.


Required methodological considerations for proposals


This CRP supports assessment of the
effect
s

of agriculture and agri
-
food syste
ms on body composition

measured using isotopic methods
.

Studies
to be included in this CRP
may be stand
-
alone projects, or
,
perhaps more appropriately,
build on existing research agendas (e.g. added on to a larger study).

Master

or doctoral student
s

are
encouraged to participate
. In either case,
in the propos
ed

design
, hierarchy of
evidence

and methods should
be fully described
, including the
methods (or tools) used for assessing

causal or impact pathways,
research hypothes
i
s,
calculating
sample size,

sel
ecting participants, and
managing

the data. The target population should
also be defined, as well as analytical plans, and any
processes for obtaining
ethics approval
and
protecti
ng p
articipant information
. P
artnerships and
collaborations

are encouraged an
d should be described, along with details regarding
laboratory access
or capacity (where applicable)
. Target groups may include
(though are not limited to)
the
urban poor,
indigenous populations/societies, young children, adolescents,

or

women of reproduct
ive age.
All
studies must include at least the following core set of indicators:



B
ody composition

measured by deuterium dilution technique
, assessed longitudinally over at
least 2 years with measurement time points that correspond with seasons or
are
a mi
nimum of
3
-
4 months apart;



D
ietary quality
,
including assessment of individual food intakes using recall methods
;



A
nthropometry
, including
weight and height
/length;



Impact p
athway
-
related indicators
as relevant
(
e.g. physical activity
, time
-
allocation, inc
ome
)
;



C
osts
,
to the project of adding body composition measures

using nuclear techniques

(labor,
materials, logistics)
.

Other indicators related to agriculture,
socio
-
economic conditions,
demographics etc. will depend on the
research context.
Up to 7 research contracts
of a total of

25
,000
-
4
0,000
each will be awarded over a
period of 3
-
4 years (yearly approval

required
)
.


P
otential e
xamples of agriculture
-
nutrition impact pathways that may be explored through
observational
or intervention
research

include (though are not limited to) the following
:



Increased
production and
consumption of high protein and
micro
nutrient dense foods from
animal or plant sources.



Intensification of staples
, roots, tubers, bananas,
cereals,
legumes,
dairy,
animal

source foods,
fruits and vegetables.



Unintended consequences of
inte
n
sified
value chains
and
urbanization.



Changing

agricultural
biodiversity
and derangement
in the food system/environment (e.g.
nutritional status of adolescents consuming locally sourced
foods in schools).



Dietary/nutrition transition, e.g. changes in consumption of low nutrient density foods (higher
fat
, salt,

and sugar intake).



Environmental changes such as climate or habitat losses on indigenous food systems or
practices and natural re
source based livelihoods (e.g.
pastoralist societies
).


In conclusion, the primary focus of this CRP is t
he application of stable isotope methods to assess the
effect

of nutrition
-
sensitive agri
-
food systems (including interventions)
and of dietary transition
on body
composition.
The emphasis is on
proof
-
of
-
concept

in the context of whole diets
,

and
elucidating

specific
impact pathways

to improving nutrition
al status

through
nutrition
-
sensitive agriculture
systems/interventions
.

Applyi
ng a more sensitive measure of nutritional status
using stable isotope
techniques
will
address a persistent gap in the literature regarding the amount and/or quality of
evidence underlining the health effects of changes in food intake, dietary diversity, o
r diet quality

in
nutrition
-
sensitive agr
i
-
fo
od systems
.
It will give insights on
whether

indicators of dietary intake and
quality can predict changes in body composition
.

The
knowledge gained will
also
contribute to a better
understanding of sustainable f
ood systems

with improved agricultural biodiversity

and dietary patterns

and their
potential

to combat both sides of the dual burden of malnutrition
.

Together, this
will
inform
stakeholders influencing public health and agricultural policies in the design of effective
strategies

to
improve nutrition and health

of vulnerable populations
.


Analytical techniques to be used


All proposals are required to use t
he deuterium dilution st
able isotope technique

to measure total body
water for the assessment of body composition following procedures described in references
[
24
]

and

[
25
]
. Analysis of stable isotope enrichment in saliva
or urine
samples
need to
be made by Fourier
Tran
sform Infrared spectrometry (FTIR), or where available, Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS)
,
respectively
.

Though not required for this CRP,

o
ther stable isotope methods may be
included
for the
assessment of
human milk intake, iron/zinc bioavailability
and/or vitamin A status

if they are
complementary and add value to the proposal
.
For measuring the amount of human milk tak
e
n in by the
infant the well
-
established deuterium oxide ‘dose
-
to
-
mother’ technique
may

be used. The same way as
for body composition

assessment, deuterium enrichment of urine and/or saliva samples
of mother and
infant
may
be

analysed

by FTIR or IRMS. Iron and zinc bioavailability
may
be measured using stable
isotopes of iron and
zinc. The

analysis of these isotopes in biological samples
may

be undertaken using
thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) or inductively
-
coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP
-
MS). The total body vitamin A pool size
may

be estimated using vitamin A labelled eit
her with the stable
isotope of hydrogen (deuterium, 2H) or with the stable isotope of carbon (13C). For the estimation of
total body
vitamin A pool size gas
-
chromatograph
-
mass spectrometry (GC
-
MS) or gas
-
chromatograph
-
combustion
-
isotope ratio mass spectrom
etry (GC
-
C
-
IRMS)
may

be used depending on whether
deuterium labelled retinol or carbon
-
13 labelled retinol is measured.


Overall objective


To
provide
the evidence base of the application of stable isotope techniques to describe and assess the
role of nutr
ition
-
sensitive agri
-
food systems in health and nutrition.


Specific research objective
s

(purpose)



Assess the role of stable isotope techniques to:

1.

Further understand
the effects of nutrition
-
sensitive agriculture systems/interventions that aim
to improve
diet quality

on nutrition
al

status
.

2.

Further
the

understanding of nutritional consequences (including unintended ones) of
dietary

shifts or changes in

nutrition
-
sensiti
ve agri
-
food systems.

3.

Further
the

understanding of the effect
of
agricultural biodiversity
on nutrition
.


4.

Further the understanding of the correlation between body composition and dietary diversity
scores, meal frequency, and other indicators of dietary in
take and quality.

5.

Improve the
knowledge of additional costs and benefits of including
isotopic measures of
body
composition

as a nutritional outcome
.



Expected outputs




New
knowledge
on the
effects
of nutrition
-
sensitive agri
-
food systems on diet
, health,

and
nutritional status among vulnerable populations.



New knowledge on
the
nutritional consequences of dietary shifts or changes in nutrition
-
sensitive agri
-
food systems.



New knowledge on the
role
of agricultural biodiversity
in

nutrition.



New knowledge on
impact measuring tools of

nutrition
-
sensitive agriculture
systems/interventions
.



Cost
ing

information on adding isotopic measures of body composition
as a nutritional outcome.



P
ublications in the form of scientific reports and peer
-
reviewed

papers

and conference
presentations
.



T
echnical
brief

or workshop presentation on lessons learned around application of isotopic
methods in

agricultural research.


Expected outcome


Contribute to better understanding of the role of nutrition
-
sensitive agri
-
food systems in the diet,
health, and nutritional status of vulnerable populations in order to inform the design of effective
strategies to combat malnutrition in all its forms.


Proposal submission forms


Research institutions in Member States intereste
d in participating in this CRP are invited to submit
proposals directly to the Research Contracts Administration Section (NACA) of the International Atomic
Energy Agency:

Official.Mail@iaea.org

or to
Ms
Cornelia Loechl
:

C.Loechl
@iaea.org

The forms can be downloaded from

http://www
-
crp.iaea.org/html/forms.html
. For more information
about research c
ontracts and research agreements, please visit our web
-
site:

http://www
-
crp.iaea.org/html/faqs.html
.


Deadline for submission of proposal


Proposals must be received

no

later

than

26

July

2013
. Transmission via Email is acceptable if all
required signatures are scanned.


For

additional

information,

please

contact:

Cornelia Loechl

Nutrition
Scientist

Nutritional

and Health
-
related Environmental Studies Section

Division of Human Health

Intern
ational Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

A
-
1400 Vienna, Austria

Phone:


+ 43 1 2600
21635

Fax: + 43 1 2600
-
7

C.Loechl@iaea.org


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